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morning and travels 24 hours, when it encamps at a place pamed Gouth de Cordollah, and there passes the night.
In the morning the caravan proceeds and travels for 24 hours, and encamps at a place called Gouth de Saddaz, where there is a well, called Beer Schafannab; here they take 8 jourbies' provision of water.
They depart in the morning from this well, and in 24 hours' march they reach Gouth de Zenzân, and there encamp.
After having passed the night there and travelled on 24 hours they arrive at Gouth Barakhnèh, and pass the night there.
They proceed in the morning, and after travelling 24 hours they encamp at El-Kakaa in the West, where they remain till the next morning
At El-Kakaa the road separates, they proceed southward, walking in the midst of water and wells; after travelling 24 bours they eneamp near the well Beer-El-Zafzaf, whose water never fails, but bubbles up with strength : here they make provision of water for 12 journies.
Departing from this place they arrive, after proceeding a day and a night, at Karkoufa, where they pass the night.
From thepce, after a march of 24 hours, they encamp in the Gouth d'Ezzarahnah, and after another journey of 24 hours, they encamp in the Gouth d'Elafiab;' they depart from bence in the morning, and in 24 hours they arrive at the Gouth d'Adjrineh, there pass the night, and in 24 hours more they reach a gouth, where there is a spring, ealled Ain Aldjour, (the fountain of pearls,) because the water is clear and excellent, and the sand does not spoil it; they rest here 24 hours. From hence is seen Fezzan, between the South and the East. There are 2 full days' journey between this fountain and Fezzan.
From Ain Aldjour they travel from morning till sun-set, and then sleep and pass the night in the territory of Djina: proceeding from hence, in the morning, after 12 hours' travelling they arrive and sleep in a country called Sabha.
From thence in 24 hours' march they arrive at Maragnah; they proceed in the morning, and after travelling 24 hours, that is to say, a day and a night, they come to Gouth-Ennadjenady, where there is no water, and where they pass the night.
Proceeding in the morning they travel a day and a night, and sleep at Gouth d'Adhimisch.
At the dawn of day they provide water for 6 days, and enter the territory of the Tuarecks; here the road divides.
They mareh a day and a night, and then sleep in the Gouth de
' I. e. the valley of profit or gain.
Sarrafèh.'. Departing next morning, after other 24 hours, they go and sleep at the Gouth de Scharschoum. The next morning they proceed and march till sun-set, when they enter the town of Tareknah, in the Tuareck country. At Tareknah? the road divides and takes a westerly direction.
They travel 2 days and 2 nights after leaving Tareknah without the camels or the men taking any repose; and after a further progress of 12 hours, they enter the territory of Ed-daum, which belongs to the Negro-country, and there pass the night, near the wells of Findi.
Departing from Ed-daum, after a full day's march, they reach, at sun-set, a valley called, in the Negro language, Sanindi. It is a delightful spot, abounding in fruits and all kinds of good things. The extent of this valley is 24 hours' march, from morning till morning. After these 24 hours' march they discover 7 reservoirs, each 100 feet long, and full of water during the whole year. Nothing, after the Nile, is more wonderful than tbis valley.
They here make provision of water for 4 days, and then pursue their journey in the morning ; and at the expiration of a day and a night they encamp in a Gouth, called by the Negroes Bourouki, and by the Tuarecks, Saddjanah.
They pass the night here, and after 24 hours' march they eucamp in a Gouth, called by the Negroes Kanindi, and in the Arabic idiom of the Tuarecks, Buikomnah.
Departing in the morning, they arrive after 24 hours' march at a Gouth, called by the Negroes Coundji, and by the Tuarecks, Boksham, or Foksham; they rest here till the next day at doon; they then provide water for a day, water the camels, and bathe there.
From hence they march a day and a night incessantly, without repose to men or camels, and without suffering the mounted camels to browse, after which they reach a goutb, called by the Negroes Cabici, and by the Tuarecks, Schahatah.
They sleep there, when, in 12 hours' march, they reach the city of Housa, a town in the Negro-country. There is a market here, and sales and purchases of provisions are made, and the men and camels repose; also the merchandise brought by the caravan may be sold, if the proprietors choose.
Probably Gouth de Sharrefèh, q. d. the valley of princes. 2 I doubt if Tareknah is a proper name; the word implies that there were two roads, one of which was the road of the caravan, that is to say, tarekna, q. d. our road-tarekekume, your road; tarekhume, their road: there is the more reason for putting this construction on the sentence, because inimediately afterwards the text says the road divides and takes a westerly direction.
Housa to Sudah. On quitting this town, they travel a day and a night, and then sleep in a Negro village, called, in their idiom, Bakouknoki, and in that of the Tuarecks, Bakermi (Bagermi). This is not an independent town or chief place, but only like Ezwarrab (which depends on Tripoli) and other similar towns.
Water is taken here for two journies, and departing early in the morning they travel on till between sun-set and dark; they sleep at Sarreifeh, as they do at Djenzour.' This place is called in the Negro language, Schakniri, and in that of the Tuarecks, Wananan. They pass the night near these pits, and repose there 24 hours.
After a further journey of a day and a night, they stop at a towa which the Negroes call Keekee, and the Tuarecks, Caouaz. It is not a chief place, but is like the mountain of Djebalis. They leave this place in the morning and travel till sov-set, and go to sleep at a town of Negroes, called by them, Canindi, and by the Tuarecks, Corrirah.
There, after passing the night, they depart in the morning, and at sun-set they reach a town, called by the Negroes, Wanonki, and by the Tuarecks, Caoucaou. There is no town greater than this : the inhabitants swarm like locusts, they believe in God and in his prophet Muhamed: all kinds of goods and merchandise are found here; there is not to be found in Tripoli the fourth part of what is found here: here they sell for a hundred what is worth ten. They pass the night at the entrance of the town; in the morning, when the troops appear with their arrows, they open the bolts of the gates, and deliver an order of their prince for the caravan. No ove can enter the town 3 without an order from the El-Mai, that is to say, in Arabic, the Sultan.
After leaving this place they go and sleep at a town, called by the Negroes, Counci, and by the Tuarecks, El-Birkak. The order of the El-Mai is read; the reader sits down with his legs under bim, extends his two hands, and shakes them, to testify his obedience to this letter of their El-Mai.
This night is passed amidst an abundance of every thing, and they depart in the morning, and after having travelled from the early morning till the middle of the afternoon, they enter a town, called by the Negroes, Birzizzi, and by the Tuarecks, Afnou. The caravan is received at this place by the people of the Viceroy, who
• This is very ambiguous; perhaps the author means to say that Bakouknoki is as far frym Sarreifeh as Djenzour is from Tripoli.
? That is to say, what cost ten dollars in Tripoli sells here for a hun. dred dollars. - 3 These words are guessed at; the text is said to be unintelligible.
VOL. XXIX. Cl. JI. NO. LVII.
is obedient to the El-Mai. The order of the El-Mai is presented to the chief, who falls on his knees, extends both his hands, and agitates them.
The caravan again passes the night in abundance: they give them for supper, sugar-canes and dates; they reduce the dates into powder, so that they no longer form a body whose particles adhere to one another, they then bruise the cane till it has lost all its asperity, they then mix the whole with fresh milk: they are very expert in making this mixture with the hand. During the whole year they use no other food but sugar-canes, dates, and fresh milk.
After having passed the night in abundance they leave this town in the morning, and about the middle of the afternoon they arrive at a town, called by the Negroes, Sarki, and by the Tuarecks, Borcon. The troops of this town come before the travellers, take the order of the supreme chief, and do like those of whom we have already spoken.
The caravan passes the night in abundance; next morning they supply it with water for 3 days, because this town is the last of the towns of the prince of whóni we bave spoken. The caravan des parts early the next morning, and proceeding till sun-set, it sleeps in the forest of El-Degarfèh. The whole of the following day's journey is through the forest, and at sun-set they encamp at its extrempity. The soil of this forest is a black clay.
They strike their tents at morning, and at sun-set they reach a town, called Tabaou, where there is water. This town and its population exceed those of Cairo.
The following morning they quit this town, and they come and lodge in a town, called by the Negroes, Zantou, and by the Tuarecks, Zancoulah, where they pass the night.
The next morning provision of water for 4 days is made, when, after travelling during 24 hours, they stop at a town, called by the Negroes, Tirri, and by the Tuarecks, Tirrin.
They pass the night there; the following morning, after a journey of 24 hours, they arrive at a town, called by the Negroes, Scholoki, and by the Tuarecks, Soudah.
(Note.-Soudah divides the Sahara from Sudan, and is about 150 miles eastward from Timbuctou, and about one third of the distance from Timbuctou to Housa. In Mr. Walckenaer's map there is in Lat. N. 19. Long. W. 4.30. Haoussa, and in Lat. N. 16. Long. Es 1.0. Housa. It is perhaps necessary to inform the African travelJer as well as the African geographer, that these two places are one and the same. This confusion or ambiguity has crept into modern maps of Africa, from the situation of places in the interior, as given by one traveller, differing from that given by another; the same may be said of the orthography, each traveller spelling the name according to his own oral intelligence of the word; these are then put down in other maps, as in this map of Mr. Walckender, variously spelt and variously situated; a circumstance which, it must be admitted, is calculated to confuse and bewilder African travellers, and which ob that account alone we think ought to be discontinued.)
Summary of a Journey from Tripoli to Timbuctou. From the gate of Tripoli called Menschieh, they travel westward till they arrive in the Tuareck country; there the road divides, and they then proceed southward; afterwards it divides a second time, and goes due west to Zantoa, which is one of the districts in the territory of the Sultan of Portiou.
[Note.--All this is very ambiguous, since Tareckna in the Tuareck country is south, not west, of Tripoli. Again, if the road
west, after travelling many journies south of the Tuarecks, it would not go to the Bornou territory, which is unquestionably to the east. This circumstance alone would have prompted us to omit this part of the itinerary, giving that only which finishes at Sudah, and which bears the marks of authenticity; but as this summary forms a part of the itinerary entitled “Itinerary from Tripoli to Timbuctou, by Muhamed ben Foul; translated from the Arabic by M. le Baron Silvestre de Sacy,” we thought ourselves bound to give it entire, and here therefore follows the remainder of this Itinerary.]
After having entered the territory of the Sowaden,' they take, before quitting the town of Sudah, water and provisions for 4 days; they then march on an entire day, and encamp in the territory of Sudan. It is a desert country, and is called Assudan, but not so called because its soil is black and like charcoal. There is here a forest, which is abandoned and desert.
The following day they proceed from the dawn of day till sunset, when they encamp in a place, called Gouth el Caraoudi, where the soil is gravel.
They sleep there, and departing in the morning, after having travelled till sun-set, they encamp in a place, called Gouth el Wa. nikdi, which has the saine name in the Tuareck dialect.
Departing froni lenice in the morning they travel till sun-set, and sleep in a town, called, in the language of the Timbuctou Negroes, Canikischi.
Leaving this town, they arrive at noon at Caoukisi.
"Sowaden is the plural of Sudun; Sudan contains many kingdoms, Sowaden therefore designates the kingdoms of Sudan, as the kingdoms of Castile; Arragon, Mexico, &c. are designated by the Spains.