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Ver. 11. Does the rush grow up without the hope of the ungodly perisheth: comp. mire [or, except in the marsh] ?-?), ac- Prov. 1. 29. 7ņ as in ch. xiii. 16; xv. 31; xx. cording to the Hebr. etymology from x32, to 5, and often. [In all these passages, and whereswallow, absorb, fistula bibere (comp. ch. xxxix. ever the word occurs, the Eng. Ver. renders 24; Gen. xxiv. 17), but also at the same time 77ņ “hypocrite,” which is altogether incorrect, an Egyptian word_(Copt. kam, cham, reed), the idea of dissimulation not belonging to the denotes here, as in Ex. ii. 3; Is. xviii. 2; xxxv. word at all. This rendering is the more strange, 7, the Egyptian papyrus reed, which grows. in seeing that the cognate verb is always correctly the marshes of the Nile, but which, according rendered to be polluted, profane, corrupt, etc. to Theophrast, grows also in Palestine, the -E.] Dillmann correctly calls attention to the papyrus-shrub (Cyperus papyrus L.). The men- fact that the figure of the reeds and grass of the tion of this Egyptian product does not constitute marshes perishing by the sudden drying up of a conclusive argument for the composition of the water is intended to illustrate, not the judgthe poem in Egypt, or by a poet of Egyptian ment which will visit those who have always origin, and all the less that Bildad is here only been ungodly, but only those who were at one quoting the words of another and an older sage. time righteous, and iherefore prosperous, but Comp. Introd. & 7, c. [“ Bildad likens the de- who afterwards fall away from God. In so far ceitful ground on which the prosperity of the the description conveys a somewhat different godless stands to the dry ground on which, only thought from that in ch. v. 3. for a time, the papyrus or reed finds water, and
Third and Fourth Strophes : vers. 14–19. A grows up rapidly; shooting up quickly, it with- further description of the judgment of God upon ers as quickly; as the papyrus plant, if it has the wicked, founded on the proverbial wisdom no perpetual water, though the finest of grasses, of the ancients. withers off when most luxuriantly green, before
Ver. 14. He whose confidence is cut it attains maturity.” DELITZSCH; see also Smith's Bib. Dic., Art.“ Reed"]. Does the reed- asunder.- Un as in ch. v. 5, an independent grass thrive without water? nx reads in rel. pron., connecting the verse.with what goes
before; not a causal particle: quippe, quoniam the Egyptian Greek of the LXX. (Is. xix. 7), and of the Book of Sirach (ch. xl. 16) axı, and, (Del.). Bip is hardly a substantive, either of as Jerome learned from the Egyptians, signifies the signification gourd” (Reiske, Hahn) or in their language omne quod in palude virens nas
“ gossamer (Saadia, in Ewald-Dukes, Beiträge citur, hence tbe grass of the Nile-marshes, seed-zur Gesch. der ält. Auslegung, I., 89). [Fürst grass, Nile-grass (Copt. ake, oke=calamus, jun- and Hengstenberg prefer regarding it as a noun,
meaning " that which is to be rejected.”] Both cus). Instead of x'ha of the first member, we
as to the form and substance of the word, the have here a, in the sense of " without;" for only justifiable construction of it is as a Kal Imthe former comp. ch. xxx. 28; for the latter ch. perf., deriving it either from wip=rp, fastidire xxiv. 10; xxxi. 39; xxxiii. 9, etc. [99 is pro- or with the Pesh., Chald., Kimchi, Rosenm.,
(Vulg. and many of the ancients, also Schultens), perly constr. st. of noun, failure, lack.] Of the Gesen., and most of the moderns, from a verb
(), “ to cut off” (he, whose hope is signifies a “shooting up on high," an expression cut off, cujus spes succiditur); or, which suitable to the size of the papyrus, which grows still more correct, from wip, not elsewhere to be to the height of ten feet; XXL! (another form met with, and meaning “to cut, to be brittle, to of nu?, ver. 7; comp. Gesen. & 75, Rem. 21 break asunder," and so treating it as an intran[& 74, Rem. 22]), in the second member, a luxu- sitive verb, rather than as Kal Imperf. with a riant out-spreading growth, an expression suita- passive signification (comp. Ewald, & 138, 4]. ble to the nature of the marsh-grass.
And his trust is a spider's house : i. e. That Ver. 12. While yet (it is) in its greenness in which he trusts (pripor, sensu obj., of the (Cant. vi. 11) is not cut down: lit. “is not object of the trust), proves itself to be as perishto be mowed down, not to be cut down,” a cir- able as a spider's web, which the slightest touch, cumstantial clause [“a proper Imperf., in a or a mere puff of wind can destroy. For this state of not cut, un-cut.” Dav.] comp. Ewald, figure comp. Is. lix. 5, also the Koran, Sur. & 341,6.-Then, sooner than all grass must xxix. 40, and the Arabic proverb quoted by it dry up: because, namely, the condition of Schultens, Umbreit, etc. : - Time destroys the its existence, water, is all at once withdrawn, so wall of the skillfully built castle, even as the that now it decays and withers sooner than house of the spider is destroyed.” common grass. As parallels in thought, comp.
Ver. 15. More specific expansion of ver. 14 b. ch. v. 3; Matth. vi. 30.
He leaneth on his house-as the object of Ver. 13. So are the ways of all who for- bis confidence, like the man spoken of in Schilget God.-A closing application of the compa-ler's Bell : “ Fest wie der Erde Grund,” etc. rison precisely similar to that in Prov. i. 19, Comp. on Dan. iv. 26. (But it stands not; where also the expression “ways” is used of be bolds fast to it, but it endures not. what happens to men, their fate (comp. also Ps. There is a certain gradation of thought in the i. 6; Job xxiii. 10; Wisd. v. 7, and often).
The ungodly first leans, stays himself
on his house, but it gives way beneath him; as a synonym of D'yon, the un- finding this to be the case, feeling his trust godly, comp. e. g. Ps. ix. 18 (17); 1. 22. And giving way beneath him, he strengthens his
,(קצץ-=) קטט| in the first member יִגְאֶה ,two synonymous verbs
שֹׁכְחֵי אֵל For
hold on it (P"?'), grasps it with all his might, is next compared to a shrub sprouting with as a sinking man seizes violently on anything fresh leaves, and shooting forth its luxuriant within his reach ; but in vain! He and his branches, mantling over the wall of the garden; hope all tumble to ruin together.-E.]
and lastly he is likened to something still more Ver. 16 sq. After thus dwelling briefly (vers. robust, to a tree striking its roots downwards 14, 15) on the comparison of a falling house, into a cairn of stones, and looking down with the description now returns to the previous proud confidence on its house of rock, and seemfigure derived from the vegetable kingdom. ing to defy the storm " We scarcely seem jusFor the marsh-reed, however, there is substi- tified, however, in assuming a different plani or tuted the climbing plant, with its high and luxu-tree to be intended in ver. 17 from that described riant growth; and the comparison is so pre-in ver. 16.—Conant thinks that “the explanasented that between the figure and the thing tion long ago given by Olympiodorus is the true figured there is no sharp line of distinction one; viz. that the wicked is here likened to a observed, but each blends with the other. plant springing up in a stony soil, and perisbing
Ver. 16. Green is he (the quņ of ver. 13, for lack of depth of earth:” to which Davidson who is here conceived of as a climbing plant) the growth of this kind of plants, and ver. 17 is
justly replies that “the stones assist, not impede in the sunshine: in the same beat which still occupied with the detail of the luxuriance
other plants to wither.–And his sprouts run over his garden (1922" [his view of Zöckler, Schlottm., Hengst., etc., as on
of the plant.”_We are thus led back to the suckers”] as in ch. xiv. 7; xv. 30): i. e. the the whole the simplest and best; that both whole garden in which he, this luxuriantly verses describe the same plant, ver. 16 as overgrowing, creeping plant, is placed, is filled and running the garden with its creepers, ver. 17 as over-run with his root-sprouts which cling to clinging stoutly to its house of stone.-E.] all about them.
Ver. 18. If He destroys it from its place. Ver. 17. His roots entwine themselves (lit. are entwined) over heaps of stone; he — The subj
. in 13:22(comp. the same verb in looks upon a house of stone: in the sense, ch. ii. 3) is either to be left indefinite: “if one that is, that having grown up on it, he eagerly destroys bim from his place [as if he is declings to it, as to a firm support. ["On niny stroyed],” Umbreit, etc.; or, which is better Cocceius remarks: non timet locum lapidosum, sed suited to the poet's whole style and mode of imperterritus videt. He gazes on it boldly and thought, God is to be understood as the subject. confidently, with the purpose of making his On the contrary, in the second member: It home in it.” HengSt.] By this is naturally to shall deny him: I have never seen thee), be understood a real stone house, its walls being the subject to be supplied with the verb is un. of this material (comp. Gen. xlix. 22, according to the correct explanation of modern commen
questionably: “his place" (191p?). It is a tators), not anything figurative: e. g. the solid highly poetical conception which is here prestructure of his fortune, as Delitzsch explains it. sented: the native ground, or the place of Several modern commentators (Böttcher, Ewald, growth of an uprooted tree, i. e. of a transgressor Stickel, Fürst, Dillmann) take 12-12 (as in cast down from the height of his prosperity, Prov. viii . 2), hence in the sense of “between, and refusing to know anything more of him.
being, as it were, ashamed of him, denying him in the midst of," and min, according to its primary signification, in the sense of: “to pierce
Ver. 19. Behold this is the joy [ironically through, to split between;" hence: “to pierce said] of his way: i. e. so does it end, his prethrough between the stones,” viz. with its roots. tended joyful way of living (comp. on ver. 13): Possible, but perhaps too artificial. [The LXX. so sudden, calamitous is the end of his course. translate: év ulow xahikwv Shoetat, taking n'a in And out of the dust shall others sprout the sense of 1'3, and evidently reading or sub- up. — “Others” (and collect., comp. Ewald, stituting 17'N' for in'. Gesenius regards Jin 1 & 319, a), i. e. other men blessed with external here as a bold metaphor, seeing the stones, for prosperity, whose happiness will either prove feeling them with the roots. Noyes and Renan more enduring, or, in case they too fall away regard the expression as describing the depth from God, will as surely crumble away as his. at which the plant takes root. The latter's ren- Third Division and Fifth Strophe : Application dering is : "His roots are intertwined at the of the wisdom of the ancients, as just cited, to rock; he touches the region of the granite.” the case of Job: vers. 20-22. [The picture just Wordsworth's comment is interesting : “ He sur- given suggested a solemn warning to Job to veyeth a house of stones ; he is like a tree which beware of incurring such a fate. Bildad, howseems firmly rooted in a heap of stones, and ever, instead of giving to the application this looks down, as it were, with a domineering minatory turn, vses a milder and more conciliaaspect, and a proud consciousness of strength tory tone, encouraging Job to repentance, by on a house of stone, in which he appears to be promises of the divine
favor.-E.) firmly built, as in a marble palace; and yet he Ver. 20. Behold, God despiseth nct the will soon be withered and rooted up, and vanish pious man, and grasps not the hand of from the face of the earth.–Observe the order evil-doers: i. e. in order to help and support of the comparison. The sinner had been first them; comp Is. xli. 13; xlii. 6; Ps. lxxiji. 23; likened to a plant of papyrus or reed-grass, with as also the figurative expansion of this truth just its tall green stem and flowery tuft flourishing given ver. 12 sq. in the watery slime, but suddenly withered, Ver. 21. [Expanding, with personal applicawhen the soil in which it is set is dried up: he tion, the thought of ver. 20 2].-While to will fill thy mouth with laughter, and revelation brought to him mysteriously by night, thy lips with rejoicing.-Delitzsch (refer- while Bildad seeks to accomplish the same result ring to ch. i. 18; Ps. cxli. 10) rightly interprets by introducing the ancient teachers of wisdom 7 at the beginning of this verse in the sense as speaking, in place of himself (comp. ver. 8 seq. of "while," and takes the whole verse as the with chap. iv. 12 seq.). In this citation from the protasis of which ver. 22 is the apodosis. traditional Chokmah he gives a free reproduction Others take in the less suitable sense of of the same, in like manner as Eliphaz in his
account of the vision had furnished an ideal, po“yes even (Umbreit), or amend to 1; "yet," etic picture. ["It was a hard stroke on Job to comparing the passage with Ps. xlii. 6 (Cocceius, Houbigant, Böttcher, Ewald, Stickel, Dillmann).
see not only his friends of the present, but all For the expression : "to fill any one's mouth good and wise men of the past, marshalled with laughter,” comp. Ps. cxxvi. 2; for the text his force of conscience to resist and drive from
against him; and tremendous must have been aby, instead of xboy (the case being accord- the field such outnumbering odds.” Davidson. ingly the reverse of that in ver. 11, b), comp.
“It is a very important point which Bildad here Gesenius, & 75 (% 74], 21, b.
makes. There is no gurer way of falling into Ver. 22. [Expansion of 206, with personal
error than for one individual or one age wilfully application to Job's enemies.]—They that and proudly to cut loose from its connection with hate thee shall be clothed in shame : the the whole, and to resolve to be wise indepensame comparison in Ps. xxxv. 26; cix. 29; dently and alone. That is historical rationalcxxxii, 18. Observe how persuasive and con- ism, of which that which is commonly called raciliatory is this conclusion of Bildad's discourse, tionalism is but one species. The witness of in that he wishes for the "haters” of Job tradition indeed is to be received cum grano sathe worst fate, the portion of the ungodly; thus lis—and at this point the friends are at fault. unmistakably separating himself and his friends Something more is required than a correct unfron that class, and placing himself decidedly derstanding; the truth transmitted by historio on the side of Job.-And the tent of the tradition always bas aspects which have not yet wicked-it is no more. For the use of the been completely developed ; it is not enough to term “tent” as a concrete expression for the bring forward the whole—we must also, when totality of well-being, comp. v. 24. Altogether new problems present themselves, be prepared too artificial is the explanation of Dillmann and to build up the New on the basis of the old. others, denying the identity of the wicked" That was the point where Elihu had the advanwith the "haterg" in the first member, thus tage over the friends.” HENGSTENBERG.) It rendering the 1 at the beginning of this member
seems accordingly as though the poet had puradversatively: "but the tent of the wicked is no posed to put Bildad forward as simply an imitamore," as though Ps. i. 6 were a parallel pas
tor of Eliphaz, destitute of independence, and to sage, and the whole discourse of Bildad, not present his continuation of the discussion of the withstanding the milder tone assumed in the latter as a weaker reproduction of the same, his last strophe, should still close with a warning object being thus to cast into the shade and to or a threat. That this is in truth the case, only subordinate the spiritual significance of the indirectly (i. e. in so far as the whole of ver. 22 friends and their position as compared with that dwells on the miserable lot of the wicked, with of Job. out recurring to the description of Job's
2. At the same time, however, this discourse
prosperity, and closing with that), see in the Doc- is not wanting in new thoughts, which show trinal and Ethical Remarks, No. 3.
that it aims to attack Job from another side than that chosen by his former critic. Eliphaz had
argued against Job from the doctrine, derived DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL.
from experience, of the absolute universality of The similarity of this first discourse of Bildad to human sinfulness. Bildad strenuously maintains that of Eliphaz is so marked that it can almost against him the inexorable justice of God, who does be termed an abbreviated repetition, differing not let the sinner go unpunished, nor the rightconsiderably in the application of several parti- eous unrewarded. His fundamental thought is culars, of that with which Eliphaz had already presented in ver. 3: “Will God pervert the charged Job. The same censorious introduction right, or the Almighty pervert justice ?” or, as and the same mitigating and conciliatory close! it is somewhat differently conceived, and with a And in the body of the discourse the same ex- particular application to Job's case in ver. 20: hortation to betake himself to God in penitence“ Behold, God does not spurn the godly, nor and in prayer for help, with the accompanying take fast hold of (lend support to) the hand of promise of salvation (comp. ver. 5 seq. with chap. evil-doers.” The entire discourse is devoted to 5.8 seq.); the same figurative vesture frequently the discussion of this proposition, that the imfor one and the same truth, as, in particular, the mutability of God's justice (His justitia judicialis, description, twice occurring (ver. 12 and ver. tam remuneratoria quam punitiva) is demonstrated 18), of the sudden withering and perishing of a alike in its treatment of the evil and of the god. plant of luxuriant growth, an unmistakable copy ly. Every part of the discourse aims to establish of the description first given by Eliphaz in chap. this—the admonitory reference to the punishv. 3 seq. Another noteworthy point of similarity ment inflicted on Job's children (ver. 4), the exbetween the two discourses is that Eliphaz, in hortation to him to beseech God for help and reorder more vividly to set forth and more forcibly conciliation (ver. 5 seq.), the striking illustrations to emphasize the central thought which he incul- given of the perishableness of the prosperity of cates, presents the same in the form of a divine | him who forgets God (ver. 11 seq.), and the concluding promise of happiness to him, if (as Bil-, conditioned and ruled by God's holiness, or holy dad hopefully assumes he will do) he will repent love). It is by this error that all that is harsh and return to God (ver. 21 seq.). Like Eliphaz, and one-sided in his discourse is to be explained. or indeed in still higher measure than he, Bildad He knows nothing of a God disciplining and seems, in all that he says on these points, to es- proving men in love, as a father his chil. tablish himself entirely on the truth. There dren. All human suffering he regards as simply seems to be scarcely any thing in his words un- and solely an infliction of God's retributive jusscriptural, partial, or at all censurable. On the tice, which begins to punish when man turns objective side, that which relates to the right away from God, and abates the suffering only eousness of God's treatment, his words seem as when he returns to him again. “If Bildad bad little liable to the charge of a one-sided narrow- represented Job's suffering as a chastisement of ness, as on the subjective side, or that which divine love, which was to humble him in order sums up the case for Job, they are liable to the more to exalt him, Job would then have been that of inconsiderateness or unloving harsh- constrained to humble himself, although Bildad
might not have been altogether in the rigbt. 3. That this, however, is only on the surface But Bildad, still further than Eliphaz from weakis evident from the painful venomous dart which ening the erroneous supposition of a hostile God at the very beginning almost of his discourse he which had taken possession of Job's mind, repreaims at the heart of Job in the harsh judgment sents God's justice, to which he attributes the which he pronounces on his children, in the as- death of his children, instead of His love, as the sertion, hypothetic indeed in form, but direct in hand under which Job is to humble himself. its application, that their sudden death was the Thereby the comfort wbich Job's friend offers to consequence of their sin, the merited punishment him becomes a torture, and his trial is made still of their crime. At the bottom of this assertion greater; for his conscience does not accuse bim there lies unquestionably a one-sidedly harsh, gross of any sins for which he should now have an and external representation of the nature and opera- angry instead of a gracious God.” (Del.) tions of God's retributive justice. He is evidently 4. Notwithstanding these one-sided and erroentangled in the short-sighted doctrine of retri- neous characteristics, the present discourse furbution which prevailed in antiquity, both within nishes to the practical expositors something more the theocracy, and in general in the monotheistic than material for criticism from the stand-point oriental world. He imagines that he is able, by of the New Testament faith and religious conmeans of the common-places formally stated in sciousness. What it says in vindication of the vers. 2 and 20 to solve all the riddles of life. righteous dealings of God, is in itself considered, Hence the self-righteous, Pharisaic condition to and especially in contrast with Job's unseemly which he subjects the saving efficacy of Job's and passionate complaints, well grounded and penitent supplication to God: “if thou (i. e., unassailable. We might just as well find a difprovided thou) art pure and righteous” (ver. 6) ficulty with descriptions of the righteous admi. -back of which we see clearly enough the im- nistration of the world similar to this, such as plied thought : if thou art not righteous, all thy are found in the Psalms (Ps. i. ; Ps. vii.; Ps. praying and beseeching is of no avail! Hence xviii. 21  seq.; Ps. xxxiv. 13  seq.), and still further the malicious indirect attack on find in them nothing but expressions of religious Job which is conveyed by the wise teachings of perversity, and of an unevangelical way of the ancients (ver. 11 seq.) respecting the sudden thinking and acting; and yet such a view of destruction of the man who forgets God! It those expressions, occurring as they do in quite would seem as though by these descriptions of another connection, would be entirely without the sudden withering and perishing of the Nile- foundation. The poetic beauty, moreover, of reed, and of the destruction and uprooting of the the illustrations of the miserable lot of the thriving climbing-plant, Job's fall from the wicked in ver. 11 seq. would lose all value if we height of his former prosperity was pictured. were to apply this one-sided critical standard We can imagine that it is in Bildad's thought to to the discourse, and to consider it only as the exclaim to his friend, like Daniel to king Nebu- expression of a disposition of hypocritical workchadnezzar, “The tree ... it is thou, o king!" righteousness. This the homiletic expositor is (Dan. iv. 17  seq.). Even the practical ap- evidently not bound to do. Besides those oneplication at the close of the discourse, with its sided and harsh features of the discourse, he prediction of prosperity, has imparted to it by may and should give prominence also to that all this a flavor of bitterness to him who is ad- which is eternally true and beautiful in it, as an dressed, especially seeing that the last words of inspired eulogy of the righteous intervention of the speaker dwell on the certain destruction, and the Godhead in the destinies of mankind. And the inevitable punishment, which the wicked in- -a point which in particular is not to be overcur, as though the stern moralizer must perforce looked-he must bear in mind that, as is shown repeatedly relapse out of the tone of promise in- by the wise sayings of the ancients, quoted by to that of censure and menace (comp. on ver. 22). Bildad from a gray antiquity, the knowledge The fundamental error in Bildad's argument lies which experience brings of God's retributive in a rigidly legıl interpretation of the idea of justice as visibly exercised in this world was justice, unmodified by a single softening ray possessed by the pious of our race even in the from an evangelical experience of salvation and earliest times; and still further-that for this of the merciful love of God as Father—a repre- knowledge of God's holy and righteous ordering sentation of the nature of divine justice which is of the world—a knowledge which is deeply imdirectly opposed to the proper sense of p?y: 17277 pressed on the universal consciousness of 'man(terms which denote the divine activity only as kind, and which is kept fresh and vivid by great historical examples, such as the histories of is founded not on God, but only on that which is Noah and his contemporaries, of Abraham and temporal and perishable (Ps. xxxvii. 35 seq.; xlix. Lot, of Joseph, Moses, Korah, Balaam, etc.--the 12; 1 Cor. vii. 31; 1 John ii. 17).-WOHLFARTH: only foundation which can be assumed as under- The prosperity of the ungodly is only apparent : lying all else is a positive original revelation in so teaches the wisdom of the ancients, so preaches the beginning of humanity's history.—And this the Holy Scripture, so testifies experience, so is what determines the value and applicability proves the nature of things. For the happiness of the following selections from practical exe- of sin is neither real, nor satisfactory, nor engetes of the past, which are here given as during. The peace which makes us truly happy
is not dependent on external possessions.-Vict. Homiletic and Practical Remarks on Single Pas- ANDREAE: The wise proverbs of antiquity, to
which Bildad (with affected humility) refers sages.
Job, are intended to teach the latter that as Vers. 3, 4. BRENTIUS: Such as do not under-there are no reeds without a marsh, so also Job's stand the glory of God's Gospel, but are unwisely calamity in strict propriety could proceed only carried away by zeal for the Law, say: the way out of his great wickedness; wherefore Job of the Lord is not just, because He forgets the must not wonder at it; nay, his confidence in wickedness of him who repents, and the good- his good conscience would be a treacherous ness of him who relapses into sin—whereas, according to what is decreed in the Law, evil is support, as he will soon enough find to his cost. to be punished and good rewarded. But they
Ver. 20 seq. BRENTIUS: Although the ungodly hear it said again: I have no pleasure in the may seem to flourish and to be blessed in this death of the wicked, saith the Lord God; return world, they are nevertheless exposed to the ye, and live, and all your sins shall be forgotten. curse, which in its own time is revealed. And -ZELTNER: Nothing is easier or more common
as the ungodly now behold the afflictions of the with the world than by a precipitate judgment godly in this world with the greatest rejoicing to sin against one's neighbor in respect to his of soul, so again in God's judgment day they
will be the laughing-stock of all creatures, and misfortunes, especially when believers are concerned. . . . . Although God visits the iniquity will be confounded before them : Is. lxvi.—Cocof fathers on their children, the calamities which cEIUS (on ver. 20): From hence it is apparent befall pious children are nevertheless no proof and sedge; to the godly as to an herb that is
that it happens to the ungodly as to the papyrus that they or their parents have sinned (John transplanted. The justice of God cannot thereix. 3).
fore be accused, as though it would not reward Ver. 8 seq. CocceIUs: There is no doubt but ench one according to his way of living. For that fathers ought to transmit the revelations although the papyrus and the grass are attached which they have received from God to their to the water, they do nevertheless dry up. And cbildren and to other men; and that, moreover, although a good herb may be dug out, it is through God's blessing, the truth has been pre- nevertheless planted anew elsewhere with a served for a time among some through such tra- great increase of fertility and utility. A meadition; although the conjecture is not improba- sure of happiness for the ungodly does not disble that our fathers (from the time of Moses on) honor God's justice; trusting in their happiness delivered much to writing.–Brentius: Our they are brought to shame and confusion; neilife, as its origin was most recent, so is its end ther is it dishonored by the affliction of the most swift ; so that some one has well said: righteous, which is for their good.—ZELTNER: Man is a bubble, which having suddenly arisen Just as the suffering of the godly is no proof on the face of the water, soon perishes. Seeing that they have been rejected by God, so also the then that our life is most short, prudence in the brilliant prosperity of the ungodly is no proof management of affairs should be learned from that they are in God's favor. Buť God permits those who are older, and from our ancestors ; such things to happen in order to test His peofor the authority of the aged is sacred and vene- ple's patience, faith and hope, and, at the right rable.
time, to save them and make them happy forVers. 11–19. STARKE (according to the Weim. ever. Therefore, my Christian brother, contiBib.): The hope of hypocrites is perishable; for it nue pious, and keep in the right (Ps. xxxvii. 37).