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and judge (2'? with Accus. as in Is. xxvii. 8; 1 precedes, as Welte and Hahn think) as cause to xlix. 25.

effect, or as that which is deepest and most funVer. 3. Doth it please Thee that Thou damental to that which belongs rather to the oppressest, that Thou rejectest the work outward appearance. of Thy hands?-In this question Job touches Ver. 6. That Thou (so zealously) seekest on a first possibility which might be supposed after my guilt, and searchest after my to determine God to treat him as guilty. He sins ? i. e., that Thou doest what short-sighted inquires whether it may perchance "please" men would do, seekest to extort from me the conGod, be agreeable to Him, give Him joy, thus to fession of a guilt which has escaped Thy vision, deal with himself. For 75 21077 in this sense, by the application of inquisitorial tortures, viz., comp. ch. xiii. 9: Deut. 'xxiii. 17 116). The by decreeing that I should suffer. [“. Such a interpretation adopted by Dillmann and others mode of proceeding may be conceived of in a is also possible: "is it becoming for Thee," etc.,

mortal ruler, who, on account of his short-sightfor which comp. Ex. xiv. 12: Judg. ix. 2.-rso edness, seeks to bring about by severe measures besides Dillmann (who argues that this sense is

that which was at first only conjecture, and who, better suited to the remonstrance with God),

from the apprehension that he may not witness · Ewald, Schlottmann, and Davidson, who says:

that vengeance in which he delights, hastens for. “giu decet, not as others juvat. The argument

ward the criminal process as much as possible, is that God's treatment of Job, a righteous man,

in order that his victim may not escape him.

0, God, however, to whom belongs absolute know. with such severity, was unbecoming a righteous God, and that the world expected other things,

ledge and absolute power, would act thus, al

though,” etc. (see next verse). DELITZSCH. And and that such things tended to the consternation

Schlottmann (after Wolfssohn) quotes tbe followof religious men, and the confusion of all fixed

ling from the Sifri on Deut.xxxii. 40: "And I religious principles "). Job here calls himself

say, I live for ever. It is in my power at once “the work of God's hands," not in order to excite sympathy in God, nor in order to touch, as

to recompense the wicked, but I live for ever, it were, the honor of Him who had so elaborately

and hasten not the retribution. A king of flesh

and blood hastens the retribution, for be fears and carefully formed him in his mother's womb (Ps. cxxxix. 15), but principally in order to call

that he or bis enemy may die, but I live for attention to his innocence, in order to indicate

ever.”] that he had essentially persevered in that status

Ver. 7. Although Thou knowest (y here integritatis in which God had created him. [Job equivalent to “notwithstanding, although" seems in this designation of himself to have had ["lit. upon, or over and above, in addition to, in two things in view, closely associated in his spite of], as in chap. xvi. 17; xxxiv. 6; Isa. mind, as ihe connection shows: first, the elabo- liii. 9) that I am not guilty (comp. chap. ix. rate workmanship of his body (conveyed by the 29) and there is no one who delivers out term , lit. the product of toilsome labor), of Thy hand-i. e., that Thou, in any case, which Göd had dishonored by the loathsome mletely in Thy power, and canst do with us wbat

ed hy the loathsome whether we men are guilty or not, hast us com. disease which He had sent upon him; and next pletely in Thy power, & the moral perfection, which he claimed still to Thou wilt: hence Thou actest strangely in seekpossess, but which God had likewise dishonored ing so zealously for reasons why Thou shouldst by treating him as a sinner.-E.] This view is condemn us. favored, not only by vers. 7, 8, but also by the Second Strophe. Vers. 8–12. The severe trentcircumstantial clause which immediately follows ment which God inflicts on Job stands in cruel [shown to be a circumstantial clause by the fact contradiction not only to His omniscience, but that the verses following are the expansion of also to His paternal goodness and love. [" The the preceding part of the verse]: While Thou feeling of contradiction between the Deity's past shinest on the counsel of the wicked; and present rises ever in intensity in Job's i. e. favorest it, and causest it to succeed, comp. breast, and in amazement he sets the two in Ps. xxxi. 17 [16]; Ixvii. 2 [1]; Num. vi. 25. blank opposition to each other before God Him

Ver. 4. Hast Thou eyes of flesh (i. e., eyes self-let Him reconcile Himself with Himself if limited to objects of sense, perceiving only the He may. While there is fearful keenness of dia. surface of things; comp. Isa. xxxi. 3), or seest lectic here, there is also irresistible tenderness Thou as man seeth? i. e., with a vision short- of expostulation. The appeal is from God to sighted and superficial as man's (comp. 1 Sam. God: Thy haods have made me, and Thou dexvi. 7). By this question a second possible rea- stroyest me.” Dav.) fon why God might be supposed to treat Job asi Ver. 8. Thy hands have carefully formed guilty is indicated as being in reality out of the and perfected me. The hinge of connecquestion; or, in other words: an appeal is taken tion with the last strophe is 777, nor can delito His omniscience, to His infallible knowledge of that which lies before Him in men's hearts.

ver from Thy hand-Thy hands have made me." Ver. 5. Are Thy days as the days of a

Dav.]. The thought conveyed by the phrase mortal, or Thy years as the days of a man ?T??

nd

?? is here again resumed from ver. O -A third possibility is here indicated : that God expanded in a description in which there are might be, like men, short-lived ; that in general several points of agreement with Ps. cxxxix. 13He might be, like them, a mortal, a limited, changeable creature. This third and last possi: 16.- 1933 y, lit. “have carved me" (Xy, a Piel ble reason is obviously related to both the pre-intensive, cognate with 237, 28n), i. e., elaboceding (not simply to that which immediately rately formed [“especially' appropriate as de

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scribing the fashioning of the complicated na. | be rather :D) or pz'. [“ The development of ture of man." Del.). The following 100 y bears the embryo was regarded by the Israelitish the same relation to this 23 y as perficere, consum-/ Chokma as one of the greatest mysteries." Ecmare bears to the simple fingere. The clause

cles. xi. 5; 2 Macc. vii. 22 sq. Del.] added in b, 32D in, “altogether round about"

| Ver. 11. With skin and flesh Thou didst (Vulg: me totum in circuitul represents the fash-clothe me, and with bones and sinews ioning and perfecting activity of God as con- Thou didst interweave me.- 210 from cerned with man's entire organism, including all 310, chap. i. 10, synonymous with you in the his limbs and parts. [And yet (1 consec. with strong adversative sense) Thou destroyest

parallel passage, Ps. cxxxix. 13.) [The verse me!-An exclamation of amazement and re

may be regarded as a continuation of the ques

tion in ver. 10. So Con., Dav., etc.) Grotius proach.]

rightly observes that the description here given Ver. 9. Remember now (the particle X) is of the development of the foetus is in general expressive of a yearning plaintiveness bere true to nature, and corresponds to the actual Oh, remember!] that as clay Thou hast per process (hic ordo in genitura est: primum pellicula fected me: to wit, formed me out of the crude fit, deinde in ea caro, duriora paulatim accedunt). earth-material with the same skill and care as With equal correctness most modern expositors the potter a vessel of clay. For the use of this remark that this agreement of the description favorite figure of the Holy Scriptures, especially with the natural processes of conception and deof the Old Testament, comp. ch. xxxiii. 6; Isa. velopment is only of a general sort, and that the xxix. 16; xlv. 9; Jer. xviii. 6; Rom. ix. 20, 21. passage must not be pressed, as is done by That the same figure serves to illustrate not Scheuchzer, Oetinger, etc. sas “including and merely the wise skill and the loving care of the going beyond all systemata generationis"], seeing Creator, but also and above all His arbitrary that this is to attribute to the Holy Scriptures a fullness of power, and His unconditional right in purpose which is foreign to it. His creatures (the jus absolutum Creatoris in Ver. 12. Life and favor “this combination creaturas), is evident from the second member: does not occur elsewhere.” Del.] hast Thou " and wilt Thou turn me again into dust ?” which shown me (lit. “done to me”-1700y, referring at the same time reminds us of Gen. ii. 7 ; iii. at the same time by zeugma to the first object, 19 and of Jer. xviii. [That the Divine Arbitrari- life”), and Thy oversight (Thy provi. ness, which is the conception held by a perverted dence, póvoia) has preserved my breath: has mind of the Divine Sovereignty, enters into Job's done this, to wit, not only during the embryonic train of thought here is plain enough. But that state, but through the whole time from my birth it is the prominent notion may certainly be doubted. This is scarcely consistent with the

to the present. By non are designated at the urgent pathos of the plea: “Oh! remember that

same time both the breath as the outward sign thou hast formed me as the clay !” The central

of life, and the spirit as its inward principle; thought as expressed by the verbs in ver. 8, espe- comp. chap. xvii. 1; Eccles. iii. 19.

Third Division. Second Half (Double Strophe). cially 39%, by the adverbial clause 320 7n, and

Vers. 13-22. Continuation of the complaint, and by the detailed description of vers. 10-11, is that a further advance in the same to the point of of the exquisite elaborate workmanship involved wishing that he had never been born. in his creation, and the wonder that the Divine First Strophe. Vers. 13-17. [God's goodness in Artist should be so regardless of His work as the past simulated, his secret purpose having wantonly to ruin it.-E.]

from the first contemplated the infliction of sufVer. 10. Didst Thou not pour me out as fering on Job, whether guilty or innocent.-E.] milk-viz.: in the act of conception, when my Ver. 13. And (nevertheless) Thou didst body received its development out of a purely li- hide these things in Thy heart. —[ ! strongly quid material.-[The Imperfects in this verse

adversative: yet, notwithstanding all Thy care in and the following have their time determined by

Y my creation, and all Thy apparent kindness in the Perfects of vers. 8, 9. The use of the Im

? the past, Thy hidden purpose all the time conperf. may be explained with Ewald: “because

| templated my destruction. The connection of the wonder is so vividly present to Job's mind;" thi

na; this verse is evidently with what follows, and its or, as Davidson expresses it: “Job again feels the Divine band upon him.”—E.) And curdled|

place is at the beginning of the present strophe. me like cheese ?-to wit, into the formless 1778 and nxi cannot refer to the care and favor mass of the embryo, which in Ps. cxxxix. 16 is bestowed on him in his creation and preservacalled Dsi, but here is compared with 773939, i. e., |

tion, for it could not be said of these that God

had “hidden them in His heart;" they must recheese (lit. curd, the pap-like material of cheese

fer to the present and coming manifestations of not yet hardened, not “ cream” (Schlott.) nor the Divine displeasure, which are about to be " whey” (llahn and Ewald) [neither of these

detailed, and which Job here charges as the con. definitions being suitable for the reason that the

summation of God's secret eternal plan.-E.] material is not coagulated]). For :7777, to pour Since the discourse, after the mild conciliatory out, comp. 2 Kings xxii. 9 (likewise the Kal turn which it had taken in the last division, above in chap. iii. 24). "To pour into a mould' especially in ver. 12, here evidently falls back is a signification which belonos to the word nei. into the bitter tone of complaint, it follows that ther here nor in the parallel Passage just given the ! at the beginning of this verse is to be taken (against Seb. Schmidi and Delitzsch): this would / adversatively. I know that this was in Thy

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mind-i. e., that this determination had long which Thou wouldest then visit me. [- Thou been formed by Thee (y nxias in chap. xxiii. wast wonderful in my creation (vers. 8-12); and 14; xxvii. 11), viz., to assail me, and visit me

me now Thou art wonderful in inventing new means with the direst calamities, in the manner de- of destroying me.” Words. ]. Snus certainly scribed in the following verses, 14-17.

belongs to God as the subj. addressed, not to Job Ver. 14. If I should sin, Thou wouldest as obj. (as Schlottmann and Davidson) think). watch me.-'10790, lit., custodies me, here We find God in His anger compared to a benst of custoditurus eras me, as these verses in general

prey also in ch. xvi. 9; He is in particular deexhibit that which, in Job's opinion, God had

scribed as a lion tearing His prey in Hos. v. 14;

xiii. 7; comp. Isa. xxxi. 4; xxxviii. 13; Jer. long since determined, and had the disposition to do. 20 here moreover is not “to keep in

xxv. 38; Lam. iii. 10; Am. iii. 12. On the use remembrance to bear anything in mind" (Stic-of 10 with a finite verb following to express kel. Hirzel. Delitzsch, for then the accus. of the the adverbial notion “again, repeatedly --A thing kept ought to have been expressed (comp. construction similar to that above is ch. vi. 28– Prov. iv. 21 ; vii. 1).—The meaning is ratber to comp. Ewald, 285, b. On sann, with final watch one carefully, to hold under observation,

vowel å, although not in pause (as also in Num. rigide observare 8. custodire aliquem; comp. cb. vii.

xix. 12), see Ewald, & 141, c. 12; xiii. 27.

[Ewald. who is

followed by Davidson, finds in the details of the Ver. 15. If I should be wicked-woe Divine Plan agaiost Job as here unfolded “g unto me!-As is evident from this exclamation cruel tetralemma, a fearful fourfold net," to 552x. « woe unto me!" which takes the place compass the ruin of Job whichever way he of a clause expressing the consequence in the should turn. (1) Were he to err-and to err is future, nuor is a stronger expression than bum

sion than human-God would watch him with the keen

est eye, and punish him without pity. (2). inson in the verse preceding. ["1778 very should he sin heinously, his punishment would strongly expressive of terror or pain, Mic. vii. be commensurate with his guilt, transcending all 1; words would fail to describe the violence of description. (3). Should he however be innothe punishment." Dav. As much stronger there- cent he must still be doomed to bear about with fore as x is than v. so much stronger, it him a guilty look, and seem and feel like a crimay be inferred, is yun here than Xun.-E.).

ferred ja vwn here than son E m inal. (4). Should he be unable from pride, or It must not therefore be weakened by rendering conscious innocence thus to belie his integrity. it (with Schilottmann and Olshausen) " being and dare to hold up his head, God would in His found guilty;” it expresses the idea of gross, pre

wrath hunt him like a lion. _ The scheme is insumptuous sinning, deserving of a punishment genious and plausible, and has not yet been sucindescribably severe (here indicated only by an cessfully on

bere indicated only by an cessfully disproved. Schlottmann argues against exclamation of woc). —And were I righteous

lit: (1). That the distinction it makes between (the opposite case of the two hitherto mentioned)

yer and son is forced, to which what has been I should not then (according to God's plan

said above is a sufficient answer. (2). That the and purpose) lift up my head : i. e.. I should mention in ver. 15 of the possibility of being not dare to enjoy my righteousness, nor to profit

righteous along with that of being wicked is by my good conscience so as to look up with

wholly superfluous! a remark which it is diffifreedom and confidence: comp. ch. xi. 15; xxii.

cult to understand. Job is enumerating all the 26; Luke xxi. 28. Rather would he even then mora

moral possibilities of his condition, and showing go his way like one who had an evil conscience:

that whichever course he takes his Omnipotent filled with shame, and in sight of my mi.

Adversary is there to meet him with a faming sery.-78? is either to be taken as constr. state

sword of vengeance. Assuming therefore Ewald's

view to be not unfounded, the following addiof s

rational remarks suggest themselves concerning it. like structure with 79, 702, etc., so Gesenius, 1. In the first two hypotheses, in which the guilt Fürst, Welte, Hahn, Del. [Schult., Schlot., Dav.] of Job is assumed, the hypothetical element is etc.), or we are to read 28" (Piscator, Ewald, made distinct and strong by the use of Ox; in Hirz., Böttch., Dillm. [Ren.. Hengst. 7 etc.): for the last two, which assume his innocence the ox to take it as Imper. [E. v., “therefore see thou is omitted. 2. Each pair of hypotheses presents mine affliction"] (De Wette), or as Infin. (Um-a climax, the second hypothesis being an adbreit, Rosenm.) [Carey] makes the construction vance upon the first, both in the protasis and altogether too hard.

| apodosis; the fourth upon the third, especially Ver. 16. And should it (my head) lift it- in the apodosis.-E.]. self up : i. e., should I, although condemned by Ver. 17. Thou wouldest renew Thy witThee, still exhibit a cheerful courage and a proud nesses against me: i. e., ever cause new witself-consciousness. This accordingly is not a nesses to appear against me, viz., ever new sufnew case, but an expansion of that just supposed ferings and calamities: comp. ch. xvi. 8, where in ver. 156. On 723 comp. ch. viii. 11; on the may be found the same personification of sufferomission of ox see Ewald. & 357, 6. As a ings as witnesses which, in the eyes of men, ever

rise up to testify against him and his innocence. lion Thou wouldest (then) hunt me and again show Thy wondrous power in

-And increase Thy displeasure against me: to wit, by means of the most exquisite me (oly here the same as contra; comp. ch. tortures, and the most violent persecutions, with xiii. 19; xxiii. 6; Xxxi. 13); ever new troops

not. elsewhere OC

TT:

and an army against me. The phrase nidin, 1 gested by ch. vii. 16, which passage is here imiX3 is not to be understood as a hendiadys, as tated, although indeed only freely. [This use if it denoted "ever new hosts, alternating hosts"

of the 3d person here, following the K'thibh

which undoubtedly is the correct reading, is a [“ with host succeeding host against me" : Con.,

| noticeable and masterly stroke, expressing the Dav., Ren., Words., Schlott., Ges., Noy., etc.),

| helpless, exhausted prostration of Job's spirit at for this idea would be more simply expressed by

the close of his discourse. The vehement Tita23 nidin (against Hirzel and most moderns). nic energy of his previous defiance has expended Rather does x33 denote the main body of the

itself: he no more ventures to stand up face to army, while nidi?n, lit., "exchanges” are fresh

face with God, and with head uplifted pour forth

his bitter remonstrances: he now lies low in the advancing reserves, or reinforcements. With

dust, panting with the weary strife, with no hope the former, the original main army, are compared but in death, and with averted, down-cast eye, Job's principal sufferings, while the latter the re

exclaims of God—“Let Him cease for a little serve troops, denote the new species of pains and

while!” Another indication of his mental extortures with which God continually afflicts and

haustion is found in the fact that the remainder vexes him (Job being represented as a fortress,

of his discourse is made to consist of a repetition the object of God's hostile attack; comp. ch. xix. of phrases from ch. vii.—He can only repeat, 12: xxx. 12). Od stands first as being the mechanically almost, what he has said, although prominent element, Job's mind dwelling princi- even in this there is inimitable pathos.-E. 7. pally, though not altogether, on the new tortures ? now, to turn away the attention from any with which God assailed him, as is evident also

one, like a nie with i?, ch. vii. 19; Ps. xxxix. from vinn and in just before.-E.]. Moreover it will be seen that every verse-member 14 [13]; to supply 3?, or Dry, or t (after from ver. 14 to ver. 18 inclusive ends in the ch. xiii, 21) is not really necessary.-That I vowel i, a fact already noted by Böttcher, which may be cheerful a little while, lit., look up can scarcely be accidental. The impression that brightly, as in ch. ix. 27 ; Ps. xxxix. 14 [13]. the Divine wrath has especial reference to the

Ver. 21. Before I go hence and return single individuality (the one I) of the lamenting Job is strongly intensified by this continuous re- not: [second clause 108 x7adverbial, = not petition of the rhyme from the pronominal in

to return]. Comp. ch. vii. 7-10. An ninh, fection (Delitzsch). Second Strophe: Vers. 18–22, consisting of two

comp. on ch. iii. 5.

Ver. 22. Into the land of darkness, like thoughts : a. Curse of his own existence-vers.

to midnight.-So Ewald, Dillmann, etc., in or18, 19 (a condensed repetition of ch. iii. 11-16); 1

der to express the idea of an intensified degree of b. Prayer for a short respite before going down into the dark realm of the dead (repeated out of darkness, indicated by 99$ (lit., “ covering": ch, vii. 16-19).

seo ch. iii. 6; xxiii. 17;. xxviii. 3 ; Ps. xci. 6). Ver. 18. Why then didst Thou bring me

-of the shadow of death, and of confuforth out of the womb ? I should have

sion.-0'770 x's [07770 år. ney. in the old died, etc. “ The Imperfects x, 70x, 5248

| Testament, but a common word in the later lehave a hypothetic coloring, being strictly the

brew, Del.), lit., “no ranks," i. e., disorder, conclusion of a pre-supposition indicated by the preceding question. They indicate what would

chaotic confusion (Tohuvabohu, Gen. i. 2). For have happened, if God had not called him into this use of x7, as a terse negation of the conbeing out of his mother's womb, in his opinion, 1

ception of a noun, like our prefix un-, or dis-, which he, as a wise man, here puts in opposition

comp. ch. viii. 11; xxvi. 2, 3.—Where it is to the Divine treatment" (Dillmann). (The Eng. Ver. “Oh that I had given up the ghost, bright like midnight. yoni, lit., “so that it and no eye had seen me !" is feeble, and de- shines forth, is bright (comp. ch. iii. 4: X. 3). stroys the unity of the passage formed by this member, and the verse following, represented as

The subj. of this verb is certainly Y3X (Hirzel, above indicated by the three conditional Imper

Delitzsch, etc.); the neuter use of the fem. yon fects.-E.}.,

is less probable. Sok here again signifying the Ver. 19. 12477 expresses the idea of being

"3 | most intense darkness, the most sunless gloom, borne in slow solemn procession, as is customary

(ipsum medullitium umbræ mortis, ejusque intensissiin burial; so also in ch. xxi. 32.

mum, Oetinger). “ To be bright like midnight" Ver. 20. Are not my days few? Let

(the direct opposite of Ps. cxxxix. 12) is a strong Him cease then,-let Him let me alone. terribly vivid description of superlative darkThus are the words to be rendered according to ness, as it rules in the under-world. Compare the K'thibh son' and now, not as a petition

Milton's : “not light, but darkness visible, in addressed to God, but as å request expressed

his description of hell. concerning Him in the third person, as one who had withdrawn. The K'ri, in giving instead the

DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL. Imperf. 9701 and nu!: “cease,” and “let me 1. The fundamental thought, around which all alone” (so also most of the Ancient Versions), the discussions of this new discourse of Job re(E. V.), is a change of the original text, sug- solre, is that of absolute power in God, and of that power acting in a merciless arbitrary man- | God; how it seemeth to him that God is not God, ner, entirely regardless of all human right and but a mere judge and an angry tyrant, who exinnocence. He destroys the innocent as well as erciseth His power, and careth for no man's the guilty ;'—such is the harsh utterance against well-being. This is the most extreme part of God as a tyrant, raging in anger, trampling this book. Only those can understand it, who down all right under His feet (ch. ix. 22), to also feel and know what it is to endure God's which Job advances from the concession which wrath and judgment, and to have His mercy hid he has previously made to both his opponents, from them." that God's action is always and uniformly just 2. Under the rough shell of this abstract pre(comp. Exeget. and Crit. Rem's., No. 1). He destinatianist way of thinking, the discourse conconcedes to them, especially to Bildad, without ceals a rich store of glorious religious truths, further question : " what God does must be right, and powerful testimonies in behalf of a living

just because God, the Righteous One, does it.” saving faith, which show to us that Job has been But with bitter sarcasm he resolves this into the sorely afflicted indeed, but not rejected ; nay, proposition: “God does just what He pleases, more, that bright beams of Divine light pierce whether it is really righteous or not!” Thus, the thick darkness, and line with glory the edges instead of the God of absolute justice, whom the of the black clouds of doubt which have come befriends had held up before him and defended (in tween him and the gracious face of his Heavenly & way that was one-sided and narrow enougb, to Father. As Brentius beautifully says: “ Here be sure), he forms for himself a gloomy, horrible you have the blasphemies of hell, into which representation of a God of absolute power, who those are tempted who are for any time judirules and directs not according to objective cially forsaken by the Lord; ... but Job arstandards of right, but according to the prompt. I gues his cause according to his feelings: for in ings of an arbitrary will, subject to no restraint. such dread of the judgment as possesses him he It is the Jedç dikatos of Marcion, who is abso- feels God to be not a Father, but an executioner. lutely and in essence disjoined from all kindness ... But mark, at this point the faith of Job and love; nay, more, it is the God of the pre- lifts up its head even in the midst of judgment ! destinatianists and extreme (supra-lapsarian) For as Christ, our Lord, when cast into the midst Calvinists, disposing of the destinies of men in of hell, cries out that He is forsaken, yet at the accordance with an unconditional, arbitrary de- same time acknowledges God to be His God-for cree (decretum absolutum), irrespective of all mo- | He says: My God, why hast Thou forsaken me? ral wortbiness or unworthiness-such is the Be- so Job, overwhelmed with all evils, wondering ing whom Job here delineates, and before whose how God, who was before so generous, can now hostile assaults on his person, guiltless as he be so cruel a Judge, recounts in the spirit of knows himself to be, he recoils in shuddering faith the mercies of the past from the time beanguish. Instead of dwelling as he had formerly fore his birth until his growth to manhood; for done (ch. ii. 10) on the remembrance of the ma. unless a spark of faith had been left in him, ho nifold goodness which he had experienced from would not have been able to recognize the merGod, and bowing in patience beneath His hand, cies which he enumerates (ch. x. 8-12).” A:nong and confidently awaiting the explanation in the these testimonies to the fact that in the midst of near or remote future of the dark destiny which all the darkness and judicial terrors which according to an inscrutable decree overshadowed assailed him he still maintained his faith, may him, he here thrusts away from himself all such | be mentioned: comfort, writhes like a worm under the crushing a. The glorious description which he gives in ch. pressure of that borrible spectre into which his ix. 5-12 of the Omnipotence and greatness of God, perverted imagination had transformed the only as the same is manifested in the works of His

just and holy God, imputes to Him the severe creation, both on earth and in heaven-one of treatment which although innocent he had en- the most elevated descriptions which the poetic dured as a long-cherished and well-contrived literature of the Old Testament has anywhere plan (ch. x. 13-17), and finally relapses into that produced on this topic. tone of deepest despair and most disconsolate b. The strikingly beautiful description which woe which he had heretofore struck upon, by he gives of the special care and the infinite skill and cursing his existence (ch. x. 18 seq.) and be wisdom exercised by the providence of God in its seeching God for just one thing—that before he influence on man's generation, on the earliest should depart hence into tbe eternally dark and development of the individual human life in the joyless Hereafter, He would once again let him womb, and on every subsequent stage of that alone, that he might have one short last respite development up to mature manhood: ch. . 8-12. in this life. In short it is the sorely tried suf-|--This, too, like the former, is one of the noblest ferer, who is not indeed really forsaken by God, | contributions of this book to physico-theology, but who has nevertheless given himself up, who and to the Bible doctrine of the creation of the here pours out his grief without restraint in a individual human life, and of the origin of the lamentation which is at the same time through-soul. Like the parallel passage in Ps. cxxxix. out an arraignment of God. Comp. Luther in 13-16, this description seems decidedly to favor his Preface to our book: “ For before that Job the theory of creationism, according to which the cometh into the pangs of death, he praiseth generation of each individual man presupposes God concerning the spoiling of his goods, and a concurrent act of immediate creation on the the death of his children. But when death is part of the Divine omnipotence (comp. Lactanbefore his eyes, and God withdraweth Himself, tius, De opif Dei, c. 19). At the same time it is then do his words show what manner of thoughts evident, especially from ver. 10, with the strong man, however holy he be, may have against I emphasis wbich it lays on the participation of

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