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as possible the affirmations of his friends re- | violent, insolent and stormy nature” (comp. ch. specting this point.

Fourth Strophe : vers. 11, 12. God puts forth xxvi. 12), 17-*.?? may be simply rendered, as this irresistible omnipotence not only in nature, by Luther, Umbreit, and most of the older both in earth and in heaven, but also in that expositors: “insolent,” or “proud helpers” which befalls individual human lives, as Job [and so E. V., Con., Dav., Hengst.]. But apart himself bad experienced.—[" There is great from the colorless, tame signification which thus skill in making Job touch merely the outstand results [to which add the vague generality of ing points, illuminate only with a single ray the the description, weakening the contrast between heaven-reaching heights of the Divine power; | 13 b and 14 a; and the incompleteness of the that in itself is not his immediate theme-it is expression, whether we translate, “proud helpthe crushing effect this power has on feeble ers,” which suggests the query—helpers of man; and to this he hasteny on with sudden what? or "helpers of pride."-E.], the Perf. strides.” Dav. “ After the extended descrip- innp, lit. " have stooped," leads us to conjecture tion (just given) of the Divine omnipotence

a definite historical case (“a case of signal ven(which Ewald wrongly characterizes as “alto-geance on some daring toe, who drew around gether too much of a digression,” wherens it is him many daring helpers, would be more telling entirely pertinent to the subject, and all that in this connection.” Dav.] Moreover 377 in follows proceeds out of it), the short hasty fact appears elsewhere in a more concrete sense glance which in this and the following verse is than that of “violent, presumptuous raging." cast on miserable mortal man, makes an impres; (80 also in ch. xxvi. 12, where see Com.). It sion so much the more pointed.” SCHLOTTMAN.] signifies, to wit, as Is. li. 9; Ps. Ixxxix. 11' [10]

Ver. 11. Lo! [1?? in this and the following show, essentially the same with 1?, hence a verse, vividly descriptive, and also strongly sea-monster (Kūros), and by virtue of this signifiindividualizing himself as the victim of the irre- cation is used as a mythological and symbolical sistible omnipotence just described] He passes designation of Egypt (as well in the two pasby me (and I see Bim not; He sweeps sages just mentioned, às also in Is. xxx. 7 and before me, and I perceive Him not.—The P's. lxxxvii. 4), the same country which elseimperfect verb for present, “ being an exclama; where also is symbolically designated as 1?N tion of felt, though unseen, nearness of God.” Dav.-5° in ch. iv. 15 of "a spirit;” bere fications for 2017 in the present passage.

17. We are thus left to one of two signiof the Infinite Spirit, sweeping past him on His

may, on the one hand, find in the passage a specareer of destruction.-E.] abr, synonymous cini reference to Egypt, and an allusion to some with ny as in ch. iv. 15, forms an assonance

extraordinary event in the history of that counwith the parallel qon of the following verse.

try, whereby its rulers or allies were overVer. 12. [Lo! Be snatches away (scil. whelmed with defeat. In this case, it would be

more natural with Hahn to think of the overHis prey)], who will hold Bim back; or:

throw of Pharaoh and his mighty ones in the “turn Him back” (13790.), viz. from His course: time of Moses (so Jarchi who understands by hence equivalent to: “who will put himself as the “helpers" the guardian angels of the Egyptan obstacle in His way?" (comp. ch. xi. 10; | iads, who came to their assistance, but were xxiii. 13).

restrained by God], than with Olsbausen to 3. Second Division: The oppressive thought think of some unknown event in the history of of God's overwhelming and arbitrary power Ancient Egypt, or even with Böttcher of the incites him, the innocent sufferer, to speak defi- reign of Psammetich. Or, on the other hand, antly against God: vers. 13-35.

setting aside any special reference to Egypt, we First Section : vers. 13-24: A general com- can (with Ewald, Hirzel, Schlottmann, Delitzsch, plaint of the severity and arbitrariness with Dillmann) regard it as an allusion to some which God abuses the exercise of His illimitable legend, current among the nations of the East, omnipotence towards man.

according to which some gigantic sea-monster First Strophe : vers. 13-16. [The mightiest with its helpers was subdued by the Deity cannot withstand Him, how much less I ?] (comp. the Hindu myth of Indra's victory over

Ver. 13. [By some put in strophic connection ine dusky demon Britras). In favor of this with the verses preceding; but ver. 12 appro- interpretation may be urged the parallel paspriately closes the first division, while ver. 13 is sage in ch. xxvi. 12, which certainly contains ihe basis of what follows.

Observe especially no reference to Egypt, as well as the rendering the contrast between the “ helpers of Rahab of the LΧΧ., κήτη τα υπ' ουρανόν, which evidently in 13 b, and “I” in 14 a.-E.]-Eloah ceases points to an old tradition of the correct internot from Bis wrath [Eng. Ver. incorrectly pretation. (“Jerome translates qui portant begins with “if”]: lit. " does not cause it to orbem, probably following a Jewish tradition return,” i. e. does not recall it [“ it is as a storm concerning giants which had been overcome by wind sweeping all before it, or a mounting tide God and sentenced to bear the pillars of the bearing down all resistance and strewing itself earth.” Schlotr. Dillmann argues forcibly, with wrecks." Dav.].--An affirmation the de- that the common application of these three terms, cided one-sidedness of which sufficiently appears from other passages, e g., from Ps.Ixxviii. 38.- , , , The helpers of Rabab stoop under Him.- only by supposing that the first was related in So far as 37. in and of itself denotes only “a signification to the other two names, being used

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like them of a sea-monster. He further remarks: not be intended to express : I could not believe “that the legend was widely known and pos- that he answers me, but: I could not believe sessed great vitality among the people is indi- that He, the answerer, would hearken to me; cated by the fact that poets and prophets used His infinite exaltation would not permit such it is a symbol of the imperial power of Egypt. , exaltation.” Delitzscv.] The whole verse is It is not strange, accordingly, to find such a thus an advance in thought upon the preceding. popular legend used for his purpose by a poet Second Strophe : Vers. 17–20. Continuing the who elsewhere also derives his material on all description of Job's utter hopelessness of victory sides from popular conceptions."] Add that in his controversy with God, clothed in purely it is more natural to seek the basis of this hypothetical statements. legend of Rabab either in obscure reminiscences

Ver. 17. He who would overwhelm me wbich lingered among the ancients touching the gigantic sea-monsters of the primitive world in a tempest, and multiply my wounds (plesiosauri, ichthyosauri, ete.), or in a symbol- with assaults and calamities, even if I were in

without cause ; i. e., who would pursue me ical representation of the billowy swelling of the raging ocean, resembling an infuriated monster, nocent. [nox may be taken either as relative, than to assign to it an astronomical basis, and or as conj. “for," (E. V. Con.) the one meaning to take 377 to be at the same time the name of really blends with the other, as in ver. 15 = a constellation such as Κήτος or Πρίστις (Balena Pistris); for the context by no means points of quippe qui]. With the rendering of 'hty here necessity to such an astronomical application of adopted, “would overwhelm me” (so also l’aih.) the term (the mention of the constellations in we can leave unsolved the question, so difficult ver. 9 being too remote), and moreover in ch. of decision, whether, following the Aram. Nam xxvi. 12 there is nothing of the kind indicated, and the testimony of the Ancient Versions (LXX. as Dillmann correctly observes, against Ewald, inspiyn; Vulg. conteret), we render 778 Hirzel, Delitzsch.

crush, to grind;" or, following the Arab. safa, Ver. 14. How should I answer Elim?I, an impotent, weak, sorely suffering mortal. and the Hebr. 78; we render it " to snatch On '? 8 comp. ch. iv. 19; on 13,to answer, Dillmann, favor the latter rendering; but on the

up, seize,” (inhiare). Hirzel, Ewald, Umbreit, respond,” see above on ver. 3.-Choose out other side Delitzsch successfully demonstrates my words against Him? i. e. weigh my that neither Gen. iii. 15 nor Ps. cxxxix. 11 (the words against Him (Dy as in, ch. . 17; xi. 5; only passages outside of the present in which xvi. 21) with such care and skill [the 7 in 900 appears) necessarily requires the sense of ninas indicating the mental effort involved],

snatching," certainly not that of " sniffing.” that I should always hit on the right expression,

Ver. 18. Would not suffer me to draw and thus escape all censure from Him. Ver. 15. Whom I (even) if I were in the my breath (comp. ch. vii. 19), but would

bitright (???$, sensu Jorensi) ["innocent, judi- surfeit me with bitterness (lit. plur.

ternesses '']. For ' in the sense of “but, racially free from blame”], could not answer, I must make supplication to Bim as my ther,” comp. ch. v. 7; for the form. O'php?, judge, viz. for mercy (janna with as in Esth. with Dagh. dirimens ( which gives the word a

more pathetic expression,” Del.], comp. Ges., $ iv. 8). The Partic. Poel MovP is not essentially 20, 2, 6. different in signification from the Partic. Kal

Ver. 19. If it be a question of the strength 098, although it does differ somewhat from it, of the strong (others (E. V. Conant, Carey, in so far as it denotes lit. an “assailant” or Schlott.) connect res with the following 737; "adversary” (judicial opponent: vov, [Poel, but as the latter is always followed by the prediexpressing aim, endeavor], judicando vel litigando cate, and such an exclamation in the mouth of aliquem petere, comp. Ewald, & 125, a). (“So God (see below), would be less natural than the overpowering is God's might that Job would be simple interjection, the connection given in the brought in litigating with Him to the humilia- text is to be preferred. The accents are not detion of beseeching His very adversary—an idea cisive,-E.]-lo, here (am I): [17917 for 'in, which sufficiently answers Conant's charge, as 178 ch. xv. 23, is for 1X]-i. e., “would He that to render volym assailant has very little say”: He would immediately present Himself, point.” Dav.]

whenever challenged to a trial of strength with Ver. 16. Should I summon Him, and He His human antagonist. Similar is the sense of answered me (if accordingly the case sup- the second member :-Is it a question of right posed to be necessary in 15 6 should actually who will cite me (before the tribunal); viz., happen, and be followed with results favorable " would He say." [Whichever test of strength to the suppliant), I would not believe that should be chosen, whether of physical strength He would listen to me: i. e. I should not be in a trial-at-arms, or of moral strength, in a able to repress the painful and awful thought trial-at-law, what hope for weak and mortal man? that He, the heavenly and all-powerful Judge -E.] The whole verse, consisting of two ellipof the world, would grant me no hearing at all. tical conditional clauses, with two still shorter (“The answer of God when summoned is repre- concluding clauses (also hypothetical), reminds sented in ver. 16 a as an actual result (præt. us in a measure by its structure of Rom. viii. followed by fut. consec.), therefore ver. 16 6 can- 33-34.


Ver. 20. Were I (even) right, my mouth DDP, ch. vi. 14. [E. V., Conant, Dav., Renan, would condemn me: i e., from simple con. Hengst., Carey, Rod., etc., give to no? here its fusion I saould not know how to make the right customary sense of “ trial,” from 103. Jerome answer, sc that my own mouth ('9, with logical accent on suffix, as in ch. xv. 6) would confess remarks that in the whole

book Job says nothing

more bitter than this.] The interpretation of me guilty, though I should still be innocent

Ilirzel and Delitzsch, founded on ch. xxii. 19: (p73, as in ver. 15).-Were I innocent-He

“ His desire and delight are in the suffering of would prove me perverse (30px, with the innocent,” gives a meaning altogether too Chiriq of Hiphil shortened to Sheva: comp. Ges. strong, and not intended by the poet here. 2 53 (% 52] Rem. 4). The subject is “God," not

Ver. 24. [“ In this second illustration there is * my mouth' (Schlottmann) [Wordsworth, Da- an advance in the thought, in so far as here a vidson, Carey]; God would, even in case of my part at least of the wicked are excepted from the innocence, put me down as one upy, one mo- general ruin, nay, appear even as threatening rally corrupt, and to be rejected. • Thus brood- the same to the pious.” Schlott ]-A land [or ing over the thought, true in itself, that the better, because more in harmony with the sweepcreature when opposed to the heavenly Ruler of ing and strong expressions here assigned to Job: the Universe nust always be in the wrong, Job the earth] is given over to [lit., into the forgets the stil higher and more important truth hand of] the wicked, and the face of its that God's right in opposition to the creature is judges He veileth: viz., while that continues, always the true objective right.” Delitzsch. while the land is delivered to the wicked, so that

Third Strophe: Vers. 21-24. Open arraign- they are able to play their wicked game with abment of God as in unrighteous Judge, condemn- solute impunity.-If (it is) not (so) now, who ing alike the inmcent and the guilty.

then does it? 10X (so written also ch. xvii. Ver. 21. I am innocent! In thus repeat- | 15; xix. 6, 23; xxiv. 25, but outside of the book ing the expressia & DP, Job asserts solemnly of Job generally Niox) belongs according to the and peremptorilythat which in ver. 20 6 he had accents to the preceding conditional particles in the same word: stated only conditionally.-I value not my soul: i. e., I give myself no MS-ON (comp. ch. xxiv. 25 and Gen. xxvii. 37); concern about thesecurity of my life, I will give lit., therefore, “now then if not, who does it?" free utterance to hat confession, cost what it [llirz., Con. and apparently Ew.connect ips with may. So rightly Lost commentators, while Delitzsch, against the onnection (see especially the the interrogative following—“who then ? quis 2d member) explaiis: “I know not myself, I quæso (Heiligst): Davidson also takes this view, am a mystery to myself, and therefore have no

although admitting thai “the accentuation is desire to live longe." [Hengstenberg:

** We decidedly the other way,” XIX being used, as might explain : •I should not know my soul,' if he says, ". in impatient questions (Ew., 105, d) I were to confess to transgressions, of which I Gen. xxvii. 33; Job xvii. 15; xix. 23"j. That know myself to be inocent; I should despise the present illustration of a land ill-governed and my life,' seeing I hav nothing with which to delivered into the hands of the wicked had, as reproach myself. Beter however: "I know not Dillmann says, " its justification in the historic my soul,' so low is it sunk, I ain become alto- background of the composition,” cannot be afgether alius a me ipso ;• I must despise my life,' firmed with certainty in our ignorance of the deI am so unspeakably wetched, that I must wish tails of this “ historic background:” though into die''].

deed it is equally true that we can no more Ver. 22. It is all on : thus beyond question

affirm the contrary. must the expression xnnx be rendered; not: 35. Special application of that which is affirmed

4. Second Division.-Second Section : Vers. 25“there is one measure wth which God rewards in the preceding section concerning God's arbithe good and the wicked (Targ., Rosenm., Hirzel); nor: “it is all the same whether man is trary severity to his (Job's) condition. guilty or innocent” (Delizsch):—Therefore I of his days, and the unremitting pressure of his

First Strophe : Vers. 25-28. [The swift flight will say it out: [Dav. 'I will out with it"]. woes, make him despair of a release). He destroys the innocet and the wicked: viz., God, whom Job intentigally avoids naming;

Ver. 25. For my days are swifter than a comp. ch. iii. 20.

runner. ["! introducing a particular case of Vers. 23, 24. Two illustreions confirming the the previous general: in this infinite wrong unterrible accusation just brouht against God (ver. der which earth and the righteous writhe and 22 b) that He destroys alike the innocent and moan, I also suffer.” Dav.—“ Days " bere poetithe guilty. Ver. 23. If (His) scourgeslays suddenly,

cally personificd. 157, Perf., a deduction from viz., men. By viv scourg” is meant here past experience continuing in the present.—E.]. not of course the scourge of ne tongue (ch. v. 17 might, apparently, comparing this with the 21) but a general calamity, sth as pestilence, similar description in ch. vii. 6, denote a part of war, famine, etc. (Isa. xxviii. 5).-Then He the weaver's loom, possibly the threads of the mocks at the despair of thennocent: i. e., woof which are wound round the bobbin, (which He does not allow Himself to belisturbed in His the Coptic language actually calls “runners”). blessed repose when those who ae afflicted with This signification however is by no means fathose calamities faint away fro, despondency vored by the usage elsewhere in Hebrew of the and despair: comp. Ps. ii. 4; lix.l.-102, from word r7: this rather yields the signification


“ gwift runner, courier(quepodpóuos) compare Second Strophe: vers. 29-31. [He must be Jer. li. 31; 2 Sam. xv. 1 ; 2 Kings xi. 13; Esth. guilty, and all his strivings to free himself from iii. 13, 15.—They are fled away, without his guilt are in vain.] having seen good (17710, prosperity, happi

Ver. 29. I am to be guilty: i. e. according ness, as in ch. xxi. 25). Job thinks here natu- to God's arbitrary decree [jx, emphaticI, I rally of the same "good,” which he (according to ch. vii. 7) would willingly enjoy before his am accounted guilty, singled out for this treatend, but which would not come to hiin before which must be, from which there is no escape.

The fut. yenx bere expressing that He has thus entirely forgotten his former prosperity in view of his present state of suffer- -E.) von here not to act as a wicked or a ing, or rather, he does not regard it as prospe- guilty person” (ch. x. 15), but “to be esteemed, rity, seeing that he had to exchange it for such to appear” such, as in ch. x. 7 (conp. the Hiph. severe suffering. Quite otherwise bad he for- #???, to treat any one as guilty, to condemn, inerly expressed himself to his wife, ch. ii. 10. Ver. 26. They have swept past like skiffs myself in vain, viz. to appear irpocent, to be

above in ver. 20).—Wherefore hen weary of reed; lit., “ with [D];] skiffs of reed,” i. e., acquitted by God. This wearying of himself is being comparable with them (ch. xxxvii. 18; given as an actual fact, consisting in humbly xl. 15). 77 nix are most probably canoes supplicating for mercy, as he has been repeatof rushes or reeds, the same therefore as the culy exhorted to do by Eliphaz aid Bildad; ch. Aya 59 (“ vessels of bulrush”) mentioned Isa. v. 8, 17; viii. 5.-537, adverbally, as in ch. xviii. 2, whose great lightness and swiftness are xxi. 34; xxxv. 16; lit. like a breath, evanes. in that passage also made prominent. 70% is cent, here-" fruitlessly, for niught, in vain." accordingly a synonym, which does not 'eise-(That notwithstanding his present mood, he where appear, of x31, reed; for which defini- does subsequently renew his exertions, "imtion analogy may also be produced out of the pelled by an irresistible in wird necessity, is Arabic. It has however no bing to do with 38 psychologically perfectly naural.”—Sculott

MAN.] (so the Vulg., Targ. : naves poma portantes) Vers. 30, 31. If I should wash myself in [": fruit ships hurrying on lest the fruit should snow-water (read with the K’ri instead injure”]; nor with 77x, to desire, ["ships

of with the K’thibh 150-13; bathing immeeagerly desiring to reach the haven”]. (Symm. vñes creídovoai) comp. Gekatilia in Gesenius, diately in undissolved snov is scarcely to be Thes. Suppl., p. 62; nor with 777 X enmity" thought of here) [an unneessary refinement: (Pesh., " ships of hostility,” comp. Luther: the speaks of, snow can be uses, and is scarcely less

for washing the hands, which is what the verse strong ships," by which are meant pirate ships); efficacious for cleansing thin lye. The Kthibh nor with the Abyssin. abâi, the name of the Nile; is to be preferred. - E.], and cleanse my por with a supposed Babylonian name of a river, hands with lye (719 fuly written for 13, 1s. having the same sound, and denoting perhaps i. 25, signifies precisely a in this parallel pasthe Euphrates (so Abulwalid, Rashi, etc., who make the name denote a great river near the

re- sage lye, a vegetable alkóli, not: purity (as E. gion where the scene of our book is laid). The make clean in puriv"], which rendering correct signification was given by Hiller, Hiero- I would give a much tamr signification (besides phyt. II., p. 302, whom most modern critics have followed.-Like the eagle, which darts

destroying the literaliy of the parallelism"]}, down on its prey (comp. ch. xxxix. 29; Prov. then Thou wouldes plunge me into the xxx. 19; Hab. i. 8, etc.).' This third compari- ditch (nno, here a sik, sewer), so that my son adds to that which is swiftest on the earth, clothes would abbr me.-In these latter and that which is swiftest in the water, that words, it is naturally "resupposed that the one which is swiftest in the air, in order to illustrate who has been bathed and thoroughly cleansed the hasty flight of Job's days.

as to the entire body while still naked is again Vers. 27, 28. If I think (lit., if my saying be; plunged into a filthy ditch, and that in consecomp. ch. vii. 13): I will forget my com- quence of this, he beomes a terror to his own plaint (see on the same passage), will leave clothes, which are prsonified, so that they as it off my countenance (i. e. give up my look of were start back andresist, when it is sought to pain, my morose gloomy-looking aspect, comp. put them on him. So correctly most modern 1 Sam. i. 18), and Icok cheerful (206an,

expositors. On th contrary, Ewald and Gesein ch. x. 20; Ps. xxxix. 14 (13) [the three

nius–Rödiger tak the Piel Sin in a causative cohortative futures here are, as Davidson says,

senst: “so that y clothes would cause me to finely expressive-If I say-rousing myself be abhorred,”—arendering in favor of which, from my stupor and prostration– I will

, etc.”]: indeed, Ezek. xv. 25 can be brought forward, then I shudder at all my pains, I know but not the usus oquendi of our book (comp. ch. that Thou wilt not declare me innocent. xix. 19; xxx. P) which knows no causative -These words are addressed to God, not to Bil- sense for ayn. [The thought expressed by the dad. Although Job felt himself to be forsaken two verses is tht "not even the best-grounded and rejected by God, he nevertheless turns to self-justificatia can avail him, for God would Him; he does not speak of Him and about Him, still bring it o pass that bis clearly proved without at the same time prayerfully looking up innocence shald change to the most horrible




impurity.” LLITZSCH.]

to Him.

Third Strophe : vers. 32-35. ["The cause of out fear before Him; for not thus am I Job's inability to make out his innocence—not with myself: i. e. for not thus does it stand his guilt, but the character and conditions of with me in my inward man, I am not conscious bis accuser,” who has no superior to overrule of anything within me of such a character that Him, to mediate between Him and Job. Let I must be afraid before Him. Dy therefore Him lay aside His terrors, and Job would plead points to that which is within, the cousciousuess his cause without fear.)

or conscience, as in ch. x. 13; xv. 9; xxiii. 14, Ver. 32. For [He is not a man like me, that I should answer Him: viz, before a etc. That 1? x's here expresses so much as: tribunal, with a view to the settlement of the “not so small, not so contemptible,” is a concontroversy. Hirzel translates 39 O'N as jecture of Delitzsch’s, which is supported neither though it were accusative to 13PX; for I can- by the connection, nor by Hebrew usage elsenot answer Him as a man who is my equal;' be accompanied by a gesture expressive of the

where. [Delitzsch imagines the expression to but this is altogether too artificial. ["God, is denial of such contempt.” Not dissimilar in not his equal standing on the same level with him. He, the Absolute Being, is accuser and the depths of my heart I am not such as I seem.

this respect is Renan's explanation : ".For in judge in one person ; there is between them no The conscience of Job is tranquil: the cause of arbitrator, ete." Delitzsch.)

his trouble is without himself. It is God, who Ver. 33. There is no arbiter between us by a treacherous maneuvre has arrayed against who might lay his hand on us both: so him His terrors, in order to take away from that accordingly we should both have to betake him the freedom of spirit necessary for his deourselves to him, and accept his decision, main

fense.”'] is one who gives a decision, an arbitrator who 6. Third Division : ch. - plaintive descrip. weighs the pleas put in by both the contending tion of the pitiless severity with which God parties, and pronounces the award. Not inaptly rages against him, although by virtue of His John PYE SMITH, Four Discourses on the Sacri- omniscience He knows his innocence. fice and priesthood of Jesus Christ, 5th Ed. p. Vers. 1-12: Exordium (ver. 1) and First Dou98: “There is between us no arguer, who might ble Strophe (Vers. 2-12): developing the motive fully represent the cause, and state, judge and to this new complaint. arbitrate fairly for each party.” Observe how

Ver. 1. ["* With brief preface of words which emphatically is expressed here, although indeed force themselves from the heart in three convulonly indirectly and negatively, the postulate of sive sobs (1 a b c), like the sparse large drops a true mediator and priestly proprietor between before the storm .. the patriarch opens his God and sinful humanity! ["It is singular cause in the ear of heaven.” Dav.]-My soul how often Job gives utterance to wants and aspirations which under the Christian economy

is weary of my life.—797* equivalent to are supplied and gratified. It was the purpose op?. Ezek. vi. 9, Perf. Niph. of oop, which is of the writer to let us hear these voices crying synonymous with up or 19p, to feel disgust. in the wilderness, forerunning the complete manifestation of the Messiah, and therefore the [Geg

. and Fürst give a root ups, from which Church is well authorized in using this language

Delitzsch also says it may be derived as a of Christ. Job out of his religious entanglement secondary verb formed from the Nipb. 07–a proclaimed the necessity of a mediator to hu- form which is also supported by the Aramnic.] manize God two thousand years before he came.” For the thought comp. ch. vii. 15, 16; ix. 21.Dav.] The optative form [“Would that there Therefore will I give free course to my might be”) which the LXX. and the Pesh. give complaint: 158, lit. with me, in me" (comp. to the verse by changing ro's to +5 (x?), is unne- ch. xxx. 16; Ps. xlii. 6 [5], 12 [11]; Jer. viii. cessary and disturbs the connection with the 18), not "over me.” [The cohortative futures preceding verse (the thought of which is com- are to be noted as expressive of the strength of pleted only in this verse. This rendering is, Job's feeling and purpose.] In regard to the moreover, not suited to the us following. The rest of the verse [I will speak in the bitterjussive form no, does however reflect the yearn. 18 [17]. [Job continues to believe that the

ness of my soul), comp. ch. vii. 11; Ps. lv. ing which breathes through his pathetic declara- boldness of his speech will be punished with tion of the fact that there is no arbiter.-E.). death." RENAN.]

Vers. 34, 35 are related to each other as ante- First Strophe : vers. 2-11. An appeal to God cedent and consequent. The two optatives in not to deal so severely with him, seeing that his ver. 34 are followed by the cohortative 17727X innocence is already well known to Him. without ! as the apodosis (comp. Ewald, & 347, Vers. 2, 3. [“God's dealing with Job was dero6, 357, 6).—Let Him take away from me gatory to the divine characier, and dangerous His rod (with which He smites me, comp. ch. and confounding to the interests of religion,

and the first principles of religious men.”. ziji. 21, equivalent therefore to piw, scourge. Dav.] calamity, comp. ver. 23), and let not His

Ver. 2. I will say to Eloah: condemn terror overawe (or stupefy] me (inps in the comp. ch. ix. 20) me not. objective sense, that which is awful in His ap- addresses this complaint also to God, like that pearance, the terror which proceeds from His in ch. ix. 28. Let me know wherefore majestic presence): then will I speak with. Thou contendest with me (as adversary

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Observe that Job

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