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fruit-trees. The first has a scorpion winding round it, and near it a ladder, which was the mystic symbol of descent or fall. Scorpio, on some Egyptian zodiacs, is a serpent-in others Typhon, depictured as the devil now is, with a serpent's tail and breathing flames.

In Montfaucon there are many representations of the Hespe rian tree, with a serpent twined round it, and a male and female on the opposite sides.

So much for illustration of the Mosaic theory of the fall. The Hesperian gardens, in fact, were the pagan Paradise_the golden apples the fruit of the tree of life and the dragon, or seraph, the angel who guarded the way of it. Sometimes, indeed, a chimera, resembling the Jewish cherubim, was substituted for the seraph or fiery serpent. At others, the golden apples were converted into a golden fleece, and the bulls (the cherubim of the Hebrews) with fiery breath, were the guardians. Griffins (a mixed monster, also resembling the cherub,) are, in a different hieroglyphical version of the same story, guarding the "treasures of the everlasting bills” promised to Joseph. Throughout it is the same Mosaic story, only differently colored by the picturing vehicle.

I conceive, then, that dramas, not unlike the sacred mysteries copied from them by the Romish Church, were exhibited during the preparatory stages of initiation, and subsequently explained ; that in the sacred chest called the Sarcophagus, a figure of Osiris in inferis was deposited with a serpent and a phallus, a dry branch, as at the mysteries of the Greek Osiris; that portions of the dismembered Apis were most probably deposited with them, and particularly the thigh, from which Bacchus and Erechthon were born. And indeed it is not unlikely that all the remaining symbols, placed in the Mundus Cereris, and decidedly Egyptian, were during initiation produced and explained, These consisted of a phallus, sesame, pomegranates, a dry stem, baked cakes, salt, carded wool, honey and cheese, a child, a serpent, and a fan. The meaning of these symbols will be easily caught at by those who are conversant with the subject of hieroglyphical inquiry, but would require a separate treatise, and in short composed the subject of a set lecture at Eleusis. I shall only remark at present the assertion of the Rabbins, that the Mosaic tabernacle contained the dead staff of Aaron which sprouted into life, and the Urim and Thummim' supposed to

"Perhaps derived from Orus, light, and Thammuz, mourning. VOL. XXIX. CI, JI. NO, LVIII. T

represent the six signs of the upper, and six of the lower hemisphere.

But whether these circumstances were as I have supposed or not, there can be little doubt that the Sol Inferus, identified with Bacchus, Adonis, Osiris, and Serapis, that midnight sun which was the type of an after state, was the great object of the mysteries and goal of initiation.'

I assume as proved that Mizra and Mithra both meaning the sun and agreeing in name, the rites of the cavern temples dedicated to each were similar; that both had their lion-masked priests; 2 that the same baptism of fire and water took place, the same sidereal passage, the same sacrament of bread, the same mark3 (see Apocalypse) on the forehead, and the same final apparition of the renewed sun bursting from his parent rock. And here I cannot help remarking, by way of extant illustration, that the Hindoos paint Veeshnu, the same person as the lion-headed Mythra, bursting from a stony column in the form of a lion.

In sum, it is my induction from the foregoing premises that the ancient gloomy ritual of an assassination, a dismembered body, a coffin, and a resurrection, were acted within the gloomy recess of the Great Pyramid, and that the slaughtered Adonis, the slain and lamented Apollo, the third person of the Dioscuri murdered by his brothers, the dismembered Bacchus, the assassinated Osiris, the Maneros of the Egyptians, the Balder of the Scandinavians, the Manes of the Magians and Rosycrucians, the Hiram of the Freemasons, were the same person; and that these parental features of one theology, these diverging streams of cognate mystery, may be traced from the ends of the earth to the pyramidal cista, as their fountain-head, and to the central chamber as the first great lodge.

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See note on Plato and Elysium, 2 See Denon, and Tertullian adver. Marc. p. 55. “ Lions of Mithra.” 273

3 The modern Hindoos mark their foreheads with a Y; but the Egyptians marked the initiate's forehead with a T, and to that no doubt the Apocalypse alluded, because it was a symbol appertaining to the Sol inferus or Serapis, and his four-headed chimera of a man, lion, eagle and dog.

OBSERVATIONS ON The SCHOLIA OF HERMEAS on the PHÆDRUS OF

Plato, published by FREDERICUS Astius, Professor Landishutanus, Lipsia. 8vo.

τον όρον.

PART IV.-[Concluded from No. LVΙΙ.] Ρ. 145. 1. 30. ωσπερ ουν εφ' ημων το δοξαστικον υποδέχεται παρα του λογου και της διανοιας και τα μετρα, και ουτω μεταδιδωσι

τα ορεκτικά τω τε θυμω και την επιθυμια, ν' ουτω ταυτα μετρηθεντα προνοη του τε ζωου και παντων των κατα τον βιον, κ. τ. λ. In this passage, after της διανοιας something is evidently wanting to connect with τα μετρα, and this something Iconceive to be

For the doxastic part of the soul, according to the Platonic philosophy, is the last of the rational parts, and receives from dianoia or the discursive energy gf reason, (διεξοδικη του λογου ενεργεια) α boundary and measures. In p. 146. 1. 24. Hermeas observes that Plato, indicating the difference between divine and human souls, says of our soul, οτι μογις, θορυβουμενη υπο των ιππων, ηδυνηθη μονην την κεφαλην υπεραραι εις τον εξω του ουρανου, και ιδειν τι των οντων, και ουτω στασαι επι τω του ουρανου νοτω, θεωρουσαν ωσπερ επι σχολης, νυν μεν τoδε, νυν δε τoδε. In this passage for επι σχολης it is requisite to read επι σκοπιης. For the meaning of Hermeas is, that our soul standing on the back of Heaven, and raising the head of the charioteer to the supercelestial place, will survey, as from a watch-tower, at one time this object, and at another that. And this simile of a watch-tower is very

frequently used by Proclus and other Platonic writers; but for σκοπιη they sometimes substitute περιωπη, which has the same

meaning. Thus Proclus in Ρlat. Theol. p. 7. Ορθως γαρ και ο εν Αλκιβιαδη Σωκρατης ελεγεν, εις εαυτην εισιoυσαν την ψυχην, τα τε αλλα παντα κατοψεσθαι, και θεον. συνευουσα γαρ εις την εαυτης ενωσιν, και το κεντρον συμπασης ζωης, και το πλήθος αποσκευαζομενη, και την ποικιλιαν των εν αυτη παντοδαπων δυναμεων, επ' αυτην ανεισι την ακραν των οντων περιωπην. 1. e. “ For Socrates in the [First] Alcibiades rightly observes, that the soul entering into herself will behold all other things, and deity itself. For verging to her own union, and to the centre of all life, laying aside multitude, and the variety of the all-manifold powers which she contains, she ascends to the highest watch-tower of beings.” In p. 147. 1. 22. Hermeas, in explaining the words of Plato, utoßguxias ξυμπεριφέρονται observes, υποβρυχιαι ουν γινονται, ως του γενεσι

οχήματος λοιπον * * *

ουργου αυτων λοιπον βριθοντος και βουλομενου ενεργησαι, ή και του

γενομενου.

In this passage the asterisks denote that something is wanting, and the learned Professor accordingly says in his Notes, “ Desunt nonnulla in Cod." This something I conceive to be the word Babu. For it appears to me that Hermeas in the last part of this sentence alludes to the Chaldaic Oracle, which says, μη πνευμα μολυνης, μηδε βαθυνης το ETITEdov, i. e. “ You should not defile the spirit, nor give depth to a superficies;" the Oracle by the spirit indicating the aerial vehicle, and by the superficies, the etherial and luciform vehicle of the soul. Hence the meaning of the passage thus completed will be in English, “ Souls therefore become submerged, in consequence of that part of them which is effective of generation [or a descent into the regions of sense] becoming heavy, and wishing to energize, or in consequence of the [etherial] vehicle possessing depth."

Ρ. 147. 1. 5. from the bottom. ουτω δε ουν και αυται αι ψυχαν και αμβλυτεραι εισι κατα τας νοησεις και ασχημονες, και κινδυνευουσιν αει εις γενεσιν υπενεχθηναι: τη ουν βαδισει των χωλευοντων απεικασεν αυτων τας νοησεις επειδη η βαδισις οικειον τη μεταβατική αυτων αισθησει. Here for αισθησει, the last word of this passage, it is obviously necessary to read vonoer; for the transitive intellection of souls is assimilated by Plato to walking. This is evident from the words themselves of Hermeas in the present passage. Ρ. 149. 1. 18. Ορα δε πως ακριβως και ενταυθα, ως και εν τοις ανωτερω, την διαφοραν ημιν των τε θειων και ανθρωπικων ψυχων παριστησιν ου γαρ απλως ειπεν, εαν κατιδη τι, τουτέστι, μερικον και ατομον. Here, immediately after ειπεν, it is necessary to add εαν κατιδη, αλλ'. For the words of Plato are θεσμος τε Αδραστειας οδε" ητις αν ψυχη, θεω γενομενη, κατιδη τι των αληθων, μεχριτε της ετερας ξυνοπαδος περιοδου ειναι απομονα κ. τ. λ. Ρ. 150. 1. 20. εν Πολιτεια και αλιτας τας τυχας αιρεισθαι φησι, και αποδιδοσθαι αυταις. In this passage for αλιτας I read αλλοιας: for Hermeas here alludes to the 10th book of the Republic of Plato, in which it is said that various fortunes are imparted to, and chosen by, souls. Ρ. 153. 1. 28. πρωτον μεν βιον λεγει, ον νεωστι κατελθουσα απο του νοητου η ψυχη διαζη ενταυθα: επειδη δε κρισις ως εν πλατει διττη εστι, περι της μεσης λεγει ενταυθα. Here for διττη it is manifestly necessary to read TGITT», as there can be no middle in two things only; and from what follows it is indisputably evident that this emendation is requisite. P. 155. 1. 6. και καθολου δυο παντων αναμιμνησκεται η ψυχη των νοητων. In this passage for δυο it is necessary to read dia: for what Hermeas says is this, “ that the soul through, or by means of, all things obtains a recollection of intelligible natures. Ρ. 156. 1. 24. Hermeas, in ex

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plaining what Plato says about the ascent of souls, observes, is that at first they are unable to soar on high, and to proceed from sensibles to dianoëtic objects [i. e. the objects of the reasoning power]; for the conceptions of the soul are called diapoëtic; and afterwards from conceptions to intelligibles.” This is the true meaning of Hermeas in the following passage, as I have corrected it; αδυνατουσιν επι το ανω αναπτηναι, και απο των αισθητων επι τα νοητα (lege διανοητα) γενεσθαι (τα γαρ της ψυχης νοηματα διανοητα λεγονται), ειθ' ουτως απο των νοητων 2 (lege νοηματων) επι τα νοητα. Ρ. 159. 1. 10. Αλλα λεγομεν, οτι νυν ου περι των φιλοσοφων των ηδη αναχθεντων απο των ειδων επι τα νοητα λεγει, αλλα περι του ερωτικου του δια του καλλους επεκεινα. Here, for the last word, επεκεινα, it is requisite to read επ' εκεινα, i. e. επι τα νοητα.

For Hermeas says that Plato is speaking of the amatory character, who through beauty ascends to the vision of intelligibles. . Ρ. 162. 1. 2. και εν οσα εσμεν προς τους νοητους, και τη

θεωρια εκεινη χαιρομεν, και γεγηθεν η ψυχη, οταν δε χωρις γενηται. μεταφορικως παντα λεγει, κ. τ. λ. In this passage, ,

after

γένηται, something is evidently wanting, and this I conceive to be the words oδυναται και αδημονει. And my conjecture is confirmed by what Hermeas says in 1. 29. γεγηθεν, επειδαν δε χωρις αυτου γενηται, οδυναται και αδημονει. What Hermeas also shortly after adds respecting the meaning of the word ednjovely, well deserves to be noticed by lexicographers, viz. το αδημονειν μεσον λυπης εστι και ηδονης, οιον τη μεν μνημη χαιρει, τω δε μη παρειναι το μνημονευτον, λυπειται.

Ρ. 163. 1. 5. αναπνοήν δε ως από της πνιγμονης ειπε και δεομενων. The Professor rightly conjectures that after δεομενων a word is wanting, denoting respiration: for he says, cidisse mihi videtur verbum, vi respirandi præditum.” But he has not favored us with the word that is lost, and which I conjecture to be πνοης. .

P. 165. 1. 16. Hermeas having observed, that as here we honor a statue, not on account of the subject matter of which it is composed, but on account of the divinity [which it represents], adds, τον αυτον τροπον και ενταύθα οιον αγαλμα εαυτω τον ερωμενον ποιει, βλεπων γαρ προς αυτο, και αναμιμνησκομενος του καλλους, τουτέστι τη διανοια βλεπων και αναπεμπων τουτο το καλλος εις τα νοητα ειδη και γηίνων γεννηματα θεια κ. τ. λ. In this passage, for γηίνων, in the last line, I read γνησιως. For the meaning of

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1 The Professor also for νοητα here reads διανοητα.

2 The Professor reads διανοητων ; but it appears to me to be more probable that Hermeas wrote vonjatur.

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