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the parents in the origination of the human or- | such a doom in passing, but every time springs ganism, that the fundamental idea of traducian. shuddering back with hope, or at least with ism, or generationism, is not foreign to the wri. longing to God, and (like a child, severely chaster's thought, but is to be included in it as tised, which nevertheless knows no other refuge a presupposition which is not to be ignored. So and no other comfort than may be found with then these two methods of representation, that its father) does not stop clinging to the Heaof creationism and that of generationism, must venly Author of his being, ever renewing his always and everywhere go hand in hand, mutu- complaints and peritions to Him for help. “It ally supplementing and rectifying one another, is true that Job, so long as he regards his suf(comp. Nitzsch, Syst. of Christ. Doct. & 107, Rem. ferings as a dispensation of divine judgment, is 2: Rothe, Eth. 2124, Rem. 1; Frohschammer, as unjust towards God as he believes God to be Ueber Ursprung der menschlichen Seele, 1854). unjust towards him; but if we bear in mind
c. Again, the absolute superiority of the Divine that this state of conflict and temptation does intelligence to the human, and hence the infinite not preclude the idea of a temporal withdrawal knowledge and unapproachable wisdom of God, of faith, and that, as Baumgarten (Pentat. i. are described in ch. ix. 3, 4 (comp. ver. 14 seq. ; 209) aptly expresses it, the profound secret of ch. x. 4) with an impressive power and beauty, prayer is this, that man can prevail with the Dirivalling the most important of those Old Testa- vine Being, then we shall understand that this ment passages (e. g. Ps. cxxxix.) where this dark cloud need only be removed, and Job again theme is unfolded.
stands before the God of love as His saint" (Del.). d. When in contrast with all this Job comes to speak of the weakness, vanity, and transitoriness HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL. of human existence, his words are not less impressive and eloquent. They resemble (especially
The survey given above (No. 2 a-f) of those ch. is. 25 seq.
“ For my days are swifter than portions of the preceding section having the a runner, etc.", comp. ch. x. 20. “Are not my greatest doctrinal and ethical value will show days few,” etc.) those passages in Job's earlier where the most fruitful themes for homiletic lament, at the beginning of ch. vii., where he discussion may be found. In any case the describes the transiency and vanity of man's life separate treatment of these themes commends on earth; but they also resemble similar pas- itself in proportion to the richness of their con. sages in the preceding discourses of Eliphaz and tents and their high significance, in preference Bildad. Thus it is that this complaint over the
to the homiletic treatment of the whole discourse hasty flight and the misery of human life, pre- through all its length as a unit. If a compresents itself as a constant theme with all the hensive text is sought for, either one of the three speakers of this book, and is indeed a character- sections, into which the whole discourse is diistic property of all the Chokmah poets and teach-vided, may be chosen. Or combining the first ers of the Old Testament generally.
two sections into one of greater length, the divie. With this repeated emphasizing of human sion by chapters may be followed. In this case weakness is closely connected the promir.ence the theme of a homily on ch. ix. might run: given to the consciousness, characteristic of the
“ The saint of the Old Testament groaning under Old Testament stand-point of faith and life, of the pressure of the Divine omnipotence, not such superiority in God over man as makes it having as yet the consciousness of an atonement.” a bsolutely impossible for the latter to contend, The theme for ch. x. might be stated: “The or to come into comparison with Him, there pious sufferer of the Old Testament on the brink being no arbiter or judicial mediator between of despair,” or “wavering between a child-like, both (ch. ix. 32 seq.). The recognition of this thankful, trustful recognition of the Father-love both indirectly postulates such a mediator and of God (vers. 8-12) and disconsolate complaint prompts to an expression of the yearning felt because of His apparent merciless severity.”. for him; comp. above on ch. ix. 33.
As shorter texts the following present themf. Finally, it is a noticeable trait of Job's selves: ch. ix. 2-12—God's Omnipotence; ch. profound piety that repeatedly, in the midst of
ix. 13-24—The apparent injustice of the Divine his sorrowful complaint, he addresses himself government of the world; ch. ix. 25-35—The directly to God. Indeed, from ch. ix. 28 on, he cheerless and helpless condition of the suffering no longer speaks in the third person of God, but righteous under the Old Dispensation, who as in the second person to Him. This tone of yet knew no mediator between God and men ; entrealy, which the sorely afflicted sufferer main-ch. x. 1-7—The contradiction which shows itself tains, even where he utters the bitterest com
between the fact of God's omniscience, and that plaints and accusations against God, is instruc-of the innocent suffering of the godly; ch. x. tive in regard to that which should be regarded 8-12.---God's fatherly love, and His merciful allas in general the fundamental frame of his soul including care as exhibited in the creation and (comp. on ch. ix. 28, and on ch. x. 2). Accord preservation of human life; ch. x. 13-22.—God ing to this, he appears as one whom God had as the hostile persecutor of the sufferer, who in truth not forsaken, but only afflicted for the funcies himself to be forsaken by Him, and who sake of proving him. Indeed, far from being is deprived of all earthly comfort. objectively forsaken of God, he is not once guilty of forsaking God in the subjective sense (i. e. in
Particular Passages. a spirit of self-will, through doubt, disobedience Ch. ix. 5 sq.: OECOLAMPADIUS: The levelling or open apostasy). In the inmost depths of his of mountains, the shakings of the earth, eclipses praying heart, he does not once believe that he of the sun and of the stars, and in short the is forsaken or rejected by God; he only feurs I movements of the universe are testimonies to the power of God. It must needs be that He is , shall never thus be purified, who in the strict mighty who hurls mountains into the sea with judgment of God would be pronounced abomisuch ease, that it is scarcely noticed. . . . Hence nable, and defiled with filth.-Zerss: The guilt believers derive the hope that nothing is so ter- of sin can be washed away by no snow-water, rible or so grievous but God can alleviate it, lye, or soap, i. e., by no outward works, or selfespecially when He says: “If ye have faith as elected service of God, or papistic boly water. a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this It is quite another washing that serves for that, mountain, Remove hence to yonder place, and it to wit, the blood of Jesus Christ; 1 John i. 7. shall remove” (Matt. xvii. 20). By which saying Ch. ix. 33. (ECOLAMPADICS: Without Christ it is testified that the highest power belongs to we are such creatures as Job has described those who believe.-STARKE: If God has the above. If bowever Christ is our arbiter and mepower to remove mountains, He certainly has diator (1 Tim. ii. 5) He Himself will remove the the power to deliver out of all troubles (Ps. 1. rod. 25). —The heavens are a mirror of the infinite Ch. x. 2 seq. HENGSTENBERG: The needless and incomprehensible Wisdom, Goodness and and aimless cruelty towards an innocent person, Omnipotence of God. Even the henthen have of which Job accuses God, seems all the more learned from their reflections, that there must inexcusable if this innocent one is at the same be a supreme intelligent Being, who rules over time wholly helpless. It would be revolting to all, Every star is our schoolmaster, and testi- see omnipotence sporting with impotence. - To fies to us that there is a God.
such cheerless results are we driven, when, like Ch. ix. 10 sq. BRENTIUS: God's judgments Job, we look into ourselves as into a golden cup. are hidlen: at first sight they seem to men If in severe suffering we fail to recognize our either unjust or foolish, but in the end His own darkness, the Father of Lights must change counsel is understood, and His back is seen, into darkness. though not llis face (Jer. xviii. 17). . . . Hence Ch. x. 8 seq. CRAMER: In affliction there is if God should pass before thee, i. e. if He should no better comfort than to remember that we are carry on some wondrous work before thine eyes, sprung from God (Ps. xxii. 10).-Cur. SCRIVER although at first thou shouldst be ignorant what in the hymn: “Jesu, meiner Seele Leben "): it is, or what He wills by His wonderful work, nevertheless thou canst not doubt in the least
" Thy loving-kin Inese was around me flung, that He is good and wise and just.— TUEBING.
Ere yet the world did lie around my way; BIBLE: God as omnipresent is continually
On Thee in my weak infancy I hung,
While helpless on my mother's breast I lay. around us and with us, although we see Him not.-OSTANDER: Although God is without the least varying disposed towards us as a father,
Along the wayward paths of early youth
Thy loving-kindness ever followed me. it may nevertheless seem to us in trouble as though Ile had changed towards us (Ps. lxvii. 10;
It is in Thee each moment I do live, Is. Ixiv. 16).
Thy Spirit over with me doth abide ; Ch. ix. 21 sq. ZEYss : Although it seems to All that I have is but what Thon dost give, pious believers when in deep affliction and trial,
Thy light has ever been my journey's guide." as though God observed no measure and no discrimination in the infliction of punishment, it is HENGSTENBERG: It is worthy of note, what a nevertheless not so with Him; but such thoughts fund of knowledge of God Job still possesses, proceed from flesh and blood, yea, they are even when he seems to have completely forsaken temptations of Satan (comp. Brentius above, God. With one who is penetrated, as he is, by Doctrinal and Ethical Remarks, No. 2).—HENG- the consciousness tbat every wbiff of breath beSTENBERG: To this result (viz. of regarding God longs to God, faith must, sooner or later, fight as the author of evil and as absolutely unjust) its way through all temptations and dark clouds. we must come in our investigation of evil, if we Ch. x. 13 seq. CRAMER: God does not afflict look at the subject with carnal eyes. The mat- and trouble men willingly (Lam. iii. 33), and alter looks differently, however, to him wbo is though in affliction He seems to frown, He yet capable of spiritual discernment, which is true smiles on us in His heart. He stands behind the only of him who can bring his own processes wall, and looks through the lattice; Cant. ii. 9. and experiences into accord with God's justice. -HENGSTENBERG: Nothing tends more strongly He sees that the triumph of evil is always only to lead human nature astray, than the discovery apparent and transient, only the means of pre- that one whom you have been accustomed to love paring the way for the triumph of the good and to honor as your benefactor, has used his He sees that the righteous need suffering for beneficence only as means to gratify the deepest temptation and purification, that so long as sin malignity. Job thinks that his experience in dwells in them, they cannot yet be exalted to relation to God is of this character. How under glory, but that, as the Apostle says of himself, such circumstances must the Fountain of all conthey must be “troubled on every side, yet not solation be changed into a poisonous spring! distressed” (2 Cor. iv. 8); otherwise they would Ch. x. 18 seq. OSIANDER: It is great ingratisoon be a dead reed. " The staff of affliction tude if we do not thank God for the use of light beats our loins down to the grave," etc., etc. in this life; and it is a heathenish speech to say
Ch. ix. 30 seq. (EcoLAMPADIUS: The most po--it were best never to have been born, or to tent kind of comfort is that which comes from a bave died immediately after birth.- Zeiss (on pure conscience, which is as it were a perpetual ver. 20 seq.): Terrible as are death and the outcry. But neither from that do we derive any grave to natural eyes, they are no less sweet and benefit, if we look back at our works. For we comforting to the eyes of faith (Luke ii. 29; Phil. i. 21).-STARKE: Those who are tried are, Do we not see in these two chapters (ix. and x.) wont to long greatly that God, if He will not al. how the human heart in truth wavers to and fró together remove their suffering, would yet send between the proudest presumption and the most some relief (Isa. xxxviii. 14).–Vict. ANDREAE: pusillanimous despair ?
III. Zophar and Job : Chaps. XI-XIV.
A.-Zophar's violent arraignment of Job, as one who needs in penitence to submit
himself to the all-seeing and righteous God :
1. Expression of the desire that the Omniscient One would appear to convince Job of his guilt.
2 Should not the multitude of words be answered ?
and should a man full of talk be justified ? 3 Should thy lies make men hold their peace ?
and when thou mockest, shall no man make thee ashamed ? 4 For thou hast said, My doctrine is pure,
and I am clean in Thine eyes. 5 But oh that God would speak,
and open His lips against thee;
that they are double to that which is !
2. Admonitory description of the impossibility of contending against God's omniscience, which
charges every man with sin :
7 Canst thou by searching find out God ?
canst thou find out the Almighty unto perfection? 8 It is as high as heaven, what canst thou do?
deeper than hell, what canst thou know? 9 The measure thereof is longer than the earth,
and broader than the sea.
10 If He cut off, and shut up,
or gather together, then who can hinder Him? 11 For He knoweth vain men;
He seeth wickedness also; will He not then consider it? 12 For vain man would be wise,
though man be born like a wild ass's colt.
3. The truly penitent has in prospect the restoration of his prosperity ; for the wicked, however, there remains no hope:
VERSES 13-20. 13 If thou prepare thine heart,
and stretch out thine hands toward Him ; 14 if iniquity be in thine hand, put it far away,
and let not wickedness dwell in thy tabernacles.
15 For then shalt thou lift up thy face without spot ;
yea, thou shalt be steadfast, and shalt not fear. 16 Because thou shalt forget thy misery,
and remember it as waters that pass away ; 17 and thine age shall be clearer than the noonday;
thou shalt shine forth, thou shalt be as the morning. 18 And thou shalt be secure, because there is hope ;
yea, thou shalt dig about thee, and thou shalt take thy rest in safety. 19 Also thou shalt lie down, and none shall make thee afraid ;
yea, many shall make suit unto thee. 20 But the eyes of the wicked shall fail,
and they shall not escape,
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL,
Ver. 2. Shall the multitude of words
(D???? 35, as in Prov. x. 19; Eccles. v. 2) reThe comparative violence of this new arraigu- main unanswered, or shall a babbler (lit. ment of Job is to be explained by the fact that “man of lips," oinplo ***, to be distinguished be in his last discourse had positively maintained from D'??? UX, "a man of words," i. e., an elohis innocence, and had accused God quite openly quent speaker, Ex. iv. 10) be in the right ?and directly of injustice. Zophar, the youngest and the least considerate of the three friends, P73), literally “to be justified, to be declared in opposes him on this head with the declaration the right,” to wit, by allowing him the last word. that God the All-wise and All-seeing, would ob- The beginning of the discourse resembles that serve in him, as in all men, enough of sin to jus- of Bildad, chap. viii. 2. At the same time there tify the stern infliction of punishment on him may be detected a slight tone of apology, that (ver. 6). He indeed gives direct expression to the speaker undertakes to say any thing, not. the thought that the suffering which Job endured withstanding his youth. [“ If Zopbar's name, was well-deserved punishment for sin (ver. 11), which signifies chirper or chatterer, was expresthat sincere repentance was required of him (ver. sive of his character, these words might have 14), and that on condition of such repentance been applied to himself.” Wordsworth.] could he hope for restoration to his former pros- Ver. 3. Shall thy vain talk (D'?2 from 77), perity, that in any other case the sad doom of Bartooyeir) [E. V.: too strong, “lies," rather the wicked would surely be before him (ver. 20). ("In his first appearance he is hot, and eager, chatter, idle babbling] put men (o'n?, archaic and peremptory, but widely more gentle and less expression for DTX or D'UJX [ like other arcoarse than hereafter. Eliphaz brings forward chaisms, e.g., San, always without the article." his earnest exhortation, overawed by its divine majesty, and trembling when he recollects how DEL.), comp. ver. 11; chap. xix. 19; xxii. 15, he received from heaven the truth which he ut- etc.) to silence, so that thou mockest ters for Job's advantage. Bildad reposes not on Deum." Del.], without any one putting
[“God (Hirzel); better Rosenmüller: nos et revelation, but on the human consciousness. Zophar, the private dogmatist, and as such, thee to shame ? viz.,
by refuting thee. The having nothing to fall back on with dignity—the fut. consec. wymi, as also nonni at the beginhottest and most intolerant, bas only his own ning of the following verse, denotes that into of course,' it cannot but be,' with which to si- which Job might be betrayed by men's silence. lence his obstinate adversary.” Davidson.] His It bears, therefore, since the principal verb discourse falls into three divisions: 1. The ex- 1097n continues the question of the preceding pression of a desire for such a declaration from the All-wise God as would convince Job of his mock' and to say," etc. (80 correctly Umbreit,
so that thou darest to
verse, a modal impress : guilt (vers. 2-6); 2. A description intended to warn Job of God's exalted knowledge, by virtue Hirzel, Vaihinger, Hahn, Delitzsch, etc., while of which He charges on every man his sins (vers. altogether the interrogative character of our
Ewald, Stickel, Dillmann [Carey), etc. remove 7-12); 3. An inculcation of the necessity of repentance as the only condition of recovering his verse, and make it to consist of two co-ordinate former prosperity (vers. 13-20). Parts 1 and 2 are Double Strophes, consisting of small strophes
Ver. 4. My doctrine is pure.—np, in the of three or two verses each. Part 3 contains Book of Job occurring only here, very common, three such shorter strophes or groups of verses. however, in Proverbs (comp. also Deut. xxxii.
2. First Division, or Double Strophe. The ex- 2; Isa. xxix. 24), signifies not a mere "assumppression of the desire that the Omniscient One tion,” or “opinion” (Hahn), but something apwould appear to convince Job of his guilt (vers. propriated from tradition, a truth taught in ac2-6).
cordance with tradition, especially in respect to First Strophe : Vers. 2-4. A nsure of the moral conduct, therefore, in brief, moral teachhigh-flown and impenitent discourse of Job. ing, or doctrine in general. With regard, there
fore, to this his doctrine, the substance of his | Y?!”] that Eloah remits to thee of thy moral axioms and rules of living, Zophar re- guilt-i. e., leaves much of it out of the account proaches Job with maintaining (or rather be against thee, lets it go unpunished. The i? in says that he would maintain, if encouraged by the silence of others): "it is pure," i. e., it is ply? is accordingly partitive, to be expressed immaculate and infallible (71 as in chap. viii. 6; by “somewhat of, much of,” nen), lit. to bring xxxiii. 9; Prov. xvi. 2, etc.). And yet more than into forgetfulness, oblivioni dare, a causative this : even against God would he maintain that Hiphil, occurring elsewhere in the 0. T. only in he was pure in His eyes” (comp. chap. ix. 21;
chap. xxxix. 17. x. 7). He would therefore, in addition to the
3. Second Division, or Double Strophe : Depurity of his principles, maintain also that of his scribing, with an admonitory purpose, the imlife, a result which seems to Zophar the height possibility of contending against God's omnisof absurdity, and which seems to him to mock cience, which charges every man with sin, vers. every holy ordinance of God.
First Strophe: Vers. 7-9. [God's wisdom unSecond Strophe: Vers. 5-6. Expression of the wish that God Himself might personally inter
Ver. 7. Canst thou reach the depths [in pose to punish Job's arrogant falsehoods.
the Germ.: den Grund erreichen; lit. to reach the Ver. 5. But oh that Eloah would speak bottom] in Eloah, or penetrate to the utand open His lips against thee.-After termost parts [zum Aeussersten hinandringen] in here follows first the Infinitive (as in Ex. in the Almighty ?-??, "search" (chap. xvi. 3); then, however, in b, and in the follow- viii. 8), is used here sensu objectivo=that which ing verse Imperfects: comp. Gesen. & 136, 2. is to be searched, the ground of any thing (so in [The subject of the Inf. is emphatically placed chap. xxxviii. 16); here, therefore, the bidden
“Oh, that Eloah would speak!” See depth [ground, basis] of the divine nature. Ewald, & 329, c.] A forcible 0528? (verum enim men, on the contrary, denotes “the finishing, vero) introduces the whole optative clause and the terminus,” i. e., the end, the extremity of the puts it, in a measure, in opposition to the wish same divine nature [Wordsworth: “canst thou that God might come, previously uttered by Job arrive at the limit of God? Canst thou attain to himself (chap. ix. 34 seq.), thus: verily, would the horizon of the Almighty ?”] (comp. ch. xxvi. He but come, there would be an immediate end 10; xxviii. 3 ; Ps. cxxxix. 22; Nehem. iii. 21). to thy boasting
The first question accordingly describes God as Ver. 6. And make known to thee the unfathomable, the second as illimitable or im
measurable; the former conveys the notion of secrets of His wisdom, that it is twofola absolute mystery, the latter that of absolute in true knowledge.win in a somewhat greatness and incomprehensibility; ["The nadifferent sense from that found above in chap. v. ture of God may be sought after, but cannot be 12; vi. 13; here in a more theoretic (scientific) found out; and the end of God is unattainable,
for He is both: the Perfect One, absolutus ; and 0:999, lit. that which is doubled, i. e., in the Endless One, infinitus.” DE...) Many mogeneral that which is much greater than some- derns, after Eichhorn (e.g., John Pye Smith: thing else, which far surpasses it (hence “mani-The Scripture Testimony of the Messiah, 6 Ed., Vol. fold” would, according to our mode of expres- I. 11; Vol. II. 240) [also E. V.] take ph in the sion, be more exact than “twofold.” The explanation of some that the word is used here by active sense of searching or discovering, and way of comparison, as though the meaning were nokon in the sense of perfection. This, howthat “God's wisdom is double thine,” or “twice ever, yields for both members a less suitable as great as thou canst imagine," is inadequate. The word is absolute, and although dual in sense, and assigns to nosan a signification which form, is to us plural, or intensive in meaning= it can nowhere be proved to have. [Conant and God's wisdom is fold upon fold! how then canst
others (so also E. V.) regard the clause nobon-ay thou presume to judge it, as though able to see through it? For this intensive use of the dual
as adverbial: “Canst thou find out the Almighty
to a perfection ?” i. e., to a perfect comprehencomp. 02n}, ver. 17, lit. “ double brightness," sion of Him. Neither of Conant's reasons for i. e., the superlative brightness of noonday.-E.]. this rendering is valid. (1) The parallelism Comp. Isa. xl. 2. The subj. of D:, viz., Non does not favor it, but contrariwise. Ispn finds referring back to noon, is here omitted, be its parallel in rural; the former belonging to cause it is identical with the obj. of the principal the category of depih, the latter to that of length, clause; comp. Gen. ii. 4; Isa. iii. 10 (EWALD, which accounts for the preposition 74. (2) The
336, ). [E. V. here that they are double to that which is"—is scarcely intelligible.) So accentuation does not favor it, but the reverse. must thou know [VI!, Imperat. consec., pre- Munach puts '90 in precisely the same connecsenting the necessary consequence of the fulfil- tion with the final verb in this member, as dibe ment of that wish; comp. Ewald, & 347, a) (Der in the former member.—E.] litzsch : “Instead of saying: then thou wouldst perceive, Zophar, realizing in his mind that
Ver. 8. Heights of heaven: to wit, are the which he has just wished, says imperiously distances which lie between our perception and