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things." He adds, “ This therefore is one and the best extension [of the soul] to (the highest] God, and is as much as possible irreprehensible; viz., to know firmly, that by ascribing to him the most venerable excellencies we can conceive, and the most holy and primary names and things, we ascribe nothing to him which is suitable to his dignity. It is sufficient, however, to procure our pardon (for the attempt] that we can attribute to him nothing superior.” If it is not possible, therefore, to form any ideas equal to the dignity of the immediate progeny of the ineffable, i. e.
of the first principles of things, how much less can our conceptions reach the principle of these principles, who is concealed in the superluminous darkness of occultly initiating silence ? Had the Heathens therefore considered as they ought this transcendency of the supreme God and his immediate offspring, they never would have presumed to equalise the human with the divine nature, and consequently would never have worshipped men as Gods. Their theology, however, is not to be accused as the cause of this impiety, but their forgetfulness of the sublimest of its dogmas, and the confusion with which this oblivion was necessarily attended.
To one who can divest himself of all political-interest, and contemplate the present struggle in Greece merely with the feelings of a classical antiquary, it may, perhaps, seem desirable that the Turks should still continue to extend their iron sceptre over that ill-fated country, since those barbarians, from a totalapathy respecting works of art and ancient monuments, are ea, sily induced by bribes to facilitate the researches of inquisitive. strangers, and even the removal of statues, vases, inscriptions, and other precious remnants of former ages. But,” says, an accomplished traveller, (Sir William Gell, in an article on the Elean Inscription, Classical Journal, No, xlviii. p. 401.) “ the revolution bas put an end to all hopes of future discovery; for if the Greeks triumph, no government of theirs would ever permit an excavation by the Franks." We may, indeed, reasonably. suppose that the rulers of such a state as regenerated Greece
would not allow the tombs of their illustrious ancestors to be violated by every foreigner who could afford to hire workmen for the purposes of dilapidation--they would not allow their temples to be defaced, nor their sculptured ornaments to be exported. They might, however, be encouraged by the example, and assisted by ingenious persons of other nations, in instituting a grand National Museum ; such a receptacle for antiquities as my fancy has delighted to form whenever favorable intelligence excited a hope that the Greeks might ultimately recover their independence. For the situation of this Museum, Athens, at first view, presents itself as the most suitable place; but many circumstances would, perhaps, recommend some other spot less exposed to maritime invasion, and more central; to which might be sent with the greatest convenience, every interesting object discovered in the different provinces.
However abject the Greeks may now appear, debased by a galling slavery of centuries under the Turkish yoke, I am fully persuaded that the meanest among them would, in a state of emancipation, feel conscious pride from having contributed towards such a collection : the shepherd, the ploughman, the little children, by a voluntary donation of those valuable relics which chance daily offers to them in the classic soil of Greece, would soon abundantly furnish the galleries and cabinets of our imaginary Museum; and this, in due time, would be further enriched by the result of excavations and researches, made, either at the expense of government, or of wealthy and patriotic individuals, among the ruins of numerous places celebrated in ancient history, but hitherto not explored, though it is almost certain that they contain subterraneous treasures which would prove inestimable to an antiquary.
Of such a Museum I have often fancied various departments assigned to the superintendence of well-informed and diligent officers, native Greeks, assisted by learned antiquaries and ingenious artists from different parts of Europe, Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Italians, and others, who, through the medium of their respective ministers and consuls, might communicate to the whole literary world most accurate descriptions, delineations, models, impressions, or casts of every thing preserved in this great National Repository, of which my imagination has already formed the plan- appropriating, on one side of a stately edifice, proper galleries for the reception of statues and places for the scientific arrangement of sepulcral monuments, marble reliefs, historical and mythological; terra-cottas, bronzes, &c.--on the other side, spacious chambers containing inscribed
marbles, vases of every sort, armor and implements of war; musical instruments; personal ornaments of gold and silver, trinkets of various materials; articles of domestic furniture; and cabinets replete with gems and medals. In another part of the building should be deposited exact models of all the temples and ancient structures worthy of notice throughout Greece; and finally, cedar presses, for the preservation of manuscripts, in a large room furnished as a library with shelves, which we may believe would soon exbibit many thousand printed books through the bounty of several European states, the bequests of opulent Greeks, and the donations of foreign travellers and students, who, it must be supposed, would frequent in multitudes this school of antiquarian science.
Had such an establishment, depending on the emancipation of Greece, existed in 1729, when, by desire of Louis XV, Monsieur Fourmont visited that country, the destruction of many interesting monuments would not have been perpetrated; for that French Abbé, actuated by the most insane kind of vanity, personal and national, was induced, as we learn from his own letters (now in the Bibliothèque du Roi), to obliterate many most valuable inscriptions, lest any future antiquary might have an opportunity of copying them-and Mr. Dodwell found among the ruins of Sparta, a few years ago, some fine slabs of marble from which the letters had been barbarously chiselled out and erased; and this operation bis guide, besides other persons in the neighbourhood, attributed to a Frenchman, whom they dignified with the title usually bestowed on English travellers, milordos. (See Dodwell's Classical and Topographical Tour through Greece, Vol. ii. p. 405.) That this can have been no other than the Abbé Fourmont, is evident from his own letters above-mentioned; in which he particularly boasts of the havoc that he made at Sparta, not leaving one stone upon ano- } ther; employing, for above a month, thirty, forty, or sixty worknien, who, says he, “abattent, detruisent, exterminent la ville de Sparte.” "Imagine,” he adds," my delight at being employed in the final demolition of this place. I know not that any one has, since the restoration of letters, conceived the idea of thus overturning whole cities.” And that himself or bis country might possess an unique collection of drawings and copies of inscriptions, it appears that besides Sparta he dilapidated other cities of the Morea; Hermione, Trezene, Argos, Phliasia, &c. But it was of his Spartan exploits that he seems chiefly proud: “Je n'avois que ce moyen là pour rendre illustre mon voyage:” and he consequently adopts the title of Eraptieka
TIMOS! It is, however, some consolation to find that many of the most able judges do not consider Fourniont by any means guilty to the extent which he himself acknowleges; and they are content to regard bin rather as a liar and impostor, who probably defąced a few monuments that he might the better escape detection with respect to those inscriptions which he forged. “For it is worthy of remark,” says. Lord Aberdeen (see his letter in Mr. Walpole's Collection, Vol. ïi. p. 500.) " that the only inscriptions said to be destroyed (by Fourmont) are precisely those whose existence is most doubtful, and which it was most incumbent on him to produce.” His lordship also remarks, that although many of the inscriptions in Fourmont's collection appear to have been accurately copied, the originals existing at this day in different parts of Greece, yet these he never thought worthy of publication; while the pretended discoveries communicated by him to the French Academy seem founded chiefly on fabricated documents, and inscriptions of which he affirmed that the originals had been destroyed. Against the authenticity of these inscriptions, it is here unnecessary to state the decisive arguments adduced by that distinguished antiquary, Mr. Payne Knight, in his “ Analysis of the Greek Alphabet."
There are, however, among the learned countrymen of Fourmont two very ingenious writers, M. Raoul Rochette, and M. Louis Petit Radel, who, it is said, have shown much ability in endeavouring to prove that his inscriptions are genuine, and his Journal accurate. Whether they have availed themselves of any English traveller's testimony I köow not; but the following passage in Dr. Perry's “ View, of the Levant,” (Folio, London, 1743. Preface, p. xiv.) has often excited my borror and indignation. Having mentioned his design of visiting Ephesus and Samos, and the reports concerning their uninteresting condition, and the paucity of their ruins, be adds, that on the subject of Delphos, Argos, and Sparta, nearly the same accounts were given. Indeed,” says he, last-mentioned did exhibit remains of antiquity sufficient to entertain the curious and the connoisseurs, till within a few years last past, consisting chiefly
, of pieces of pillars, and other fragments of marble, which were fraught with abundance of ancient Greek inscriptions, &c. But a certain French gentleman, travelling in those party-about ten years ago, by the order and at the expense of bis Most Christian Majesty the King of France; and moreover being vested with extraordinary powers and privileges from the Porte of Constantinople to examine, transcribe, and carry away whatever he pleased-he (the said French gen
or the two
teman) having copied off all the inscriptions, and taken a full account of every thing that he found there, did afterwards cause many of those precious remains to be broken and mutilated; and many others, which were not so easily disfigured, he caused to be turned with their faces downwards; i. e. with those sides or parts on which the inscriptions and other works of sculpture were, to the earth. We could not easily be prevailed on to credit this report, that a gentleman, and especially of so polite a nation as France, could be capable of such barbarous conduct: but one of our own retinue (not to mention several others who attested the same thing) averred to the truth of it; and said further, that he was one of above two hundred Greeks, whom this gentleman had hired to aid and assist him in copying off the inscriptions at Argos and Sparta."
P. D. V.
FOR JUNIOR SOPHS: (i. e. Examination of Students at the end of their First
QUESTIONS ON ST. LUKE'S GOSPEL. I. Επειδήπερ πολλοί επεχείρησαν ανατάξασθαι διήγησιν περί των πεπληροφορημένων εν ημίν πραγμάτων, καθώς παρέδοσαν ημίν οι απ' αρχής αυτόπται και υπηρέται γενόμενοι του λόγου έδοξε κάμοι, παρηκολουθηκότι άνωθεν πάσιν ακριβώς, καθεξής σου γράψαι, κράτιστε θεόφιλε, ίνα επιγνώς περί ων κατηχήθης λόγων την ασφάλειαν.
1. Translate this passage literally, and mention what hypothesis it has been brought forward to confirm with regard to the three first Gospels.
2. éneidhtep modo, &c. Do you suppose the narratives of these persons to have been fabulous and false, or only defective and inaccurate ?
VOL. XXIX. CI. JI. NO. LVIII. z