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the other two passages which your correspondent proposes to
ITINERARY from TRIPOLI of Barbary to the
City of CASHENAH in Sudan. By the SHEIKH
TRANSLATED, AND ILLUSTRATED WITH NOTES,
BY JAMES GREY JACKSON.
The first 13 days or Journies.-— The 13th day after departing from Tripoli of Barbary, we reached Gadames. (For the journey to Gadames, and for the description of that town, vide the Itinerary from Tripoli to Timbuctou, in Cl. Jl. No. 56, page 193.)
14th-16th Journies. After departing from Gadames,' they
· The caravans which proceed from Tripoli to Cashenah go first in a south-westerly direction to Gadames, after whịch they change their course or direction, and proceed south to Fezzan or Mourzouk, where, having changed with the Fezzanées the merchandise which they carry from Tripoli, they cross the desert directly to Cashenah in a southerly direction.
It is easy to perceive that the Janet of this Itinerary is the Jenet of Major Rennell, that Tegherein is the Tai-gari or Tegbery of Rennell, and we think these three last places are one and the same.
It is a com• mon error in maps of Africa to lay down two places or more for one, which proceeds from the various ways of spelling the names; thus in the map annexed to Walckenaer's “ Recherches sur l'Afrique Septen,
proceed southwards during three days, when they reach a well called Tent Melloulen, which possibly signities in the language of that country, the well of the palm-tree, because there is only one palm or date-tree at this well. When the caravan is in a hurry it performs this journey in two days, and sometimes even in one from Gadames to Tent Melloulen.
17th–19th Journies.-From Tent Melloulen, after three days' travelling, they reach Zouranit.
20th-26th Journies.-From Zouranit they travel six days, and then reach the torrent of Azawán.
27th Journey:-From the torrent of Azawan they proceed one day's journey, and then stop at the torrent of Tahamalt, the environs of which are shaded by an abundance of trees.
28th-30th Journies.-From Tahamalt to Tanout-Mellen, which, in the language of the country, signifies the white well, they reckon three days' journey.
31st-33rd Journies.-From Tanout-Mellen, or the white wells, they proceed during three days, after which they arrive at Tengacem, or the sheep's well.
34th-36th Journies.-From Ten-gacem they proceed three days successively, and arrive at Gatz. It is here that they gather the leaves and capsulæ seminalis of the senna, which is taken to Tripoli and Tunis, and is distributed from those ports, among all the apothecaries of Europe.
37th-39th Journies.--After proceeding three days from Gatz, they go and rest at a place called Egguagant; this is the name of a river which washes the base of a mountain, which the Africans call Agroûh.
40th-42nd Journies.-From Egguagant they proceed other
trionale," there is a Housa and a Haoussa; but there is but one Housa or Haoussa in Africa, and it is spelt dwg. Tedment, in this Itinerary, is Rennell's Tadent. Tadent is the name of the mountain at the foot of which is situated Tedment, Aciou is Assieu, Toghiâgit is Tagazi or Tagassa, Açoudi is Asouda, Aouderas is the Ouatarus of Rennell. Mr. Walckenker justly remarks in his dissertation on this Itinerary, in his “Recherches Geographiques sur l'Afrique Septentrionale,” that the distances, compared with Major Rennell's, differ, but this must necessarily be the case in all African itineraries, where the journies are performed as the combination of circumstances suggest.
Açoudi, the capital of the territory of Ahir (which is the desert of Hair, situated south-west of Tuat) carries on a direct trade with Cashenah. The term Hair a signifies difficult, hard, harsh: from which we · may presume that the district of Hair is rocky, stony, or difficult of passage.
three days, and then halt at the river Maiss, which has given its name to this place.
43rd—47th Journies.--Proceeding during four days' journey from Maiss, they reach the town called Janet, which is built at the foot of a mountain bearing that name.
48th–52nd Journies. From the town of Janet they go in five days to refresh themselves at the wells of Tegherein.
52nd—54th Journies.-From Tegherein to Tedment three days. Tedment is at the foot of a mountain called Tadent,' where quantities of senna are collected.
55th-62nd Journies.-From Tedment after eight days' travelling, during which, neither water nor vegetation is found, they reach and repose at a place called Asioû, where there are many wells.
63rd-68th Journies.-After quitting the wells of Asioû, they proceed five days among mountains, beyond which is a place called Togháget.
69th-73rd Journies.-From Toghaget they journey five more days to reach Tedek : the road is invariably among mountains, where no water is to be had.
74th—75th Journies.—After proceeding two days more from Tedek, they arrive at Ahir. Ahir is a country whose capital is Asúdi. The habitations are constructed with mats, made of a reed or grass called in the empire of Marocco Bordi. It is a kind of papyrus or soft reed, which the Arabs of Syria and of Marocco use to manufacture mats, which they spread on the floors of their houses and tents, and with which they cover their roofs.
The inhabitants of Ahir live on Cassaves, which they bring from Cashenah. The territory of Ahir is shaded by forests of those palm-trees which the Egyptians and Marokeens call doumah, the people of Gadames palms of Pharoah, and the Spaniards Palmita. They grind the fruit of this kind of palm, and mix the flour with that of the Cassave, and with cheese, and this mixture is their ordinary food.
Goats abound in Abir, as also lions and monkies, which inhabit the woods; the population may amount to 12,000 souls, who are Tuareks.
76th—78th Journies.-After leaving Ahir and travelling three days further, they stop at a river called Aouderas, which they cross, it being knee-deep.
79th-soth Journies.-From Aouderas they travel on two days, and then stop at a mountain called Megzem.
· See note in the preceding page.
2 Cassab it should be, for there is no v in the Arabic language, and the Cassab is the sugar-cane.
818-82nd Journies.-From Mount Megzem they proceed two days, and arrive at a river which runs through a wood of datetrees; the name of this river is Irin-Ouallem.
83rd–84th Journies.-From Irin-Ouallem they march on two days successively, and then reach Aguadès or Agades. Agades is a town, larger than that of Tripoli of Barbary, situated in a plain. A market is held there; the Tuareks carry on a trade with it in cattle and sheep. The inhabitants of Agades procure their clothing from Cashenah, Gouber, and Zenferanab. They give in exchange, salt, which they procure from Bornou, from the territory of Fachy and of Bilma; the prince who reigns at Agades is called Baguir; he has succeeded Wadelah. The extensive commerce carried on by this town renders it rich and forishing.
85th-90th Journies.-Departing from Agades, they are seven days crossing immense forests, where no water is found but what the rains have left. They then arrive at Tedlag, a very deep well, from which they raise water by means of camels, which are brought tbither expressly for the caravans.
91st-97th Journies.-After baving refreshed themselves at the wells of 'Tedlaq, they perform eight more days' journey, when they reach a place called Kerfechi.
98th Journey.--After another day's march they reach a place called Tsãouah or Tsawah.
99th Journey.- From Tsawah to Madaouah or Madawah one day.
100th Journey.-- From Madawah they travel a whole day, and repose at Takmakoumah.
101st day's Journey.-From Takmakoumah, after another day's journey, they at length arrive at Cashenah or Kasnah.
Casherah is a considerable town: it has seven gates or entrances ; an interval of two miles separates each gate. The king who governed Cashevah is just dead;' his name was Kalinghiwah.
The Sheikh El Hage Kassem Guarem, who communicated to me the above intelligence, and who dictated to me the Itinerary from Tripoli in Barbary to Timbuctou, transacted with the king Kalingbiwah a commerce in cloth and horses. He reported to me that the current money of Cashenah is a kind of shell which the
? That is to say, at the close of A. D. 1806, or the beginning of 1807.
Arabs call oudoa." He assured me that many of the inhabitants were of the Christian religion, and that the greater part of them carried, suspended from their neck, large wooden crosses. The natives are called Heznah. They powder their hair.
The territory of Cashenah swarms with worms, with which one is quickly covered if one lies on the ground naked. To avoid this inconvenience it is the custom to spread a mat on the ground; with this precaution one sleeps tolerably well, without danger of being tormented by these importunate and even dangerous reptiles.
After having dictated this Itinerary, the Sheikh El Hage Kassem finished by assuring me, that to travel to Cashenah from
Tripoli of Barbary, one has the sun in the morning on the left temple, and in the evening on the right temple, that is to say, that the journey is performed by proceeding invariably southward.
N. B, This Itinerary and that from Tripoli to Timbuctou? were given to me in 1807, during the summer of that year, that is to say, during the three months that the caravan sojourns at Tripoli of Barbary.
Copied at Tangier, 26th of June, 1808.
J. G. JACKSON.
OBSERVATIONES IN PHRYNICHUM
Ea, quæ in Parergis continentur, primum in libellis academicis proposita sunt, jam inde ab initio anni 1815. per occasionem statorum solemnium evulgatis. Unde quæ viri præstantissimi mihique benevolentissimi, Barker. et Schneider. in Lexx. sua, me non nolente, transtulerunt, ea, si sine detrimento fieri posset, recidi.” Præf. p. lxxx.
“His et talibus auctoritatibus Blomf. sese tueatur, si propter nógov inter communia ambigui argumenti exempla relatum in judicium vocetur.” P. 141.
“ Longe præstat Nunnesii ratio, a Blomf. ad Æsch. S. c.
'Oudoa (sag Ouda] is the Arabic word for cowries, which pass as money
many parts of Sudan. 2 Vide Cl. II. No. 56, page 193.