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the “extremity" of the Almighty, the dimensions Ver. 11. For he (emphatic, X977; whether with which we seek to measure His infinitude. others know it, or not] knows evil men Hence the question, vividly annexed to this ex- Carin 'ng, lit. "men of vanity, of falsehood,” clamation-what canst thou do?-emphasizing the helplessness and powerlessness of [“ people who hypocritically disguise their man over agaiast that which is immeasurable. moral nothingness." Del.], as in Ps. xxvi. 4; To this corresponds the second member :
comp. also Job xxii. 15), and sees wickeddeeper than the underworld (are the hid
ness without considering it: i. e. without den depths, the grounds of the Godhead, or of watching it with strenuous and anxious strictthe Divine Wisdom)—what knowest thou ?
ness (comp. ch. xxxiv. 23), the moral qualities what can thy knowledge do in view of such of His creatures being at every moment unveiled depths? In so far as the phrase “heights of
to His omniscience. [“ Finely magnifying the
Divine Insight, which is omniscient, and is so heaven” points back to the idea of the nobon, without effort.” Dav.] This is the only renderwhile the phrase “deeper than the underworld” points to that of the pn, the position of the ing of plan xs? which accords with the contwo members of this verse seems to be inverted text (comp. already Aben Ezra ; non opus habet, as regards those of the ver. preceding. It is to
ut diu consideret ; among moderns Hirzel, Dillm., be observed that the ruling idea here, as well as
Del., etc.). Far less natural are the expladein the following verse, is throughout that of the tions of Ewald: “without his (the wicked) Divine wisdom (omniscience), or the Divine na
observing it;" of Umbreit, Stickel, Hahn: ture on the side of wisdom and intellectual perfec-of Schlottman: "and (sees) him who observes
“ without his (the wicked) being observed;" tion, as the connection of the passage with ver. 6 clearly shows.
not, who is without understanding.” Ver. 9. Longer than the earth is its mea
Ver. 12. So must (even) a witless man sure, and broader is it than the sea:
viz. acquire wisdom, and a wild ass's foal be the Divine wisdom, the immeasurableness of
born over a man.—This interpretation, wbich which is here described according to all the four is the one substantially adopted by Piecator, dimensions, according to the height and depth, Umbreit, Ewald, Schlottm., Vaih., Heiligst., and also according to the length and breadth, Dillmann (Renan, Hengst., Wordsworth], and as in Eph. iii. 18 these same four dimensions generally by most moderns, is the most suitable are used in describing the absoluteness of the among the numerous interpretations of this dif
ficult verse. love of God in Christ. Our translation: “longer
The connection by the ! with the than the earth is its [lit. her] measure,” rests
verse preceding, shows that this verse should on the reading 07? with He mappiq, which is indicate what effect the judicial intervention of to be regarded as an abbreviated feminine form the Omniscient God ought to have on man, even
? (. , : a also Zech. iv, 2, etc.). The Masorah, indeed,
understanding.–3131 D'x, lit. a man bored favors 777?, with He raphatum, with which through, i.e. a hollow man, hence one void of reading the word would be the Accus, of nearer
understanding, a man without intellectual and definition (“according to its measure, in mea
moral substance; comp. the phrase X?U 'n? sure”). But the separation between the Accus. Again, *???? (of which x? is in apposition, of relation and its ruling word produced by a word intervening, would give here, where s'ass, i. e., a wild-ass-foal (comp. the phrase X
not in the genitive), signifies lit. “a foal, a wild is omitted, & somewhat harsh construction, to which the simpler rendering given above is to be 07x, used in almost the same sense of untamed preferred.
wildness in Gen. xvi. 12).-—Both these expresSecond Strophe: vers. 10-12. [The judicial sions, as well as those of the preceding verse, intervention of God supposed.]
are chosen not without reference to the conduct Ver. 10. If He passes by [99n', as in ch. of Job, who seems to Zophar to be an obstinate ix. 11; E. V. incorrectly cut off”], and fool (comp. ch. ii. 10); although not pointed arrests, and calls to judgment (lit. summons
directly at him, they inflict on him a sensible an assembly, implying that the process of a trial cut (see ch. xii. 3, where with evident reference was public, and the verdict rendered and exe- to the 237 of this passage, Job with indignant cuted by the assembled people: comp. Ezek. xvi. 40; xxiii. 46; 1 Kings xxi. 9). [“One might
soorn says '3 2354-02—E.], and they at the almost imagine that Zophar looks upon himself
same time facilitate the transition to the followand the other two friends as forming such an ing admonitions. Observe also the intentional
assembly:', they cannot justify him in opposi- and witty paronomasia (both of sound and sense] tion to God, since He accounts him guilty.”
between 341 and 22: the empty man is to be Del.]-Who will oppose Him ? present a protest in behalf of the accused as though he made a man of substance [der Hohlkopf soll bewere not guilty. Comp. in general ch. ix. 11, herzt gemacht], the void in his head is to be filled 12, which description of Job's Zophar here up as it were by a new heart. . [Observe in reproduces in part word for word, but with addition the assonance of the closing words of quite another purpose, viz
. to defend, not to con- each member, 234and 75x!. —Davidson adopts demn or assail God's justice ["'pa vav apod. essentially the same construction of terms and with fine effect—who, as you say (ix. 12) would ?" clauses as that given here, but gives to the verse Dav.]
a different tone. Instead of regarding it as a
grave declaration of what should be the result of becoming a man, being born, here being born of the judicial intervention of God, he regards again a man, suggests that the verse is most it as a sarcastic denial of wisdom to man:- probably a synonymous parallelism, the same “ But a witless man would be wise, and a wild ass essential thought being repeated in both memcolt be a born man! a man who is a fool would bers. (3) The gravity of the connection forbids arrogate wisdom to himself, and though a wild our regarding the verse as simply a piece of ass colt, he would claim humanity.” This, how- witty irony. The verses preceding are a solerer, would be a tone of remark entirely out of emn description of God's procedure against harmony with what precedes, and with what fol- in juiginent; the verses following a lows. Davidson characterizes the interpretation solemn appeal to Job to repent and return to adopted above as " excessively artificial and un- God. This verse in like manner is far more hebraistic in construction:" a strange charge likely to be a grave earnest affirmation of surely to come from one who adopts the very truth than the opposite. (4) The practical drift same construction, except that he gives it a differ- of the connection makes it probable that the verse ent coloring. Equally wide of the mark is the is not a description of the singer in his perver. objection that Job himself did not exhibit the sity, but in the possibilities of his restoration. result which Zophar here says ought or might As the result of God's severe disciplinary probe expected to follow.-Hengstenberg remarks cesses “empty min may or should be filled with on the contents of the verse according to our a heart, and a wild ass's foal may or should be interpretation : “We have here the first passage born over a man. This being the case, if thou of Scripture which speaks of a regeneration,”- direct thine heart, etc., thou shalt lift up thy E.] The following varying explanations are to face without spot, etc. Thus understood, it will be rejected as being in part against the connec- be seen that the verge furnishes a suitable sequel tion, in part too barsh, or grammatically inad. to vers. 10, 11, and a suitable preparation to missible. 1. “An empty man is without heart,” ver. 13 seq:-(5) It seems exceedingly probable i e. without understanding, etc. (Gesenius, Ols- to say the least, that Job's language in ch. xii. hausen), [Conant, Noyes, Merx, Rodwell. - 3 a is his direct reply to the implied reproach in Against this it may be argued that such a pri
this verse. vative use of Niphal is unexampled in Hebrew, well as the friends, a claim which is most satis
There he claims that he has 22h as and especially as Dillmann urges, that the sentiment thus expressed is self-evident and trite, factorily explained by supposing that he was and takes away the whole force of the paropo- stung to make it by understanding Zophar’s lanmasia).—2. “But man, like a hollow pate, bas guage here to imply that he needed to be put in he understanding,” etc. (Hirzel). ["* Violates the possession of 335.-E.]. &ccentuation, and produces an affected witti. 4. Third Division: An admonition to repentcism.” DEL.]—3. “Man is — at his birth-as ance and conversion as the only means by which one empty furnished with a heart," i. e. he Job can recover his former prosperity, and esreceives an empty undiscerning heart (Hupfeld). cape the terrible doom of the wicked: vers. [Opposed to the future verbs, and to the corre- 13-20. "].–.
First Strophe : Vers. 13-15. A period, con
“ flares up, or becomes insolent, etc.” (Vulgate, sisting of ver. 13 as hypothetical antecedent, Stickel, Welte [Carey), etc. [Does not bring
ver. 15 as consequent, and ver. 14 as a regularly
constructed parenthesis. .
Ver. 13. (But) if thou direct thy heart Why should the man of wbom it is affirmod that (prepare it, bring it into a proper condition, not: he has a bold defiant heart be described as "give it the right direction towards God,” Del. 3131? This meaning is, moreover, less suitable and others; nor again : "establish it,” Hirzel to the connection. See remarks below at the [“ not pertinent, because Zophar has not in his end of the verse.—The same objections apply mind so inuch perseverance in godliness as a reto] 5. “An emply man becomes stubborn turn to it,” Dav.]), and spread forth thy (Böttcher).–6. * Before an empty head gaing hands unto Him, viz., in prayer and penitent a heart (understanding), a wild ass's foal will supplication for mercy; comp. ch. viii. 5, and be born again a man (Rosenm., Hahn, Del., for the same phrase Dida ün, manus supinas Kamphausen, etc.)
(palmas) extendere, comp. Ex. ix. 29, 33; 1 Kings [In determining the meaning of this difficult viii, 22 ; Isa. i. 15.
Ver. 14. If iniquity is in thy hand, put expression the following considerations should have controlling weight. (1) The evident anti- / it far away, and let not evil dwell in thy
tents (comp. ch. v. 24); this being the antecethesis of 3133 and 335. Now as 313) can be dent condition of the success of Job's prayer acreferred only to man in his sinful bollowness, cording to Zophar's mode of thinking, which emptiness, 335 must describe the opposite, or
indeed is not in itself a theory of legality or man as endowed with a heart to understand,
work-righteousness (comp. Ps. xxxiv. 13 (12) appreciate, and profit by God's dealings. (2) seq; ; 1 Pet. iii. 10; Isa. i. 16 seq.), but which The assonance of 325, and 752, as well as the from a narrow judgment, and is excessively ofstriking homogeneousness of thought between fensive to Job. the two terms, the one describing the process thy face (comp. on ch. x. 15) without spot :
Ver. 15. Surely, then thou shalt lift up of endowing man with 35, the distinguishing ...
, “ without consciousness of guilt, and withcharacteristic of manhood, the other the process out any outward sign of the same cleaving to
.ילבב and נבוב out the proper Antithesis between
.כִּי עַתָּה were changed to אַתָּה
thee,” (Dillm.) 1? lit. "away from,” here equi- | prosperity; a rendering which destroys the anvalent to “ without,” comp. ch. xix. 26; xxi. 9; tithesis between this verse and ch. x. 22.-E. V.: 2 Sam. i. 22; Prov. xx. 3; and shalt be steadthou shalt shine fortb" seems to be a pare. fast without fearing; shalt be firmly fixed in phrase of this last rendering, suggested perhaps thy new prosperity, without having to fear any by the frequent comparison of the beams of light further judgments of God.–Py?, Part. Hopli. to the wings of a bird.-E.] of ps', lit. fused into solidity, quasi ex ære fusus
Third Strophe : Vers. 18–20. Conclusion of the
promise of prosperity, with an admonitory re(comp. 1 Kings vii. 16. [" We must not lose ference to the joyless end of the wicked. the fine idea of one state arising out of another, a state of fluidity op ch. vi. 14) passing over Perf. consec.) confidence, because there is
Ver. 18. And thou hast (thou shalt have, into solidity; playing on Job's past and future." (0, with the force of a real and lasting existDav.].
Second Strophe : Vers. 16, 17. Continuation of ence,” Del.) hope (for thee, comp. ch. xiv. 7, the promise of well-being to the penitent.
also the opposite of this hopeful condition, deVer. 16. For thou shalt forget trouble, scribed above in ch. vii. 6); and thou shalt shalt remember it as waters that have search about (to ascertain, viz., whether all passed away: as something therefore that is that pertains to thy household is in a state of never to come back, that has disappeared for order and security; comp. ch. v. 24 b), shalt
[“When we think of water that has lie down securely, viz., for sleep; cómp. Ps. flowed away, we think of it as something which iv. 9 (8). 19ņ here certainly " to spy out,” as does not return, or rather we think no in ch. xxxix. 21, 29; not “to blush (797), to be about it at all, for with its disappearance even ashamed,” as though non? were a concessive the remembrance of it is gone." Dillmann). The
"and even shouldest thou be pronoun here is emphatic: “for thou thyself wilt put to shame (in thy confidence), thou canst still forget trouble, thou and none other, no stranger lie down in peace," Rosenm., Hirzel, (Carey), (comp. ch. xix. 27) [or, as Davidson: “ thou, unlike others, who escape calamity, but are
an unsuitable weakening of the sense, which is
at variance with the remainder of the bright haunted by its memory;” or, as Hengst: “thou, promises contained in these verses. [“ Against who just now canst think no other thought than this conditional sense is the affirmative use of of thy suffering"]: giving an emphasis to the the corresponding form in the parallel member.” personal application of this peroration," which would be lost if, with the Pesh, and Hirzel, 'J
" It is inadmissible, since it introduces a
sadness into the promise.” Del.]. The render.
ing of Hengstenberg is altogether too artificial: Ver. 17. And brighter than the glory of "and thou hast dug," i. e., dug a trench for pronoon (0'1/73, as in ch. v. 146) arises (for tection around thy house [and so E. V.--"ibou thee) the future.hr, lit. that which creeps
shalt dig about thee"], a sense which the refe
rence to ch. iii. 21 ; xxxix. 21 is scarcely suffialong slowly, which passes by unobserved (from cient to justify. abno, to glide) hence time in general, either in Ver. 19. Thou liest down without any the sense of the world, that which is temporal, one making thee afraid; as peacefully and aiúv (Ps. xvii. 14; comp. Hupfeld on the pas- securely, that is, as the beest, or the cattle, sage, Ps. xlix. 2); or in the sense of life, life- which no foe terrifies; comp. Gen. xlix. 9; Isa. time, future, as here and in Ps. xxxix. 6 (6); xvii. 2.-Yea, many shall seek thy favor, lxxxix. 48 (47), etc. [“ DIP;, an exquisite lit. stroke, or caress thy face (Del. "thy cheeks") image, lift itself up, disentangle itself from the flatter thee; comp. Prov. xix. 6; Ps. alv. 13 accumulated, crushing darkness of the present, (12). . Instead of being despised, and covered increasing in brilliancy ever as it disengages with ignominy, (ch. x. 15) thou shalt be highly itself.” Dav.]. Fors? in D'1730, (with “bright- honored, and greatly courted. er” to be supplied) comp. Mic. vii. 4.-Should Ver. 20. But the eyes of the wicked it be dark, it will be as the morning; i. e., waste away, in vainly looking for help, in if any darkness should come, if dark adversity unsatisfied yearning for good (comp. ch. xvii. 5) should befull thee (72, 3d Pers. Fem., with and every refuge vanishes from them; neut. signification: not 2d Pers., “shouldest thou become dark," as Schlottm. would explain their hope is the breathing out of the soul;
away from them,” on??? poet. for D.72; and it will then ever be as bright as on a clear morning: evidently an intentional reversal of the i. e., all that they have still to hope for is the gloomy picture of his future in ch. x. 22, which breathing out of their soul (comp. we? nog. ch. job had himself drawn. [" His climax there xxxi. 39; Jer. xv. 9), hence the giving up of the was that his daylight should be as darkness; ghost, death (not a state where their desires will Zophars promise is that his darkness shall be remain eternally unfulfilled, as Delitzsch exdaylight." Dav.-Gesenius (in Thes.) Ewald, plains.) [“Zophar here makes use of the choicest Conant, etc., prefer taking ayn as a noun, expressions of the style of the prophetic Psalms," “ darkness," written nap, or nown, as found
“ If we compare with each other the in a few MSS., and as read by the Syr. and closing words of the three friends, ch. v. 26 sq ; Chald.-Bernard, Hengstenberg, and others ren- viii. 22 b; xi. 20, the advance, which each makes der the verb—“thou shalt tily up," i. e., soar out beyond his predecessor, is unmistakable.” Dillof the depths of thy misery to the heights of mann.]
unqualified way in which Zoplar in ver. 6
reproaches Job with his guilt, and suggests that DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL.
there must be not a little of it that is overlooked 1. This first discourse of Zophar's resembles by God, as well as the not less personal and that of Eliphaz, and still more that of Bildad, humiliating demand that he should repent and both in respect of the rebuke with which it be- renounce all unrighteousness as a condilio sine gins (“who can hear such words in silence ?”' qua non of his restoration to divine favor (ver. etc.) and in respect of the union of promise and 13 seq.) exhibit a certain advance on the part of warning at the close. It proceeds from the same this speaker beyond the stand-point of the two theological and ethical premises as those of the former. Instead of reckoning bimself as betwo previous speakers, in so far as it puts God's longing to those who need repentance and puri. absolute perfection and exaltation (here more fication, as Eliphaz does very distinctly, and particularly on the intellectual side, the illimita- Bildad also, at least to some extent, Zophar, bility of His knowledge and His wisdom) in so. when he reminds Job of the duty of acknowlemn and emphatic contrast with the short-sighted | ledging his sins and repenting of them, speaks limitation of man, and thence derives man's obli- only in the second person. He thus sets himselt gation in all circumstances to draw nigh to God up before him as a rigid censor and accuser, as a penitent, and to confess himself before Him and assumes the character of an advocate of as guilty and deserving of punishment. Not less God, who himself needs no correction. As a does it rese mble those two preceding arraign- consequence all that he says in the way of posiments of Job in respect of form, in the strength tive instruction, or produces out of the store of of its expressions, in the poetic loftiness and his monotheistic Chokmah-tradition, loses for figirative richness of its descriptions. qualities Job its proper moral value and its determining which shine forth with especial brilliancy in power. Even the description of the abysmal the passage where the Divine wisdom is de- vastness and unsearchableness of the Divine scribed as being high as heaven, deep as hell, nature and intelligence in ver. 7 seq , grand as it long as the earth, and broad as the sea (vers. is in itself, must seem cold to Job, and pass 7-9). Moreover the comparatively correct away without leaving any impression on him; orthodoxy of its positions and arguments, the for no softening ray of heartfelt brotherly love, ahsence of everything that would decidedly con- and of a humble realization of grace falls on tradict the doctrinal and ethical tradition of this magnificent picture of the Divine omnispinus Old Testament worshippers of Jehovah cience and wisdom. That picture can and should (worshippers of Eloah), the circumstance that in truth produce only terror and trembling; for nowhere is there even any excessive work-right-in whichever of the four directions we turn, eousness and legal harshness visible (particu- whether toward the beights of heaven, or the larly not in ver. 14)—all this exhibits Zophar depths of hell, or the lengths of the earth, or to us as a kindred soul with Eliphaz and Bildad. the breadıbs of the sea, nowhere do we discover and his stand-point as most intimately related any bridge hospitably inviting and facilitating to theirs.
our advance. We find no experience, not even 2. That, however, which marks the difference a presentiment of the love-power of Christ's cross, between this discourse, as to its contents and which fills and pervades the abysmal depths tendency, and those of the two former speakers of the divine nature. There is to be found as -a difference, too, which is not to the advan- yet po trace of that knowledge of God, which tage of the speaker-is its tone, which is immen- Paul in Eph. iii. 18 describes as a “compresurably more violent. Its attack on the sorely hending... what is the breadih and the length tried sufferer, who so greatly needed a merciful and the depth and the height: a comprebenand tender treatment, is barsher, more pointed sion which indeed belongs only to the “gaints" and personal. At the very beginning (vers. 2-3) of the New Dispensation, which is produced the bitter charge is hurled at his bead that his only by the cross of the Redeemer as the soluspeech was "a torrent of words” and “empty tion of all contradictions (comp. also Eph. iv. talk.” To the expression “an empty pate, 8-10), and which can be acquired and appropriwhich is here applied to him, is added in vers. ated only at the feet of the Crucified One* The 11-12 a description of vain, hollow-pared, stubborn people (who are like the wild ass), which
It is a favorite thought of many of 'he Church Fathers
that the Cross of Christ is a power which mediates and points with unmistakable significance to Job. reconciles the discords and oppositions bư tw'en all pirts of And in the closing passage (ver. 20), which the universo (as throch accordingly it sent its roots down points out the hopeless destruction of the wicked into the under-world, its head up into heaven, wuile with
both arms it lovingly embraced the broad expanse of earth there is no trace of the delicacy and urbanity and air). This thought is elaborated for the most part in of his two predecessors, at the close of whose connection with Eph. iii. 18 (ch. iv. 8-10), bnt (ccasi naliy discourses, the tone of promise altogether pre
also with referency to Job xi. 8, 9. So by Bisil the Great
(comm. on Isai. ii.); by Gregory of Nyssa ( Catech. Magna, c. dominates over that of threats and warnings. | 32); by Rufinus (Erposilio Symb. Apostolici); by Corl. The discourse at this very point shows a deci- Seduliui (Mirabilir Div. V. 297, 54); by John of Damascus dedly perceptible advance beyond the two which (De fide orthod. iv. 12), etc. The same may be said of midy
mod rn mystics and the sophists, such as Paader, St. Marprecede towards inconsiderate harshness. “Eli- tin, Görres, J. F. v. Moyer. Comp. especially the last named's phoz barely appended a slight warning; Bildad Blätter f. hohere Wahrheit," Vol. VII. pag. 145 seq. "The briefly blends it with his promise by way of
Cross points upward and downward, to the right and to the
left; this fourfold direction designates the All, on which and contrast; Zophar adds a verse which already from which its intuance arts. Its head uplifts itself to the looks like the advanced picket of an army of throne of God, and its root reaches down to hell. Its arms stretch similar harsh menares in chs. XV., xviii., xx.”
out from the rising of the sun to the going down of the same, froin
pole to pole. In it heaven and earth are united, in it ap(Ewald). Again, the exceedingly personal and peased; in it things which are most strongly opposed aro deficiency in this knowledge of God, which Zo- | for its greatness is not included within all of pbar bere exhibits is indeed on his part essen- these. For the heaven of the heavens cannot tially not criminal, resting as it does on the fact contain Thee, says Solomon in his prayer (1 Ki. that neither to him, nor to his associates, nor 10 viii. 27).—Cocceius : It is no longer necessary Job himself, had the mystery of justification by that we should wish for one who might either faith been openly revealed as yet (comp. Breu- ascend to heaven, or descend to hell, or depart tius: “Zoplar and the other friends of Job beyond the sea. In Christ we bave One who seem to be entirely ignorant of wbat the Gospel came from heaven, who returned from hell, who and faith in God's promise can effect; they measures the earth and the sea with a span. In argue against Job as though no one could ever Him all things are open and clear io us.be justified before God by faith "), and that as Starke: If man is not capable of searching out to his general position he belonged to that im- so many things in nature, how much less can be mature and imperfect stage of development in with his narrow understanding comprehend the education of the human race, when it was God s nature, and His wise government (Wisd. impossible as yet to advance beyond a rigid con- ix. 16)!-HENGSTENBERG (on ver. 10 seq): It is tra-position of the Godhead and the creature. here that we first see quite clearly in what reHe must, however, he to the last charged with spect Zopbar asserts ihe claims of the Divine criminal and guilty conduct in this, that he uses wisdom against Job, as being thai, namely, by virhig insight into that heavenly immeasurable tue of which God penetrates the depths of the human superiority of the Divine knowledge over the heart and life, which to man himself are uiterly inhuman (or, which is the same thing: bis doc- accessible and hidden. He in rendering His judgtrine that the divine wisdom represents all men ment has all facts and data at His control, as sinful and foolish) with merciless severity whereas to man only a small part is accessible. against Job, deeply wounding him with it as Ver. 13 seq. Cocceius: As there was impuwith a sword, without making even a single dence in the Pharisee's lifting up of his bands attempt to soften the application, or to use this (Luke xviii. 11 seq.), so there is decepcion ia two-edged weapon in a considerate and concili- the hypocrite's beating of the breast. These gesatory spirit.
tures easily degenerate. The best prayers are 3. It is easy to see accordingly what in Zo- those which make the lea:t noise, and which are phar's discourse must be censured as one-sided poured out in the secret recesses of the heart to and unfriendly, and what on the other hand lim who seeth in secret, and rewardeth openly, remains as really beautiful and valuable reli- who is the “ Hearer of the heart, not of the gious and moral truth. The latter is limited voice," as Cyprian says.-STARKE: True peniessentially to the inspired eulogy of the Divine tence and believing prayer are the means by wisdom and omniscience in ver. 7 seq.,—a de- which calamity is warded off, and prosperity scription which in power and beauty is not, and blessing procured (Judith viii. 12 seq.) With indeed, equal to that presented in the introduc- true repentance, however, there must be assotory part of Ps. cxxxix., but which furnishes ciated (as in the case of Zaccbæus, Luke xix. nevertheless one of the most note-worthy Old 8) an earnest purpose to reform the life. Testament parallels of that passage. It is in the Ver. 15 seq. BRENTIUS: What therefore shall more detailed exhibition of the individual beau- be to the man wbo directs his own beart, who ties and profound truths of this eulogy of Divine stretches out his bands toward God, and who wisdom that we are principally to find the purges his works of sin: He dares to lift up
his face before God, without spot, without crime;
for if conscience, sin, or Satan should accuse us HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL
it is God who justifies; it is Christ who died and Suggestions of this Discourse.—It is neither ne
rose again, and the Christian shall rise togetber cessary nor advisable to subdivide it in thus with Him.... All these promises are fulfilled in treating it. For as vers. 2–5 are simply in the Church, in which by faith tears are wiped troductory to the main theme, so vers. 13-20 away, and mourning disappears (Rev. xxi. 4); show how the wisdom of the Most High, incom- the body indeed suffers pain, but the inward man prehensible in itself, and His omniscience, can is renewed day by day (2 Cor. iv. 16). alone become comprehensible to man, thus fur- Ver. 20. STARKE : The Divine threatenings nishing the basis for the practical and hortatory are to be applied to the soul that rests in carepart, in which every homily on such a theme as less security, but not to the soul that is tried the present one must find its issue. The whole with temptation and anguish (2 Thess. 5. 14).is to be left in its organic connection. The fol- | HengSTENBERG; Job had spoken of death as his lowing hints however may serve for the treat-only hope. Very true, says Zophar, it is the ment of particular passages.
only hope, if thou remainest as thou art! ZoVer. 7. ECOLAMPADIUS: By the four greatest phar is quite right in making all Job's hope, and dimensions of the greatest things the idea of su- all his salvation depend on his knowing himself preme perfection is conveyed. Wisdom is as a sinner. His error begins only when he higher than the heaven, deeper than hell, comes to determine more particularly the way broader than the sea, and longer than the earth, and mode of recognizing sin, when—that is—be
treats sinners and transgressors as convertible reconciled and made ona."
terms. In his sense Job could not acknowledge tical).
." Comp. also the remarks of Ecolampadius, Cocceias, etc., cited below (Homiletical and Prac
himself a sinner.