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From the gate of the town the caravan proceeds and encamps at Djenzour, the distance being 18 miles, or 3 hours.

The wells which are found in this interval are from the Hamamidj to Ras-Annakhl 2 miles, from the latter to Querkaresch 4 miles, from Querkaresch to Djeuzour 12 miles, in all 18 miles.

From Djenzour they proceed and stop at Ezzawiah' of the West for the night, distant 9 hours, or 50 miles.

The wells are, 1st. Sayyad, at the distance of 5 miles. 2nd. El Máyeh, 12 miles, or 2 hours. 3rd. Ettouibiyeh, 15 miles, or 2 hours and a half; (between El Mayeh and Ettouibiyeh there are 2 wells, besides those above mentioned, of which one is on the and the other on the West.) From Ettouibiyeh to Ezzawiah, 23 miles, or 4 hours.

To return: from Tripoli to Ezzawiah of the West there is 1 day's journey, proceeding without intermission from the rising to the setting sun.

From Ezzawiah to Ezwagah (Zewaga), which is as far from Ezzawiah, as Tripoli is from Menchieh of Ezzawiah. From Ezzawiah to. Ezwagah, 70 miles. Wells, 1st. the well of Dendanah, near Ezzawiah. 2nd. 12 miles from Dendanah the well of Zaraw, to the east of Ezwagah. 3rd, the well called, Beer Alkarbèh d'Ezwagah.

From Ezwagah the caravan proceeds and encamps at Kassr-elAllakah, distant from Tripoli 2 days' travelling, or 170 miles, or 27 hours. * From Kassr-el-Allakah they proceed and encamp at Zowarah. Thus the distances between Tripoli and Ezzawiah, between. Ezzawiah and Ezwagah, and between Ezwagah aud Zowarah, are each exactly 1 day, in all 3 days' march, or 200 miles, or 32 hours.

From this place they go on and encamp at Sheikh-Seedi-Buudjeileh (Bouojeileh), distance 1 journey, agreeably to the beforementioned rate of travelling, from the rising to the setting sun, or 12 hours.

From Bu-udjeileh they go and encamp at El Khattabah, distance 1 day's journey. Wells, 1st. the well of Dikdacah, at the extremity of the territory of Bu-udjeileh, and at the distance of 12 miles, or 2 hours. 2nd. the well of Wakhoum, distant from the preceding well 20 miles.

From this town (Bu-udjeileh) they perform a day's journey, which brings the caravan to a narrow neck of land, between two

solar letter, the l in the article becomes liquid or assumes the following letter, making it Annakhl.

Ezzawiah, not El-Zawiah, by the same grammatical rule as above mentioned.

? Vide note '(above).

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mountains, which is full of running streams, which continue to refresh the country, until they reach the valley of Zenthan.

Resumed. All this road from Tripoli tu Fossato is but sand and Aint-stones. After passing Fossato the road is altogether stony, having on the right as well as on the left a mountain ; and this continues a day and a night, that is to say, 24 hours, till they enter Zenthan. From the gate of Tripoli to Zenthan, the direction of the road is always to the West. The inbabitants of this valley are called Zénata, they are the posterity of Helal, but the valley itself is called Zeuthan."

The caravan sleeps at the entrance of the valley; it then departs, and proceeds through the middle of the valley during 12 hours; then it passes the night in the valley, and at the dawn of day it proceeds for 6 hours more, through the middle of the valley; it has then passed through the valley, and

sleeps opposite to Errodjeban. From the gate of Menchieh of Tripoli they invariably proceed to the West, leaving Tripoli on the East; but from bence, that is, after passing the valley, the road separates, and the caravap proceeds to the south.

From Errodjeban they proceed to the valley of Essian ; the distance between these two places is the same with that which separates the other? wells. ist. the well of Nakoua at 5 lours' distance from Errodjeban. 2nd. the well of Schahamnah, opposite to the valley of Essian, distant from Nakoua 5 hours and one third.

Departing the following day from this valley and proceeding on the journey 12 hours, brings them to the valley of Lathman, where

Pursuing their journey at the dawn of day, they travel 12 hours complete; they encamp near a water, called the well of Sammam: whichever

way the caravan might direct its course, it would find no water but at Sammam.

After passing the night there, they depart at the following morning, after having tilled the skins with water sufficient for 4 days' journey. The whole of this journey is a stony road, and there is not found earth any

where. After 4 entire days' journey they arrive at a well called Beer Quercabah, and pass the night there.

In the morning they leave this place, and march on during 12 hours complete. At the end of 6 hours' march they reach a well at noon, called Beer Rahmaneh. They dine near this well, and

they sleep


'The note in the French translation of this itinerary says, this is ambiguous in the text; but we do not perceive any ambiguity: the inhabitants of England are called English, as those of Zenthan are called Zenata, or of France, French.

* Without doubt a journey of 12 hours.

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then contioue their journey other 6 hours; they sleep at a place called Sedrat-Helal.

The following morning they resume their journey, and travel on 2 days without water. After 12 hours' march they sleep at Gouth Erradjranah;' here there is only sand and gravel. The extent of this gouth is 3 days and 3 nights. There is no water nor pasturage there, but ostriches and wild beasts. The 4th day, in the morning, an hour after the rising of the sun, they find three wells, whose water is sweeter than the fountain of Mawrah, in the town of Tripoli.

The caravan halts at these wells till noon; they water the camels, dine, and bathe there, and march on through sands till night; they sleep at a place called Beer Assidr, the well of thorny bushes, of which there is a row on each side, that is to say, on the right and on the left.

After passing the night at this place, they proceed, and travel all day till sun-set, wben they arrive at a well, named Beer EddjelJaondab, which is situated in the midst of the remains of a ruined town, where they pass the night: from this place no water is found during 9 journies ; they allow then here a sufficient provision of it, and march on during 24 hours, without the camels or the men taking any repose, till they arrive at El-Keliat, where they pass the night and repose half the next day; they then proceed on a day and a night without the men or the camels taking any rest, when they reach Kadjoum, a place where there are trees, and a river wbich runs during the rainy season only.

They pass the night at this place; they then march on agaia a day and a night as before, and then encamp in a low plain, called Gonth de Canoudj.

After another march of 24 hours they encamp in the valley of Kanad, they there pass the night; the next morning they proceed, and march 2 days and 1 night, after which they encamp at the extremity of a territory, called Albesat (that is to say, the plain) of the sons of Hammam, and there pass the night, when after 12 full hours' march they encamp near the well called Beer ben Deradi.

Here they pass the night, and in the morning they take a provision of water for 2 days, water the camels, drink, and bathe, if they choose, before they proceed.

After journeying for a day and a night they encamp in the territory of Gadames, to the south. Between Gadames and the lower plain, where the caravan was encamped, and which is called Gouth de Barkadj, there are 3 full days' journey.

To return to the march of the caravan. After having passed the night at the encampment just mentioned, it departs the next

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· Gouth signifies a low plain.

morning and travels 24 hours, when it encamps at a place pamed Gouth de Cordollah, and there passes the night.

In the morning the caravan proceeds and travels for 24 hours, and encamps at a place called Gouth de Saddaz, where there is a well, called Beer Schafannab; here they take 8 journies provision of water.

They depart in the morning from this well, and in 24 hours' inarch they reach Gouth de Zenzân, and there encamp.

After having passed the night there and travelled on 24 hours they arrive at Gouth Barakhnèh, and pass the night there.

They proceed in the morning, and after travelling 24 hours they encamp at El-Kakaa in the West, where they remain till the next morning.

At El-Kakaa the road separates, they proceed southward, walking in the midst of water and wells; after travelling 24 hours they encamp near the well Beer-El-Zafzaf, whose water never ails, but bubbles up with strength: here they make provision of water for 12 journies.

Departing from this place they arrive, after proceeding a day and a night, at Karkoufa, where they pass the night.

From theuce, after a march of 24 hours, they encamp in the Gouth d'Ezzarahnah, and after another journey of 24 hours, they encamp in the Gouth d'Elafiab;' they depart from bence in the morning, and in 24 hours they arrive at the Gouth d'Adjrineh, there

pass the night, and in 24 hours more they reach a gouth, where there is a spring, ealled Ain Aldjour, (the fountain of pearls,) because the water is clear and excellent, and the sand does not spoil it; they rest here 24 hours._From hence is seen Fezzan, between the South and the East. There are 2 full days' journey between this fountain and Fezzan.

From Ain Aldjour they travel from morning til sun-set, and then sleep and pass the night in the territory of Djina: proceeding from hence, in the morning, after 12 hours' travelling they arrive and sleep in a country called Sabha.

From thence in 24 hours' march they arrive at Maragnak; they proceed in the morning, and after travelling 24 hours, that is to say, a day and a night, they come to Gouth-Ennadjenadj, where there is no water, and where they pass the night.

Proceeding in the morning they travel a day and a night, and sleep at Gouth d' Adhimisch.

At the dawn of day they provide water for 6 days, and enter the territory of the Tuarecks; here the road divides.

They mareh a day and a night, and then sleep in the Gouth de

'I. e. the valley of profit or gain.




Sarrafèh.' Departing next morning, after other 24 hours, they go and sleep at the Gouth de Scharschoum. The next morning they proceed and march till sun-set, when they enter the town of Tareknah, in the Tuareck country. At Tareknah? the road divides and takes a westerly direction.

They travel 2 days and 2 nights after leaving Tareknah without the camels or the men taking any repose; and after a further progress of 12 hours, they enter the territory of Ed-daum, which belongs to the Negro-country, and there pass the night, near the wells of Findi.

Departing from Ed-daum, after a full day's march, they reach, at sun-set, a valley called, in the Negro language, Sanindi. It is a delightful spot, abounding in fruits and all kinds of good things. The extent of this valley is 24 hours' march, from morning till morning. After these 24 hours' march they discover 7 reservoirs, each 100 feet long, and full of water during the whole year. Nothing, after the Nile, is more wonderful than this valley.

They here make provision of water for 4 days, and then pursue their journey in the morning; and at the expiration of a day and a night they encamp in a Gouth, called by the Negroes Bourouki, and by the Tuarecks, Saddjanah.

They pass the night here, and after 24 hours' march they encamp in a Gouth, called by the Negroes Kanindi, and in the Arabic idiom of the Tuarecks, Buikomnah.

Departing in the morning, they arrive after 24 hours' march at a Gouth, called by the Negroes Coundji, and by the Tuarecks, Boksham, or Foksham; they rest here till the next day at noon; they then provide water for a day, water the camels, and bathe there.

From hence they march a day and a night incessantly, without repose to men or camels, and without suffering the mounted camels to browse, after which they reach a goutb, called by the Negroes Cabici, and by the Tuarecks, Schahatah.

They sleep there, when, in 12 hours' march, they reach the city of Housa, a town in the Negro-country. There is a market here, and sales and purchases of provisions are made, and the men and camels repose; also the merchandise brought by the caravan may be sold, if the proprietors choose.

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"Probably Gouth de Sharrefèh, q. d. the valley of princes.

2 I doubt if Tareknah is a proper name; the word implies that there were two roads, one of which was the road of the caravan, that is to say, tarekna, q. d. our road-tarekekume, your road; tarekhume, their road: there is the more reason for putting this construction on the sentence, because inmediately afterwards the text says the road divides and takes a westerly direction.

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