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of the sentence of death on the first mani, and to comprise some tradition of that proinised redemption to which initiation offered to direct the way. It appears from the Zendavesta that the first man was represented as a minotaur, like Bacchus Tauris formis ;' and it would seem that Joseph and his promised seed were represented under the same figure. There was no blame attaching to those, who in the dearth of language expressed a divine tradition by a hieroglyphic of astronomy; nor any impropriety in Jacob's adverting to the typical vehicle in which a true and glorious prophecy was innocently conveyed, though perhaps perverted, as it was by the Jews themselves shortly after. Huet thinks, that Apis was Joseph ; this is not easily proved; but if the above premises be well baseu, the prophecy of Jacob, respecting Joseph, could not well avoid some reference to the rites of Apis, or the funereal Osiris ; and it presents the features of an obvious connexion.
“ Joseph is a fruitful bull by a well, whose children run over the neck; the archers have sorely grieved him; and shot at, aud hated him ; but his bow abode in strength.”
Of all this, there are before me pictorial illustrations: the heifer by an eye or well, the pleiads or chickens upon his neck, the archers shooting at him; his scyphus, bow, &c. I have before said, that Apis was dismembered like Osiris. In the rites of Bacchus a heifer, substituted for a man, was torn to pieces by the teeth of the priests. The thigh and head seem to be the most niysterious portions. Sufficient has been said of the first; the last appears frequently under a sacred aspect. It formed the ornament of friezes and doorways; it ornamented the angles of altars, and furnished the horns. An Egyptian altar exhibits it either as its upper part or in sacrifice upon it. It is seen frequently on Mithraic monuments. One sculpture portrays it on a pillar, and near it three steps, with a figure of Mithra or Eros, seated on a rainbote: another represents it hung upon a tree, with a quiver of' arrows. On the Zodiac of Esne, a figure combined of the head and thigh of Apis, is held by Typhon, chained, while another figure pierces it with a dart. The derivation of Centaur here is sufficiently obvious, as well as the reason why Sagittarius is represented under the form of a Centaur whose arrow is directed towards the Zodiacal bull.
I have compressed a variety of interesting subjects here, the
• Sometimes crowned with apples ; see Montfaucon; sometimes his head with horns was bung on a tree to promote revivification. A bull's head hung upon an apple tree, was devoted to Mithra.
2 Porphyry de Abstinentia.
disquisition of which might fill many chapters, in order to keep the main argument in view. For any abruptness which the compression may bave imparted to my style, I beg to apologize; but I have always thought that truth is better than fine words.
The main inference is, that the coffer in the Pyramid resembled, in purpose, the cista and petroma of Ceres, the tabernacle of the Jews, and the coffer in which Bacchus was deposited ; that in the mysteries, it was used for the deposition of a similar image of Osiris, during his four days' sepulture, and perhaps for the members and relics of Apis. It is, moreover, probable that it was the great dénouement of the mysteries, that a resurgent image of Osiris Tauriformis was made to rise there. from, or at least a mimic Sun, to which the animal was devoted, which bore the same name, that of Phra, and was an emblem of the great mediator and liberator, Orus or Mithra. And I found this latter supposition, apparently gratuitous, on several circumstances. If the Pyramid was a type of the universe, where could there be a better sanctuary for the tabernacle of the sun, than the centre of that structure ? Analogy supports the inference ; for the lower room still bears the name of the Queen's chamber (the Queen of Heaven, Hecate of the three ways.) The supposition accounts for the Eastern type of Sol in dorso tauri ; and if the propriety of placing a sun in the realms of Serapis or Pluto be questioned, it must be recollected, that there was a sun of the inferior world, or Sol Inferus," which typified the mild calm of renewed life, that to produce light from darkness, a masonic emblem, illustrative of the creation, and the moral effect of a new birth, was an object of the mysteries, and as we know a leading feature. The final “beatific vision” has been already referred to, and some dazzling radiance seems to bave been connected with it. " A miraculous light discloses itself,” says Stobæus, describing
All the Pagan nations had a Nyctilicus or Sol Inferus, who at oncep
è presided over funeral rites and Elysium, and to wliom pots of fruits and fowers in both capacities were offered. Among the Syrians these were called the gardens of Adonis, and among the Greeks dedicated to Pluto as Lord and founder of Elysium, and deposited with the dead. They were occasionally gilt, by which was implied either the lost golden age, or the lost golden fruit of Hesperus to be recovered by Hercules Engonasis (see the celestial sphere) the trampler on the Dragon's head. The hieroglyphic of the sun in the lower hemisphere is thus represented according to Jablonski; but Serapis was the Sol Inferus of Egypt, as Pluto was the Jupiter Inferus of the Greeks. Pluto is the sun under the earth, says Porphyry (apud Euseh. præp. Evan. lib. iji. cap. 3).
the mysteries. But the words of Apuleius in referring to the last stage of initiation are remarkably in point. “I rushed forward,” says that writer, "amidst surrounding elements” (typify. ing the wreck of nature), and beheld a SUN SHINING WITH THE SPLENDOR of day amidst the depths of midnight.” “They (the candidates) saw celestial beauty," says Plato, “in all the dazzling radiance of perfection." These descriptions, compared with another by Timarchus in Plutarch, would lead us to imagine that a grand orrery or solar system was displayed, accompanied with a profusion of radiance, and the most resplendent machinery; for the latter speaks of starry globes revolving to the sound of celestial symphonies and supernatural accents. I have before said, that the Rabbis affirm, that their tabernacle contained the Urim and Thummim, and the Sephyroth. The first are supposed to represent the zodiacal signs divided into two hemispheres; the last a mystic astronomical system or orrery, of which the kingdom' is the centre. The word Sephyroth means lights; the Urim and Thummim, something burning and resplendent.
Thus considered, my inference as to the Central room seems nearly completed, perhaps as nearly as any analogy can be trusted.
SOPHOCLIS Vulgatæ quædam Lectiones defenduntur. atque expli
versus 147 et seqq. Sophoclis Electræ, égo quidem penitus improbo G. B-ii nimis audaciter fictas lectiones, tueorque communem lectionem his quæ sequuntur argumentis. Plura depromere ex bac scena necesse erit, quibus depromtis vel leviter inspicienti erit manifestum, quoad hæc loca et sibi consentaneum nec difficilem intellectu esse Sophoclem. Scena nobis inducit Chorum ex Argivis Virginibus constitutum quæ cum Electra colloquuntur. Vid. Class. Journ. No. Liv. 339. , Chorus.
Chorus. αλλ' ού του τόν γ εξ Αΐδα At patrem a Tartari Aomine, παγκοίνου λίμνας πατέρ' αν omnibus communi, nec ploratu στάσεις, ούτε γόοις ούτε λιταίς. nec precibus inter vivos restiαλλ' από των μετρίων επ' αμήχανον tues. Porro a mediocri ad
άλγος αεί στενάχουσα διόλλυσαι. vehementem evadis tristitiam εν οίς ανάλυσις έστιν ου
semperque ingemiscens teipδεμία κακών,
sam pessumdas. Cur mihi inτι μου των δυσφόρων εφίει ; toleranda projicis mala e quibus
nulla est liberatio?
Electra. . νήπιος όστις των οικτρώς
Infantula! quæcunque, parenοίχομένων γονέων επιλάθεται tibus misere peremptis eorum αλλ' εμέ γ α στoνόεσσ’ άραρε obliviscitur !-At Avis illa geφρένας,
mebunda mentem mihi abriz & *Ιτυν αιέν "Ιτυν όλοφύρεται, puit, quæ Itun, semper Itun όρνις ατυζομένα: Διός άγγε- lamentatur-Avis territa Nunλος"
cia certe Jovis! Ego quidem iw παντλάμων Νιόβα, σε δ' έγωγε te, O Niobe miserrima, Dean νέμω θεόν,
teneo quæ marmoreo in sepulάτ' εν τάφω πετραίω chro semper ploras! αιει δακρύεις. Chorus.
Chorus.. ούτοι σοι μούνα, τέκνον,
Haud tibi soli mortalium eveάχος εφάνη βροτών, nit calamitas ; qua sorte num προς ότι συ των ένδον ει περισσα, tu præ iis qui sunt in ædibus, οίς ομόθεν ει, και γονα ξύναιμος, abundas quibuscum versaris, οία Χρυσόθεμις
esque sanguine consors; tali faζώει και 'Ιφιάνασσα, to vivit Chrysothemis et lphiκρυπτά τ' αχέων έν ήβα, anassa, atque felix ille qui teόλβιος δν α κλεινα
nera in ætate tutus ab his laγα ποτέ Μυκηναίων tebat molestiis,quem clara δέξεται ευπατρίδαν Διός εύφρονι Mycenarum terra aliquando reβήματι μoλόντα τάνδε γάν 'Ορέσ- cipiet, illum qui divino letoque
gressu hos ad fines advenit, nobili natum Patre Orestam !
Fingit conjectative G. B-us, ut infra videre est,
αλλά μ' άγει στόνα αίσα παρά φρένας,
όρνις άτ’ αζομεν, είδεος άγγελοςHorum admirabilium versionem ad literam factam dabimus"Sed Parca mihi gemitu (suo) sensus rapit, quæ (tun miserum Itun lamentatur, avis veluti lugemus, veris nuncia!!"
Præbent nobis Msti omnes, quos autem G, B., ut aliquando videatur, pro nihilo estimat,
αλλ' εμέ γ α σότονεσσ’ άραρε φρένας VOL. XXIX. Cl: Jι. NO. LVII G
"Iτων αιέν "Ιτυν ολοφύρεται,
όρνις ατυζομένα: Διός άγγελος. . Inprimis, ait G. B.“ ápage in linguam et metrum peccat” —
En versum qui Strophicus est ei ad quem adhæsit G. B. Loquitur Electra
oldé te kad guvohuTád oő té je, v. 131.
αλλ' εμέ ά στονόεσσ’ άραρε Φρένας-
P cum muta conjuncta,
έως δ.ταύθ' ώρμαινε κατά φρένα και κατά θυμόν. .
αλλ' όγε μερμήριζε κατά φρένα και κατά θυμόν. Inde plena auctoritate communique regula vocalis natura brevis ante op consonantes producitur.Hoc autem canone fit äpape anapæstum.-Ergo recte se habet vulgata loci hujus lectio. “ åpage, ait G. B., non alibi extat in sensu toŨ placuit.”—Neque in hoc loco; at salvum nihilo minus esse potest vocabulum. Attamen, ponamus insincerum esse illud äpage. Exulet igitur, ejusque vice fungatur παρά φρένας. At quid de illis αλλ' εμέ και å otovóevo'?~Nullus extat accusator, nec ipse G. B.- Aptumne epitheton est orovớEGON Philomelæ? Nemo recusat-Quid autem de manuscriptis ? Adclamant omnes, atque huic vulgatæ lectioni favent.--Socientur deinde voces áračué q' á OTOVOEOO' cum conjectura Bana «παρά φρένας”
αλλ' εμέ γ α στoνόεσσα παρά φρένας. At cum sequentibus conjuncta hæc lectio sensu prorsus laborat. Nihilominus voces illæ fué y' à orovoco a per se ipsas innocuæ, imo et optimæ quoad sensum esse videntur, fautoresque habent eruditos codicesque omnes; sed male concordant cum só
nagà opévas."—Nempe quia posteriora hæc non sunt a Sophocle, at potius merum G. B-i figmentum.--"De literis mutatis nihil est quod dicam," ait G. B.; et sibi consentaneus adjicere poterat, neque est quod curem de manuscriptis.” Pereant, ait ille, aradé g' di OTOVÓEOG", et nova apten