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النشر الإلكتروني

3. Job's answer: Humble acknowledgment of the infinitude of the divine power, and

penitent confession of his sin and folly: ch. xlii. 1-6.

Historical Conclusion (in prose): ch. xlii. 7-17.

1. Glorious vindication of Job before his friends : vers. 7-10. 2. The restoration of his former dignity and honor: vers. 11, 12 a. 3. The doubling of his former prosperity in respect to his earthly possessions and his off

spring: vers. 12 b-17.

& 12. HISTORY AND LITERATURE OF THE EXPOSITION OF THE BOOK. The history of the exposition of the book of Job, like that of the other Old Testament writings, embraces three principal epochs or stages of development: I. The Ancient Church and Mediæval period, which was characterized by a one-sided Messianic allegorical interpretation of the book, and by the dependence of commentators (who were almost altogether ignorant of Hebrew) on the authority of the Septuagint and Vulgate.*-II. The age of the Reformation, and that immediately following (down to the middle of the 18th Cent.). The commentators of this period, particularly of the evangelical school, by virtue of their independent knowledge of Hebrew, and their more free apprehension of the book as an organic living whole, advanced beyond the stand-point of the former age. They did not really suc. ceed, however, in releasing themselves from the fetters of an unhistorical dogmatism, and of a lifeless scholasticism, indulging in abstract summaries, but unable to rise to an independent view of the successive stages in the Old Testament history of redemption. III. The modern age of scientific criticism, beginning with the middle of the last century. During this period the knowledge of the languages and of the whole civilization of the East has been continually increasing in extent and exactness, and has been accompanied on the one side by a more rigid and pure historical perception, on the other by an appreciation, as complete and correct as possible, of the profound theological contents of our book, and thus by an apprehension of its divine-human contents and character as a whole.—The first of these periods, the principal achievements of which are represented by the names of the Church Fathers Origen and Gregory the Great, embraces also that group of Jewish Rabbinical commentators, who appear as the forerunners of the more advanced linguistic culture and exegesis of the Reformation, such as Rashi, Aben Ezra, Nachmanides, Levi ben Gerson, and the converted Nicolas de Lyra. During the second epoch, which has for its most meritorious representatives Joh. Brentius, Seb. Schmidt, Mercier and Cocceius, the standpoint of the modern period is heralded by Le Clerc and Alb. Schultens, in the case of the former by his free critical method, in the case of the latter by his application to the business of exposition of a comprehensive knowledge of the Shemitic languages.- In the last, or third epoch we distinguish & period of rationalistic shallowness of exegesis (joined to a defective estimate of the book in accordance with the standard of an exaggerated orientalism, or of a sentimental humanism), and a period during which exegesis has acquired greater depth in the direction of a scriptural theology, and greater critical purity. The former period, extending from 1750-1820, is characterized by such expositors as Moldenhauer; the younger Schultens, Stuhlmann, Schärer, Rosenmüller; the latter period, to which Umbreit, Koster and Ewald form the transition, has representatives of pre-eminent ability, and distinguished for solid achievements, in Hirzel, Vaihinger, Hahn, Schlottmann, Delitzsch and Dillmann, as also in the English writers Lee, Carey and A. B. Davidson.

* In respect to the low value of the Alexandrian version of the book of Job see Delitzsch (Commy. I., p. 35): “It is just the Greek translation of the book of Job wbich suffers most seriously from the flaws which in general affect the Sepe, taagiot. Whole verses are omitted, others are removed from their original places, and the omissions are filled up by apocryphal additions." See more fully the work of G. Bickell: De indole ac ratione versionis Alexandrinæ in interpretando libre Jobi, Marburgi, 1863 ; also the Dissertations of Krause and Krehl, mentioned below in the “Monographic Literature," 0.In respect to the Latin versions pf Job current in the Ancient Church, viz. the Itala before Jerome, the Itala as revised by Jurome after the Hexaplar text of Origen, and Jerome's translation in the Vulgate, rendered independently from the original text-see D-litzscb, l. C., and my book on Jerome, p. 181 seq.-In respect to the Syrian translation of Job in the Peshito, made from the original text, and also in respect to the later version of the same after the Hexaplar text by Paul of Tela, about 620, comp. Delitzsch (I., p. 36), Middeldorpf: Curæ hexaplares in Jobum, 1817; also the last edition of the SyroHexaplar version, 183435.

637, fol.m.19. 2. Job, collech, etc, in all


1. PERIOD: ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL. A. Christian Commentators. Greek Fathers, including specially Origen, Gregory of Nyssa, Olympiodorus (deacon of Alexandria about A. D. 600), etc., in all 22, whose writings are collected together in Catena Græc. Patrum in l. Job, collectore Niceta, græce ed. et lat. vers. op. et stud. Patricii Junii, Lond. 1637, fol.–Syrian Fathers, especially Ephraem; comp. Froriep: Ephraemiana in libr. Jobi, 1769, 4.-Latin Fathers : Augustine: Annotationes in l. Job (Opp. ed. Bened. Par. 1679 seq. T. III.); Gregory the Great: Expositio in beat. Job, s. Moralium l. I. XXXV.; Pseudo-Jerome (Philippus?): Expositio Interlinearis libri Job, and Commentariolum in Job (the Expositio preserved in four different recensions, one of the latest of which was supervised probably by the venerable Bede, found in Vallarsi, Opp. B. Hieron. Ed. 2, T. III., Append. p. 895 seq.; the Commentariolum in the same work, T. V., App. p. 1013 seq.; (comp. Bedæ Opp. ed. Basil. 3, col. 602 s.); Albertus Magnus: Postilla super Job (not printed as yet): Thomas Aquinas: Expositio aurea in l. Job, T. XV., Opp. (ed. Paris, 1660), Nicolas de Lyra (Lyranus) in the Postillo in universa Biblia (written 1292–1330), first printed at Rome 1471, 5 voll. fol.; Gregory Barhebræus: Scholia in libr. Jobi (ed. G, H. Bernstein, Vratislav. 1858, fol.).

B. Jewish Commentators,—R. Saadia Gaon (about 920), an Arabic translation with comments, contained in Isr. Schwarz: Tikwath Enosh, i. e., Liber Jobi, Tom. II. (Berol., 1868); Rashi (R. Solomon Isaaki of Troyes, † 1105), who left behind him an unfinished Comment. on Job, which his grandson, R. Samuel ben Meïr (Nashbam, † 1160) finished; Aben Ezra, of Toledo († about 1170) wrote in Rome towards the end of his life a Commy, on Job, which may be found in the larger Rabbinical commentaries; where may also be found the commentaries of Moses ben Nachman, or Nachmanides (Ramban, born at Gerona, 1194): of Levi b. Gerson, or Gersonides (Ralbag, born at Bagnols, 1288), and of Abraham Farisol of Avignon,—which, particularly the first two, follow a strongly indicated philosophical bias. Compilations in the nature of catence have proceeded from R. Shimeon ha Darshan (the Yalkut Shimeoni, including all the books of the Old Testament), R. Machir b. Todros (Yalkut Mechiri, embracing the three poetic books Tehillim, Mishle, and Job), R. Menahem b. Chelbo, R. Joseph Kara, and R. Parchon. The catenæ of the last-named three have not as yet been published. Much pertaining to the subject is contained in the work of Israël Schwarz, already mentioned, Tikwath Enosh, the first part of which contains, besides a critical revision of the Masoretic text, with a new German metrical translation, two further divisions, to wit: (1) Mekor Israel, i. e., omnes de Ijobi erplicationes et deductiones quæ in Uroque Talmude Midraschiisque libris et Soharo inveniuntur; (2) Commentarios a R. Jesaia de Trani, R. Moses, et R. Joseph Kimchi, et R. Serachia ben Isaac Barceloniensis. The second part contains the Arabic translations of the book of Job by R. Saadia Gaon Alfajumi and R. Moses Gekatilia in a Hebrew version, along with a Hebr. Commentary. Comp. also the work which has just appeared: Translationes antiquæ Arabicæ Libri Jobi quæ supersunt, ex apographo codicis musei Britannici nunc primum edidit atque illustravit Wolf Guil. Frid. Comes de Baudissin, Lips., 1870.


A. Protestant Commentators.-1. Lutheran: Joh. Brentius: Annotationes in Job. Hala Suevor., 1546, and Opp. omn. Tübing., 1578, T. III., p. 1 seq. (the best and fullest of these older Lutheran commentaries; comp. Hartmann, Brenz, p. 129, 284);-Hieronymus Weller: Auslegung des Büchlein Hiob, T. II., Opp. Lips., 1703 (embracing only the first twelve chapters, but thoroughly learned and edifying-comp. Nobbe: D. Hieron. Weller von Molsdorf, der Freund und Schüler Luther's, Leipzig, 1870);—Victorin Strigel, Liber Jobi ad Ebraicam veritatem recognilus et argumentis atque scholiis illustratus, Lips. 1566, 1571;—Abrah. Calov.: Biblia V. et N. Testamenti illustrata, Francof. 1672 seq., Tom. II.; -Sebast. Schmid: Commentar in Job, Argentor, 1670, 1705, 2 vols.;-Joh. Heinr. Michaelis: Uberiores annotationes in Hagiographos V. T. libros, Hal. 1720, T.I.-Kortüm: Das Buch Hiob ubers, mit Anmerk., Leipzig, 1708.

2. Reformed : Joh. Ecolampadius: Exegemata in Job et Danielem, Basil. 1532, and often ;-Mart. Bucer: Commentar, in libr. Job, Argentor. 1528, fol.;—Huldrich Zwingli: Rand glossen zu Job (in the Greek Aldine of 1518, annotated throughout by him, edited by Andr. v. Asola) ;-Joh. Calvin : Conciones super l. Job, Genev. 1569, fol.; also in Opp. Calvini, Amst. 1671 seq.; Joh. le Mercier (Mercerus): Comment. in Job, Proverb, Eccles., Cantic., 1573, fol.;-Jo. Drusius : Scholia in l. Job, Amst. 1636;—Jo, Piscator: Commentar. in univ. Biblia, 4 Voll. f., Herborn, 1643 seq.;-Hugo Grotius: Annotationes in V. T., Par. 1644, fol.;Jo. Cocceius : Camment. in l. Job, in Opp. Vol. I., Amst. 1675;—Jo. Clericus (Le Clerc] : Comm. in Hagiographos V. T. libros, Amst. 1731, fol.;-Alb. Schultens: Animadversiones philologicæ in Job, etc., Traj. ad Rhen. 1708 (also in Opp. min. Ludg. Bat. 1769); by the same author: Liber Jobi c. nova vers. et comm. perpetuo, Lugd. Bat. 1737, 2 Voll. 4to (comp. the abridgment of it-A. Schultens' Comm. in Job in compend. redeg., etc., G. J. L. Vogel, T. I., II., Hal. 1773, '74);-Dav. Renat. Bouillier: Observationes miscellanece in libr, Job, quibus versionibus et interpretibus passim epicrisis instituitur, etc., Amst. 1758.

B. Catholic Commentator8.—Joh. Maldonatus, S. J. († 1583): Commentarii in præcipuos S. Scripturæ libros Vet. Testamenti, Paris, 1643 fol.;-Casp. Sanctius, S. J. († 1626): In l. Job Commentarii c. paraphr. Lugd. Bat. 1625, fol.;-Joach. de Pineda (S. J., † 1637): Commentariorum in l. Job libri XIII., 2 Voll., Madr. 1597, 1601, f.;—Balthas. Corderius, S.J. († 1650): Jobus elucidatus, Antverp. 1646, '56, f.;--Antonio de Escobar, S. J. († 1669): Commentarius in Biblia, Tom. IV.;—Bolducius (Bolduc. Capuchin); Commentar in Job., 2 Voll., Paris, 1631, 1638;—Fr. Vavassor, S. J. († 1681): Jobus commentario et metaphrasi illustratus, Paris, 1679; Augustin Calmet: Commentaire littéral sur tous les livres de l'ancien et nouveau Testament, Paris, 1707 sqq., 22 Voll., 4to. (Lat. Ed. by Dom. Mansi, Lucca, 1730 seq.).

J. J. Baurischen Uebersetzenhauer: D

III. THE MODERN PERIOD SINCE 1750. 1. The period during which rationalism prevailed (1750—1820).* -Goële: Observationes miscellaneæ in lib. Job, Amstel, 1758;-Joh. Fr. Bardt: Paraphrast Erklärung des B. Hiob., 2 Parts, Leipzig, 1764;–J.J. Baur: Animadversiones ad quædam loca Jobi, Tubing. 1781;-Eckermann: Versuch einer neuen poetischen Uebersetzung des B. Hiob, etc., Lübeck, 1778;-Sander: Das Buch Hiob Erklärt, Leipzig, 1780 ;-Moldenhauer: D. B. Hiob übersetzt und erklärt, 2 Parts, Leipzig, 1780, 1781 ;-J. D. Dathe: Job, Proverb, Salom, Eccl., Cantic. Cant. lat. versi notisque philol. et criticis illustr., Hal. Sax. 1789; -J. Chr. F. Schulz: Scholia in V. Test., (Tom. VI., ed. G. Lor. Bauer), Norimb. 1796;-H. A. Schultens and H. Muntinghe: Das Buch Hiob übersetzt und erklärt. Aus den Holländischen mit Zusätzen und Anmerkungen J. P. Berg's von K. F. Weidenbach, Leipzig, 1797; C. Rosenmüller : Scholia in Vet. Test., Tom. V., Jobus, lat. vert. et perpet. annotat. instr., Lips. 1806; ed. 2, 1824;—† Theod. Dereser in Dom. v. Brentano's Bibelwerk: Die heilige Schrift des Alten Testaments, Frankfurt a. M. 1797 seq. ;-Stuhlmann: Hiob, Hamb. 1804; J. R. Schärer: Das B. Hiob übersetzt und erklärt. 2 Thle. Bern, 1818;—W. Mössler: Das Buch Hiob erklärt, Neustadt, 1823 ;-E.G. A. Bockel : Das B. Hiob, für gebildete Leser bearbeitet, Berl. 1821 ; 2 umgearb. Auflage 1830 ;-L. F. Melsheimer: Das B. Hiob aus dem Hebr. metrisch übersetzt und durch kurze, philologische Anmerk. erläutert, Mannheim, 1823.

2. The period of a more profound perception of the history of redemption and of theological truth (1820—1870).

K. Umbreit: Das Buch Hiob: Uebersetzung und Auslegung, nebst Einleitung über Geist, Form, und Verfasser des Buchs. Heidelb. 1824, 2d ed., 1832;—F. B. Köster: Das Buch Hiob und der Prediger Salomonis nach ihrer strophischen Anordnung übersetzt, Schleswig, 1831;H. Ewald: Die poetischen Bücher des Alten Bundes, 3 Theil. 1836 ; 2d Ed. (Die Dichter des Alten Bundes) 1854;-L. Hirzel: Hiob in the Kurzgefasstes exeget. Hanb. zum Alten Test.,

* Tho works indicated by a t proceed from Catholic, those by a * from Jewish, all the rest from evangelical com


1839; 2d Ed. by Just. Olshausen, 1852;-J. G. Stickel: Das Buch Hiob rhythmisch gegliedert und übersetzt, mit exeget. und krit. Bemerkungen, Leipzig, 1842 ;-J. G. Vaihinger: Das Buch Hiob, der Urschrift gemäss metrisch übersetzt und erläutert, Stuttgart, 1842; 2d Ed. 1856 ;-A. Heiligstedt: Commentarius gramm. hist. crit. in Job (as Vol. IV., Part I. of Maurer's Comment.) Leipzig, 1847 ;—ť B. Welte: Das Buch Hiob übersetzt und erklärt, Frieib. i. Breisg., 1849; H. A. Hahn; Kommentar über das Buch Hiob, Berlin, 1850 ;-Ed. Isid. Magnus ; Philolog.-historischer Kommentar zum Buch Hiob, 2 Parts, Halle, 1850;-Konst. Schlottmann : D. B. Hiob verdeutscht und erläutert, Berlin, 1851;—A. Ebrard : Das Buch Hiob als poetisches Kunstwerk (in fünffüssigen jamben) übersetzt und erläutert, Landau, 1858;- Franz Delitzsch: Bibl. Kommentar über die poetische Bücher des Alten Testaments, 2d Vol. Das Buch Hiob; mit Beiträgen von Prof. Fleischer und Konsul Wetzstein, Leipzig, 1864; [translated into English by Rev. F. Bolton, B. A., and published in Clark's Foreign Theol. Library, 2 Vols., Edinb., 1869] ;-Ad. Kamphausen, in Bunsen's Bibelwerk, Div. I. Vol. III., Part 3, 1865 ;-Fr. Bött. cher: Neue exeget. kritische Aehrenlese zum Alten Testament, edited by Mühlau, Vol. III., 1865 (comp. the Exeget.-krit. Aehrenlese, 1849);—G. H. G. Jahr: Die poet, werke der alten Hebräer in neuberichtigter metrischer Uebersetzung. Ein literarisches Lesebuch für Gebildete, Vol. II., Part I: Das Buch Hiob, etc., Neuwied, 1865;—A. Dillmann: Hiob, for the 3d Ed. of the Kurzgef. exeget. Handb. zum Alten Test. nach Hirzel und Olshausen neu bearbeitet, Leipzig, 1869 ;-E. W. Hengstenberg: Das Buch Hiob erläutert (Opus posthumum), Berlin, 187071. (Adalbert Merx: Das Gedicht von Hiob: Hebräischer Text, kritisch bearbeitet und übersetzt, nebst sach licher und kritischer Einleitung, Jena. 1871).

English commentaries : Sam. Lee: The book of the Patriarch Job, London, 1837 ; C. P. Carey: The book of Job translated, explained, and illustrated, London, 1858;—A Barnes : Notes, critical, illustrative, and practical, on the book of Job, 2 Vols., New York, 1852;—A. B. Davidson: A Commentary, grammatical and exegetical, on the book of Job, Lond. and Edinb., 1862; (R. Humfry; The conflict of Job; a paraphrase, etc., 1607; Geo. Abbott: Exposition of the Book of Job, London, 1640;-Joseph Caryl: Exposition, with practical observations on the Book of Job, London, 1648-66;— E. Leigh : Annotations on Job, London, 1657 ;-J. F. Sennault: A paraphrase on the book of Job, London, 1648; James Durham: Exposition of the book of Job, 1659 ;-Geo. Hutcheson : An exposition upon Job, being the sum of 316 lectures, Lond., 1669;—R. Blackmore: A paraphrase on the book of Job, London, 1700;-Z. Isham : Divine Philosophy; containing the books of Job, Proverbs and Wisdom, with explanatory notes, London, 1706;—T. Fenton : Annotations on the book of Job, and the Psalms, London, 1732;S. Wesley : Dissertationes in librum Jobi, London, 1736 ;—R. Grey: Liber Jobi in versiculos metrice divisus, cum vers. Lat. A. Schult., etc., London, 1742;-L. Chappelow: A commentary on the Book of Job, in which is inserted the Heb. text and English translation, with a Paraphrase, etc., Cambridge, 1752 ;-T. Heath : An essay towards a new English version of the Book of Job, from the original Hebrew, with a commentary, ete.; Thomas Scott: The Book of.Job in English verse, translated from the original Hebrew, with remarks, historical, critical and explanatory, London, 1771;—C. Garden : An improved version attempted of the Book of Job, with a preliminary dissertation and notes, critical and explanatory, London, 1796 ;–Stock (Bp.): The Book of Job metrically arranged according to the Masora, and newly translated into English ; with notes, critical and explanatory, Bath, 1805;—Elizabeth Smith: The Book of Job, translated from the Hebrew, with a preface and annotations, by F. Randolph, D. D., London, 1870;–J. M. Good: The Book of Job, literally translated, etc., with notes critical and illystrative, and an introductory dissertation, London, 1812;—John Fry: A new translation and exposition of the very ancient Book of Job, with notes explanatory and philological, London, 1827 ;-G. R. Noyes: A new translation of the Book of Job, with an Introduction and Notes, etc., Cambridge, 1827, 2d Ed., Boston, 1838;—T. Wemyss : Job, and his Times, or a picture of the patriarchal age, etc., and a New Version, accompanied with Notes and Dissertations, London, 1839;—A. Tattam: Book of Job the Just in Coptic, with an English translation, 1846;—A. Jenour: Translation of the Book of Job, Lond., 1841 ;–T. J. Conant: The Book of Job, the common Eng. Vers., the Heb. text, and the revised version of the Amer. Bib. Union, with an Introduction and philological Notes, New York, 1857 ;-Chr. Wordsworth: The Book of Job, with Notes and Introduction, London, 1867, being Vol. IV. of The Holy Bible, with notes, etc.; J. M. Rodwell: The Book of Job translated from the Hebrew, London, 1864;—H. H. Bernard: The Book of Job, edited by F. Chance, Vol. I., London, 1864;—* A. Elzas: The Book of Job, translated, etc., with an Introd, and Notes, etc., London, 1872 ;—also the commy. of Canon Cook in the Bible (or Speaker's Commentary), New York, 1874).

French Commentaries: Ernest Renan : Le livre de Job, traduit de l' Hébreu, avec une Etude, etc., Paris, 1859.*

Jewish Commentaries : * Arnheim: Das Buch Hiob, 1836;—* J. Wolfsohn, Das Buch Hiob, 1843 ;-* Mor. Lowenthal: Hiob, Praktische Philosophie oder Darstellung der im Buch Hiob obwaltenden Ideen, nebst Uebersetzung und Kommentar, Frankfurt a. M. 1846 ;-Isr. Schwarz: Tikwath Enosh-see above I., B.

Expositions for practical edification : The Bibelwerke of Starcke, Joachim Lange, of Berleburg, of Fischer and Wohlfarth, 0. v. Gerlach, Dächsel, [to which add here the English general commentaries of Patrick, Scott, Henry, Gill, Clarke, etc.), the Calwer Handbuch for the exposition of the Bible; the translations (with brief expository notes) of Böckel (see above), Gerh. Lange (1831), Justi (1840), Haupt (1847), Hosse (1849), Spiess (1852), Hayd (1859), Berkholz (1859), Jahr (see above), and others. Also J. Diedrich: Das Buch Job kurz erklärt für heilsbegierige aufmerksame Bibelleser, 1858;–F. W. S. Schwarz: Das B. Hiob, ein Kreuz-und Trost-Buch, Bremen, 1868,-Herm. Victor Andrea: Hiob. Klassisches Gedicht der Hebräer. Aus dem Grundtext nen übersetzt uud mit Anmerkungen zum tieferen Verständniss versehen, Barmen, 1870. Comp. also the Essay of A. F. C. Vilmar (in his Pastoral.-theolog. Blättern, 1866, Vol. XI., p. 57 seq.): Wie soll das Buch Hiob praktisch-erbaulich behandelt werden? (To the general English commentaries mentioned above may be added here, for practical uses, the particular commentaries of Caryl (of which besides the larger work, which is rare, there is an abridgement published in Edinb., 1836), Barnes and Wordsworth, mentioned above. Also the following:- Francis Quarles : Job militant, with meditations, divine and moral, 1624;—A. B. Evans: Lectures on the Book of Job, London, 1856 ;W. H. Green: The Book of Job, New York, 1874).

MONOGRAPAS. a. Introductory and Critical.-Fr. Spanheim: Historia Jobi, sive de obscur. hist. commentat., Lugd. Bat. 1672 ;-C. Zeyss: Exegetische Einleitung in Hiob, edited by J. Rambach, Züllich, 1831 ;-Garnett: A dissertation on the Book of Job, etc., ed. 2, 1751;- Stuss: De Epopeia Jobæa commentt. III., Goth. 1753 ;-Lichtenstein: Num lib. Job cum Odyssea Homeri comparari possit? Helmst. 1773;—D. Ilgen: Jobi antiquissimi carminis Hebr. natura el virtus, Lips. 1789;–J. Bellermann: Ueber den kunstvollen Plan im Buch Hiob, 1813;Bernstein: Ueber das Alter, den Inhalt, den Zweck und die gegenwärtige Beschaffenheit des B. Hiob, in Keil and Tzschirner's Analekten, etc., I. 3, 1813 ;–J. F. Krause: Lectionum versionis Alexandrinæ Jobi nondum satis examinaturam specimen, Regiomont. 1811;-Krehl: Observationes ad interpretes Græcos et Latinos vet. libr. Job, I., Lips. 1834;—M. Sachs; Zur Charakteristik und Erläuterung des Buches Job, in Theol. Sludd. und Kritt., 1834, IV.;-A. Knobel: De carminis Jobi argumento, fine, ac dispositione, 1835;_*Dav. Friedländer: Ueber die Idee des B. Hiob, und die Zeit der Abfussung desselben, 1845;—W. Gleiss: Beiträge zur Kritik des Buches Hiob, 1845;—H. Hupfeld: Commentatio in quosdam Jobeidos locos, 1853 (also in the Deut. Zeitschrift fur christl. Wissensch., etc., 1850, No. 35 seq.);-Hengstenberg: Das Buch Hiob, ein Vortrag., 1856 ;-G. Baur: Das Buch Hiob und Dante's göttl. K'omödie, eine Parallele in Studd. und Kritt. 1856, III. ;-Schneider: Neueste Studien über das B. Hiob, in the Deutsche Zeitschr. f. christl. Wissensch., etc., 1859, No. 27 seq.;-Fries: Ueber den grundlegenden Theil des Buches Hiob, in the Jahrbucher fur deutsche Theol., 1859, IV.;Räbiger: De libri Jobi sententia primari, Vratisl. 1860;—Simson: Zur Kritik das B. Hiob, 1861;-Seinecke: Der Grundgedanke des Buches Hiob, 1863 ;-Herm. Schulz: Zu den kirchlichen Fragen der Gegenwart, No. 3: Das Buch Hiob in seiner Bedeutung fur unsre Zeit,

* comp. the sharp criticism of this work by the Abbe Crelier: Le livre de Job vengé des interpretationes fausses et impies de M. Ernest Renun, Paris, 1860.

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