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After sleeping there they depart in the morning, and about noon enter a town like ours (Tripoli); it is called Zanonzouki.
Here they rest and pass the night; the next morning they pass through many inhabited places, and about the middle of the afterpoon (4 o'clock) they reach another town, called Caschikliki.
After having slept there they resume their journey next morning, and passing through a continuation of inhabited places they arrive at noon at the town of Tonsou-Anki, the town of Alkatatis d'Alzabd.
They then depart, and passing through inhabited places, which resemble Quakares, Djenzour, Al-Menschieh, &c. they arrive, at the end of 24 hours, about half an hour after sun-rise, at the town of Timbuctou, the greatest of towns that Allah has created, where strangers find all kinds of things; a town full of merchants.
Composed by me, Muhamed, the son of Aly, the son of Foul.
My father was a free citizen, my mother a black slave, my
Passow's Text; and the AGRICOLA, BROTIER's
The Germany and Agricola of 'Tacitus, if not among the most valuable remains of antiquity, are certainly, with very few exceptions, the most precious legacy which has descended to us from the later ages of Rome. Independently of their moral beauty and their literary merit (that of the Agricola especially), the interesting information which they communicate respecting the early manners of the two most illustrious nations of modern times, and the policy, opinions, and internal condition of Rome itself during the times they treat of; these, together with the beautiful portrait of individual virtue in the latter work, have rendered these two treatises the favorites of the modern reader; and these, combined with the important merit of brevity, have made
them a popular book for students. It is not therefore wonderful that numerous editions of them should have been undertaken with this particular object, more especially of late years, since the antiquities both of Germany and Britain have attracted more than former attention, and have received much valuable illustration from the labors of native scholars. Of these Mr. Barker's appears, from the number of impressions through which it has passed, to be among the most popular. We collect from the preface that it is only the beginning of a series of editions of the Roman classics, on the same plan.
“ The Editor's attention will next be called to an Edition of Cicero's Catilinarian Orutions, which he will publish in the same form. He ven. tures to hope that the classical instructors of British youth will encousagę his efforts to reform the present system of our classical Schoolbooks, of which a great part, (though there are some splendid exceptions) is founded on old Editions, which are susceptible of infinite improvements from the labors of numerous Scholars, who have appeared in these latter times. A little industry, a little learning, and a little research alone are required to present the rising generation with the golden fruit of these labors ; and if classical literature be an object of prime importance in the education of our youth, it is of the greatest consequence that every facility should be afforded for communicating a perfect acquaintance with the languages of Greece and Rome, because their utility to the student chiefly depends on the perfection with which they are taught by the instructor.”
This observation may be trite, but it is just; and they who are aware of the importance of an accurate acquaintance with languages, and who have experienced in their own case, or witnessed in others, the bad effects in various ways of a superficial knowledge of them, will feel the cogency of its application, Mr. Barker's notes (with the exception of the quotations from former annotators, which we think should have been translated for conformity's sake) are in English; a mode of commenting to which Owen's Juvenal first gave us a partiality, and which, though with some hesitation, we are inclined to prefer to the more received fashion, which rests principally 'on prescription, The Germany is printed from the text of an edition published by Fr. Passow, in 1817 (several of whose notes are also inserted), and the Agricola from that of Brotier. We have not had leisure to peruse the whole, aud therefore can only characterise it in general, as containing a great deal of useful as well as entertaining illustration, and as well adapted to the purpose for which it was undertaken. Some of the notes are however too long ; a fault of which the Editor himself seems to be in some degree aware. It would bave been more for the convenience of the reader if thiese had been
relegated to the appendix, Mr. Barker's sources of illustration are sufficiently various ; poetry, history, philosophy, divipity, travels, aptiquities, are all made to bear on the passage under consideration. He reminds us of Bentley's character of John Tzetzes," a man of rambling learning.” Some of his notes, op the other hand, might be extended with advantage, by the addition of further illustrations. We think too, that many points are passed over in silence, which to the learner require a coniment. On the whole, however, he is fully entitled to the praise to which he lays claim in the Preface.
“He trusts, that in the selection" (of notes from preceding commentators) “ he has always kept utility in view, and that, if he has pot on every occasion successfully, with the aid of his learned predeces. sors, removed the corruptions and the obscurities of the text, he has at least furnished his readers with some means of forming clear ideas on the points in dispute, The 3rd Edition of Dr. John Aikin's Translation of these Tracts, published in 1815, has been advantageously consulted in some instances."
We have not the two preceding editions before us, so that we are unable to form any judgment as to the comparative merits of the present. Mr. B.'s observations on the well-known words in the description of Germany, ch. 2. "informem terris, asperam coelo, tristem cultu aspectuque," may serve as a specimen of his style of annotation.
“ Informem terris. What Tacitus means by this expression, will be felt hy those, who compare with it what he says in ch. 5. Terra, etsi aliquanto specie differt, in universum tamen aut silvis horrida, aut paludibus fuda, and who recollect that in Ann. 2, 23, he says, Tumidis Germaniæ terris, 'the mountainous countries of Germany.' Lungoliùs is mistaken in supposing that Tac. intended to speak of the sterile appearance of Germany :- Sic quoque Seneca de Prov. 4. Germanos maligne solum sterile sustentat. Enimvero nondum extra omnem dubitationem positum est, Germaniam omnem adeo informem fuisse, Nam si vel maxime concedamus, eas regiones, in quibus Romani incursiones fecerunt, sive sterileş fuisse, s. potius, ob rationes politicas, incullas jacuisse, an exinde tuto colligere licet, Germaniam omnem si non desertam, certe incultam fuisse? Deinde probe notandum est, vett. Germanos non amavisse luxum : eorum igitur terras incultas esse, Romanos luxui deditos exinde falso collegisse mirum non est.' The culture and aspect of the soil is mentioned by Tac, in what immediately follows, tristem cultu aspectuque, and besides in ch. 5. he represents Germany as satis ferax.' Dr. Aikin's version is therefore faulty :- A land rude in its surface, rigorous in its climate, cheerless to every beholder and cultivator except a native.' Horat. Sat. 1, 8, 14. Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque Aggere in aprico spatiari, quo modo tristes Albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum."
“ Asperam cælo. Seneca l. c., Germanos triste cælum premit.”.
“ Tristem cultu aspectuque. Seneca l. c., Germanos maligne solum sterile sustentat. Tac. Germ. c. 5. Terra etsi aliquanto specie differt, in universum tamen aut silvis horridu, aut paludibus fada, satis ferar, frugiferurum arbo
rum impatiens, ? Est metonym. affectus pro causa. Tröstas tultu, est'ergo. terra, quam etsi optime colas, et studiosissime ares, tamen nihil proferet, e quo lætitiam capere possis, Cic. de N. D. 2, 40. Idem fere de Thracia Mela 2, 2, 4. dicit, Regio nec cælo læta, nec solo.' Longol." The signification of tristis in the above passage, is remarkably well preserved in the French triste. The aspect of modern Germany made the same impression on Madame de Stael as its ancient appearance seems to have done on the countrymen of Tacitus.
We shall only now mention a curious, and, we believe, original conjecture of F. Schlegel in his Lectures on the History of Literature, which recurred to our recollection, on perusing the passage in ch. 3, “Ceterum et Ulixem quidam opinantur adisse Germaniæ terras," &c. that this fancy originated in a confusion of the name of Odin with that of the Greek 'Odurosùs, through the well-known propensity of the ancients to identify the fabulous heroes of all other countries with their own;' for which see, among others, Mr. R. P. Knight in his very learned " Inquiry into the Symbolical Language of ancient Art and Mythology," Part 1x. . 209-211, Classical Journal LIII. p. 68.; a passage which Mr. Barker would undoubtedly have quoted, had it occurred to him at the time. Ulysses and Odin were both wanderers.
We observe an error in p. 90, note, col. 1. (at least if the word is meant for Latin) pyrata for pirata. This corruption is not unfrequent, and seems, like some others of the same kind, to have originated in those early times of classical printing, when i and y were to a great extent confounded with each other.
ON THE PYRAMIDS OF EGYPT.
Part III.—[Continued from No. LVI.] Mr. Bryant thinks that these mysteries originated in the deluge; which is not improbable as far as concerns some of the details, particularly where the ark or scyphus was introduced. I am however persuaded that the leading object of the mysteries, both Egyptian and Greek, was the “loss of Man's first perfect state," his fall, and anticipated restoration. The rites of the funereal Osiris seem rather to have typified the sentence of
* This propensity, or something like it, prevails among most nations. A copious and amusing article might be written on the subject.
death on the first man, and his restoration by the promised seed. A greater than Noah was implied, though the second Adam was evidently a type of the third. To this great secret, it is probable that the earliest initiation offered access and participation. The name of Proserpine, and the story of Eurydice, combined with that of Hercules, seem to confirm this view. But I hasten from this digression to concentrate the scattered rays of the Egyptian fable, in order that they may fall in one powerful focus on the pyramid of which we treat.
The funeral rites of Osiris were sometimes called those of Pluto or Serapis, which means the tomb of Apis. We have before seen what reason there is for believing that the pyramids were dedicated to the triple deities of the infernal regions. In the three heads of the Egyptian Cerberus, the triple image of Hecate, the triple image at Eleusis, the triple image at Elephanta, the numen triplex of Japanese and Chinese pyramidal fanes, there appears a strong and satisfactory connexion with the pyramid seated over the Egyptian hell or Necropolis, and in the neighborhood of Elysium. I come to a part of the subject which is in reality the strongest part of the argument, though hitherto considered as the most hostile to any such induction ; I mean the coffer in the central room.
* This is Bryant's interpretation: but I should rather derive Sar from a Hebrew word signifying column, than from the Greek Eozás. It har inonises also with the word Apis or measurement, signifying mystic years (Sari), counted by TĚNY.
The most direct derivation is from Serap, to burd, whence Seraph; since Serapis was so represented; and sirce it is evident that Moses caba balized in translating names, he may have done so here; and if this, meaning a column of measured tirne, evince connexion with the pyramid, the name Boore-Muth, cavern or well of Pluto, is a no less weighty than curious derivation.
Even now the word Cabura in Arabic (in Hebrew, a pit with the sign of classification affixed) signifies fire-worship, and thus the most ancient mysteries of the three Cabiri, the gods of fire and sons of Vulcan, to whom triangles were devoted, may be referred with great safety to funereal rites enacted in the pyramids.
So the name Osiris may be derived ad libitum from three words ; first, meaning Measurer (Apis); second, Riches (Dis, or Pluto); and third, Ten, the pyramidal number (Oshiri).
The Cabiri are called the sons of king Sadek (Shem) by Sanchoniatho; but Shem was more probably one of them. Human victims were offered to them. They had a temple near Memphis, which none but priests could enter. One of the Pyramids is attributed by the Copts to Shem, and another to Ham.
2 The whole island is dedicated to the Indian Pluto, the trident-bearing, three-eyed (trilochos) Mahadeva, who, as Iswara, is identified by name with Adonisiri, or Lord Isiris, (Misra) and who according to Sanchoniatho was brother of Cna (Canaan).