صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني

the “extremity" of the Almighty, the dimensions : Ver. 11. For He semphatic, *777; whether with which we seek to measure His infinitude. others know it, or not] knows evil men Hence the question, vividly annexed to this ex(xiv

| (XWW 'ng, lit. "men of vanity, of falsehood,”

og lit oman of vanity of faleshor clamation-what canst thou do?-emphasizing the helplessness and powerlessness of

| [“ people who hypocritically disguise their man over agaiast that which is immeasurable.

moral nothingness." Del.], as in Ps. xxvi. 4; To this corresponds the second member:

comp. also Job xxii. 15), and sees wickeddeeper than the underworld (are the hid

ness without considering it: i. e. without den depths, the grounds of the Godhead, or of

watching it with strenuous and anxious strictthe Divine Wisdom)—what knowest thou ? ness. (comp: ch. xxxiv

ness (comp. ch. xxxiv. 23), the moral qualities what can thy knowledge do in view of such

of His creatures being at every moment unveiled depths ? In so far as the phrase "heights of

to His omniscience.[“ Finely magnifying the

Divine Insight, which is omniscient, and is so heaven” points back to the idea of the ring, without effort.” Dav.] This is the only renderwhile the phrase “deeper than the underworld" points to that of the in, the position of the

ing of plan*S! which accords with the contwo members of this verse seems to be inverted

| text (comp. already Aben Ezra ; non opus habet, as regards those of the ver. preceding. It is to

ut diu consideret ; among moderns Hirzel, Dillm., be observed that the ruling idea here, as well as

Del., etc.). Far less natural are the expladein the following verse, is throughout that of the

tions of' Ewald: “without his (the wicked) Divine wisdom (omniscience), or the Divine na

observing it;" of Umbreit, Stickel, Hahn: ture on the side of wisdom and intellectual perfec

“ without his (the wicked) being observed;" tion, as the connection of the passage with ver.

of Schlottman: "and (sees) him who observes

not, who is without understanding." 6 clearly shows.

Ver. 12. So must (even) a witless man Ver. 9. Longer than the earth is its measure, and broader is it than the sea: viz.

| acquire wisdom, and a wild ass's foal be the Divine wisdom, the immeasurableness of

| born over a man.--This interpretation, which which is here described according to all the four

is the one substantially adopted by Piecator, dimensions, according to the height and depth,

Umbreit, Ewald, Schlottm., Vaih., Heiligst., and also according to the length and breadth,

| Dillmann (Renan, Hengst., Wordsworth], and as in Eph. iii, 18 these same four dimensions

generally by most moderns, is the most suitable are used in describing the absoluteness of the

among the numerous interpretations of this diflove of God in Christ. Our translation : "longer

ficult verse. The connection by the ! with the than the earth is its [lit. her] measure,” rests verse preceding, shows that this verse should on the reading on with He mappig, which is indicate what effect the judicial intervention of to be regarded as an abbreviated feminine form

the Omniscient God ought to have on man, even

though he be a stubborn sinner and devoid of also Zech. iv. 2. etc.). The Magorah. indeed. understanding.-3121 W'X, lit. & man bored favors 777?, with He raphatum, with which

through, i. e. a hollow man, hence one void of reading the word would be the Accus, of nearer

understanding, a man without intellectual and definition (“according to its measure, in mea moral substance; comp. the phrase XIN nosure”). But the separation between the Accus. Again, xn (of which 899 is in apposition, of relation and its ruling word produced by a not in the genitive), signifies lit. "a foal, a wild word intervening, would give here, where X7

ass, i. e., a wild-ass-foal (comp. the phrase Ane is omitted, a somewhat harsh construction, to which the simpler rendering given above is to be

078, used in almost the same sense of untamed preferred.

wildness in Gen. xvi. 12).—Both these expresSecond Strophe: vers. 10-12. [The judicial | sions, as well as those of the preceding verse, intervention of God supposed.]

are chosen not without reference to the conduct Ver. 10. If He passes by 1950', as in ch. of Job, who seems to Zophar to be an obstinate ix. 11; E. V. incorrectly “cut off”), and

fool (comp. ch. ii. 10); although not pointed arrests, and calls to judgment (lit. summons

directly at him, they inflict on him a sensible an assembly, implying that the process of a trial

cut (see ch. xii. 3, where with evident reference was public, and the verdict rendered and exe-to the 327 of this passage, Job with indignant cuted by the assembled people: comp. Ezek. xvi. 40; xxiii. 46; 1 Kings xxi. 9). [“ One might

soorn says '3 229?-11-E.], and they at the almost imagine that Zophar looks upon himself same time facilitate the transition to the followand the other two friends as forming such an ing admonitions. Observe also the intentional • assembly:' they cannot justify him in opposi- and witty paronomasia [both of sound and sense] tion to God, since He accounts him guilty.” Del.1-Who will oppose Him ? present a protest in behalf of the accused as though he

made a man of substance [der Hohlkopf soll bewere not guilty. Comp. in general ch. ix. 11,

herzt gemacht], the void in his head is to be filled 12, which description" of Job's Zophar here

up as it were by a new heart. [Observe in reproduces in part word for word, but with

addition the assonance of the closing words of quite another purpose, viz. to defend, not to con each member, 2015 and 75.-Davidson adopts demn or assail God's justice ["??: vav apod. essentially the same construction of terms and with fine effect-who, as you say (ix. 12) would ?" clauses as that given here, but gives to the verse Dav.].

a different tone. Instead of regarding it as a

) מדתה for comp . ch . v :עָרְמָתָם for עֶרְמָם ,18 .

the empty man is to be :יִלָּכֵב and נָבוּב between

grave declaration of what should be the result of becoming a man, being born, here being born of the judicial intervention of God, he regards again a man, suggests that the verse is most it as a sarcastic denial of wisdom to man:- probably a synonymous parallelism, the same But a wirless man would be wise, and a wild ass essential thought being repeated in both memcolt be a born man! a man who is a fool would bers. (3) The gravity of the connection forbids arrogate wisdom to himself, and though a wild our regarding the verse as simply a piece of ass colt, he would claim humanity.” This, how-witty irony. The verses preceding are a solever, would be a tone of remark entirely out of emn description of God's procedure against harmony with what precedes, and with what fol. man in judgment; the verses following a lows. Davidson characterizes the interpretation solemn appeal to Job to repent and return to ailopted above as 'excessively artificial and un- God. This verse in like manner is far more hebraistic in construction:" a strange charge likely to be a grave earnest affirmation of surely to come from one who adopts the very truth than the opposite. (4) The practical drift same construction, except that he gives it a differ- of the connection makes it probable tbat the verse ent coloring. Equally wide of the mark is the is not a description of the sinner in his perver, objection that Job himself did not exhibit the sity, but in the possibilities of his restoration. result which Zophar here says ought or might As the result of God's severe disciplinary probe expected to follow.-Hengstenberg remarks cesses “empty min may or should be filled with on the contents of the verse according to our a heart, and a wild ass's foal may or should be interpretation : “We have here the first passage born over a man.” This being the case, if thou of Scripture which speaks of a regeneration,”- direct thine heart, etc., thou shalt lift up thy E.] The following varying explanations are to face without spot, etc. Thus understood, it will be rejected as being in part against the connec- be seen that the verse furnishes a suitable sequel tion, in part too harsh, or grammatically inad- to vers. 10, 11, and a suitable preparation to missible. 1. “An empty man is without heart," ver. 13 seq.-(5) It seems exceedingly probable i. e, without understanding, etc. (Gesenius, Ols. to say the least, that Job's language in ch. xii. hausen), (Conant, Noyes, Merx, Rodwell. – | 3 a is his direct reply to the implied reproach in Against this it may be argued that such a pri

this verse. There he claims that he has as as vative use of Niphal is unexampled in Hebrew,

well as the friends, a claim which is most satisand especially as Dillmann urges, that the sentiment ihus expressed is self-evident and trite,

factorily explained by supposing that he was and takes away the whole force of the parodo

stung to make it by understanding Zophar's lanmasia).-2. “But man, like a hollow pate, has

guage here to imply that he needed to be put in he understanding." etc. (Hirzel). ["Violates the possession of 225.-E.). accentuation, and produces an affected witti. 4. Third Division: An admonition to repentcism." Del.7-3. “Man is — at his birth--as ance and conversion as the only means by which one empty furnished with a heart," i. e. he Job can recover his former prosperity, and esreceives an empty undiscerning heart (Hupfeld). cape the terrible doom of the wicked: vers. [Opposed to the future verbs, and to the corre- | 13-20.

First Strophe : Vers. 13-15. A period, con

sisting of ver. 13 as hypothetical antecedent, flares up, or becomes insolent, etc.(Vulgate, Stickel, Welte [Carey), etc. [Does not bring |

ver. 15 as consequent, and ver. 14 as a regularly

constructed parenthesis. out the proper antithesis between 312) and aan. Ver. 13. (But) if thou direct thy heart Why should the man of whom it is affirmed that (prepare it, bring it into a proper condition, not: he has a bold defiant heart be described as "give it the right direction towards God,” Del. 3121? This meaning is, moreover, less suitable and others; nor again : “establish it,” Hirzel to the connection. See remarks below at the [“not pertinent, because Zophar has not in his end of the verse.—The same objections apply

mind so much perseverance in godliness as a reto] 5. “An empty man becomes stubborn

turn to it,” Dav.]), and spread forth thy (Böttcher).-6. Before an empty head gaing

hands unto Him, viz., in prayer and penitent a heart (understanding), a wild ass's foal will supplication for mercy; comp. ch. viii. 5, and be born again a man” (Rosenm., Hahn, Del.,

Haho Del for the same phrase Dio , manus supinas Kamphausen, etc.)

(palmas) extendere, comp. Ex. ix. 29, 33; 1 Kings sin determining the meaning of this difficult

viii. 22 ; Isa. i. 15.

Ver. 14. If iniquity is in thy hand, put expression the following considerations should

it far away, and let not evil dwell in thy have controlling weight. (1) The evident anti

tents (comp. ch. v. 24); this being the antecethesis of J12) and 22. Now as 313) can be dent condition of the success of Job's prayer acreferred only to man iu his sinful hollowness, cording to Zophar's mode of thinking, which emptiness, 325 must describe the opposite, or

indeed is not in itself a theory of legality or man as endowed with a heart to understand,

work-righteousness (comp. Ps. xxxiv. 13 (12)

seq. ; 1 Pet. iii. 10; Isa. i. 15 seq.), but which appreciate, and profit by God's dealings. (2)

in the present case does nevertheless proceed The assonance of 33 and 752, as well as the from a narrow judgment, and is excessively ofstriking homogeneousness of ihought between | fensive to Job. the two terms, the one describing the process

| Ver. 15. Surely, then thou shalt lift up of endowing man with as, the distinguishingi. e., " without consciousness of guilt, and with

thy face (comp. on ch. x. 15) without spot: characteristic of manhood, the other the process out any outward sign of the same cleaving to

Ignorant man • .4-.[ילבב and נבוב lation of

thee,” (Dillm.) 1? lit. "away from,” here equi- | prosperity; a rendering which destroys the anvalent to 4 without." como. ch. xix. 26: xxi, 9: | tithesis between this verse and ch. X. 22.-E. V.: 2 Sam. i. 22; Prov. xx. 3; and shalt be stead

“thou shalt shine fortb" seems to be a para. fast without fearing: shalt be firmly fixed in phrase of this last rendering, suggested perhaps thy new prosperity, without having to fear any

by the frequent comparison of the beams of light further judgments of God.-px?, Part. Hoph.

to the wings of a bird.-E.] of px", lit. fused into solidity, quasi ex ære fusus

Third Strophe : Vers. 18-20. Conclusion of the

promise of prosperity, with an admonitory re(comp. 1 Kings vii. 16. p• We must not lose

ference to the joyless end of the wicked. the fine idea of one state arising out of another, a state of fluidity

Ver. 18. And thou hast (thou shalt have, ? ch. vi. 14) passing over

Perf. consec.) confidence, because there is into solidity; playing on Job's past and future.” Dav.).

(0", " with the force of a real and lasting existSecond Strophe: Vers. 16. 17. Continuation of ence," Del.] hope (for thee, comp. ch. xiv. 7, the promise of well-being to the penitent.

also the opposite of this hopeful condition, deVer. 16. For thou shalt forget trouble,

scribed above in ch. vii. 6); and thou shalt shalt remember it as waters that have search about to ascertain, viz., whether all passed away : ag something therefore that is that pertains to thy household is in a state of never to come back, that has disappeared for

order and security; comp. ch. v. 24 b), shalt ever. f“When we think of water that has

lie down securely, viz., for sleep; comp. Ps. flowed away, we think of it as something which iv. 9 (8). en here certainly “to spy out," as does not return, or rather we think no more in ch. xxxix. 21, 29; not “to blush (799), to be about it at all, for with its disappearance even

ashamed," as though nyen! were a concessive the remembrance of it is gone.” Dillmann). The

antecedent clause: “and even shouldest thou be pronoun here is emphatic : “for thou thyself wilt forget trouble, thou and none other, no stranger

put to shame (in thy confidence), thou canst still (comp. ch. xix. 27) [or, as Davidson: “thou,

lie down in peace," Rosenm., Hirzel, [Carey), unlike others, who escape calamity, but are

an unsuitable weakening of the sense, which is haunted by its memory;" or, as Hengst: thou,

at variance with the remainder of the bright who just now canst think no other thought than

promises contained in these verses. [“ Against of thy suffering”]: giving “an emphasis to the

this conditional sense is the affirmative use of personal application of this peroration," which

the corresponding form in the parallel member.”

Con. “ It is inadmissible, since it introduces a would be lost if, with the Pesh, and Hirzel, 'J

sadness into the promise." Del.]. The rendernrX were changed to y D.

ing of Hengstenberg is altogether too artificial: Ver. 17. And brighter than the glory of "and thou hast dug," i. e., dug a trench for pronoon (0'1773, as in ch. v. 146) arises (for tection around thy house [and so E. V.-"thou thee) the future. 750, lit. that which creeps

shalt dig about thee"], a sense which the refe

rence to ch. iii. 21; xxxix. 21 is scarcely suffialong slowly, which passes by unobserved (from cient to justify. 7507, to glide) hence time in general, either in Ver. 19. Thou liest down without any the sense of the world, that which is temporal, one making thee afraid; as peacefully and aióv (Ps. xvii. 14; comp. Hupfeld on the pas- securely, that is, as the becst, or the cattle, sage, Ps. xlix. 2); or in the sense of life, life- which no foe terrifies; comp. Gen. xlix. 9; Isa. time, future, as here and in Ps. xxxix. 6 (5); xvii. 2.-Yea, many shall seek thy favor, lxxxix. 48 (47), etc. [“ DIP', an exquisite lit. stroke, or caress thy face (Del. “thy cheeks") image, lift itself up, disentangle itself from the

fatter thee; comp. Prov. xix. 6; Ps. xlv. 13 accumulated, crusbing darkness of the present,

(12). Instead of being despised, and covered increasing in brilliancy ever as it disengages

with ignominy, (ch. x. 15) thou shalt be highly itself.” Dav.]. For ? in 0'77737, (with “bright

honored, and greatly courted. er” to be supplied) comp. Mic. vii. 4.-Should Ver. 20. But the eyes of the wicked it be dark, it will be as the morning; i. e., waste away, in vainly looking for help, in if any darkness should come, if dark adversity unsatisfied yearning for good (comp. ch. xvii. 5) should befull thee (1723, 3d Pers. Fem., with

and every refuge vanishes from them; lit. neut. signification: not 2d Pers., “shouldest thou become dark," as Schlottm. would explain)

ouldest “away from them,” DO?!? poet. for on?; and it will then ever be as bright as on a clear morn

their hope is the breathing out of the soul; ing: evidently an intentional reversal of the i. e., all that they have still to hope for is the gloomy picture of his future in ch. x. 22, which breathing out of their soul (comp. was ne), ch. Job had himself drawn. [“ His climax there

| xxxi. 39; Jer. xv. 9), hence the giving up of the was that his daylight should be as darkness;

ghost, death (not a state where their desires will Zophar's promise is that his darkness shall be

Il be remain eternally unfulfilled, as Delitzsch exdaylight.” Dav.-Gesenius (in Thes.) Ewald, I plains.) po Zophar here makes use of the choicest Conant, etc., prefer taking nown as a noun, expressions of the style of the prophetic Psalms,” “darkness," written pyn, or 721n, as found

Delitzsch. “If we compare with each other the in a few MSS., and as 'read by the Syr. and closing words of the three friends, ch. v. 26 sq. ; Chald.-Bernard, Hengstenberg, and others ren- | viii. 22 6; xi. 20, the advance, which each makes der the verb—“thou shalt fiy up," i. e., soar out beyond his predecessor, is unmistakable.” Dillof the depths of thy misery to the heights of mann.]

unqualified way in which Zophar in ver. 6 DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL.

reproaches Job with his guilt, and suggests that

there must be not a little of it that is overlooked 1. This first discourse of Zophar's resembles by God, as well as the pot less personal and that of Eliphaz, and still more that of Bildad, humiliating demand that he should repent and both in respect of the rebuke with which it be- renounce all unrighteousness as a conditio sine gins (" who can hear such words in silence ?" qua non of his restoration to divine favor (ver. etc.) and in respect of the union of promise and 13 seq.) exhibit a certain advance on the part of warning at the close. It proceeds from the same this speaker beyond the stand-point of the two theological and ethical premises as those of the former. Instead of reckoning bimself as betwo previous speakers, in so far as it puts God's longing to those who need repentance and puri. absolute perfection and exaltation (here more fication, as Eliphaz does very distinctly, and particularly on the intellectual side, the illimita- | Bildad also, at least to some extent, Zophar, bility of His knowledge and His wisdom) in so when he reminds Job of the duty of acknowlemn and emphatic contrast with the short-sighted ledging his sing and repenting of them, speaks limitation of man, and thence derives man's obli- only in the second person. He thus sets himselt gation in all circumstances to draw nigh to God up before him as a rigid censor and accuser, as a penitent, and to confess himself before Him and assumes the character of an advocate of as guilty and deserving of punishment. Not less God, who himself needs no correction. As a does it rese nble those two preceding arraign- consequence all that he says in the way of posiments of Job in respect of form, in the strength tive instruction, or produces out of the store of of its expressions, in the poetic loftiness and his monotheistic Chokmah-tradition, loses for fig'ırative richness of its descriptions, qualities Job its proper moral value and its determining which shine forth with especial brilliancy in | power. Even the description of the abysmal the passage where the Divine wisdom is de- vastness and unsearchableness of the Divine scribed as being high as heaven, deep as bell, nature and intelligence in ver. 7 seq , grand as it long as the earth, and broad as the sea (vers. | is in itsell, must seem colil to Job, and pass 7-9). Moreover the comparatively correct away without leaving any impression on him; orthodoxy of its positions and arguments, the for no softening ray of heartfelt brotherly love, ahsence of everything that would decidedly con- and of a humble realization of grace falls on tra lict the doctrinal and ethical tradition of this magnificent picture of the Divine omnispious Old Testament worshippers of Jehovah cience and wisdom. That picture can and should (worshippers of Eloah), the circumstance that in truth produce only terror and trembling; for nowhere is there even any excessive work-right-in whichever of the four directions we turn, eousness and legal harshness visible (particu- whether toward the heights of heaven, or the larly not in ver. 14)--all this exhibits Zophar depths of hell, or the lengths of the earth, or to us as a kindred soul with Eliphaz and Bildad. the breadths of the sea, nowhere do we discover and his stand-point as most intimately related | any bridge hospitably inviting and facilitating to theirs.

our advance. We find no experience, not even 2. That, however, which marks the difference a presentiment of the love-power of Christ's cross, between this discourse, as to its contents and which fills and pervades the abysipal depths tendency, and those of the two former spenkers of the divine nature. There is to be found as La difference, too, which is not to the advan yet no trace of that knowledge of God, which tage of the speaker-is its tone, which is immea Paul in Eph. iii. 18 describes as a “compresurably more violent. Its attack on the sorely hending ... what is the breadıh and the length tried sufferer, who so greatly needed a merciful and the depth and the height:' A comprehenand tender treatment, is barsher, more pointed sion which indeed belongs only to the saints" and personal. At the very beginning (vers. 2-3) of the New Dispensation, which is produced the bitter charge is hurled at his bead that his only by the cross of the Redeemer as the soluspeech was “a torrent of words” and “ empty tion of all contradictions (comp. also Eph. iv. talk.” To the expression " an empty pate, 8-10), and which can be acquired and appropriwhich is here applied to him, is added in vers. ated only at the feet of the Crucified One. * The 11-12 a description of vain, hollow-pated, stubborn people (who are like the wild ass), which

* It is a favorite thought of many of The Church Fathers

that the Crosg of Christ is a power wbich mediates and points with unmistakable significance to Job. reconciles the discords and oppositions between all pirts of And in the closing passage (ver. 20), which | the universe (as though accordingly it sent its roots down points out the bopeless destruction of the wicked,

into the under-world, its head up into heaven, wuile with

both arms it lovingly embraced ihe broad expanse of earth there is no trace of the delicacy and urbanity and aic). This thought is elaborated for the most part in of his two predecessors, at the close of whose connection with Eph. vl. 18 (ch. iv. 8-10), but occasi naliy discourses, the tone of promise altogether pre

Also with relerencu to Job xi. 8, 9. So by B.sil the Great

comm. on Isai. ii.); by Gregory of Nyesa ( Catech, Magna, c. dominates over that of threats and warnings. 32; by Rufinns'' (Erporilio Symb. Apostolici); by Corl. The discourse at this very point shows a deci- Seduliui (Mirabilia Div. V. 297, 54); by John of Damascus dedly perceptible advance beyond the two which

(De fide orthod. iv. 12), etc. The same may be said of m y

modrn mystics and the sophists, #uch as Paader, St. Marprecede towards inconsiderate harshness. “Eli

tin. Görres, J. F. v. M.yer. Comp, especially the last named's phoz barely appended a slight warning; Bildad Blätter f. hohere Wahrheil," Vol. VIII., page 145 seq.: "The briefly blends it with his promise by way of

Cross points upward and downward, to the right and to the

left; this fourfold direction designates the All, on which and contrast ; Zophar adds a verse which already from which its influence arts. Its head uplifts itself to the looks like the advanced picket of an army of throne of God, and its root reaches down to hell. Its arms stretch similar similar harsh menanes in chs. xv., xviii., xx." | arah mengnes in who

visi " out from the rising of the sun to the going doirn of the same, from

pole to pole. In it heaven and earth are united, in it ap(Ewald). Again, the exceedingly personal and peaseu, in it things which are most strongly opposed aro deficiency in this knowledge of God, which Zo- | for its greatness is not included within all of phar bere exhibits is indeed on his part essen- these. For the heaven of the heavens cannot tially not criminal, resting as it does on the fact contain Thee, says Solomon in his prayer (1 Ki. that neither to him, nor to his associates, nor to viii. 27).-CocceIUS: It is no longer necessary Job himself, had the mystery of justification by that we should wish for one who might either faith been openly revealed as yet (comp. Breu- ascend to heaven, or descend to hell, or depart tius: “Zoplar and the other friends of Job / beyond the sea. In Christ we have One who seem to be entirely ignorant of what the Gospel came from heaven, who returned from hell, who and faith in God's promise can effect; they measures the earth and the sea with a span. In argue against Job as though no one could ever Him all things are open and clear to us. be justified before God by faith”), and that as STARKE: If man is not capable of searching out to his general position he belonged to that im so many things in nature, how much less can he mature and imperfect stage of development in with his narrow understanding comprehend the education of the human race, when it was God s nature, and His wise government (Wisd. impossible as yet to advance beyond a rigid con- ix. 16)!-HENGSTENBERG (on ver. 10 seq): It is tra-position of the Godhead and the creature. here that we first see quite clearly in what reHe must, however, be to the last charged with spect Zophar asserts the claims of the Divine criminal and guilty conduct in this, that he uses wisdom against Job, as being that, namely, by virhis insight into that heavenly immeasurable tue of which God penetrates the depths of the human superiority of the Divine knowledge over the heart and life, which to man himself are urterly inhuman (or, which is the same thing: his doc- accessible and hidden. He in rendering His judgtiine that the diving wisdom represents all men ment has all facts and data at His control, as sinful and foolish) with merciless severity whereas to man only a small part is accessible. against Job, deeply wounding him with it as Ver. 13 seq. Cocceius: As there was impuwith a sword, without making even a single dence in the Pharisee's lifting up of his bands attempt to soften the application, or to use this (Luke xviii. 11 seq.), so there is decepcion ia two-edged weapon in a considerate and concili- the hypocrite's beating of the breast. These gesatory spirit.

tures easily degenerate. The best prayers are 3. It is easy to see accordingly what in Zo- those which make the least noise, and wbich are phar's discourse must be censured as one-sided | poured out in the secret recesses of the heart to and unfriendly, and what on the other hand Ilim who seeth in secret, and rewardeth openly, remains as really beautiful and valuable reli- who is the “Hearer of the heart, not of the gious and moral truth. The latter is limited voice," as Cyprian says.-STARKE: True penis essentially to the inspired eulogy of the Divine tence and believing prayer are the means by wisdom and omniscience in ver. 7 seq.,-a de which calamity is warded off, and prosperity scription which in power and beauty is not, and blessing procured (Judith viii. 12 seq.) With indeed, equal to that presented in the introduc- true repentance, however, there must be assotory part of Ps. cxxxix., but which furnishes ciated (as in the case of Zaccbæus, Luke xix. nevertheless one of the most note-worthy Old 8) an earnest purpose to reform the life. Testa

tament parallels of that passage. It is in the ! Ver. 15 seg. BRENTIUS: What therefore shall more detailed exhibition of the individual beau- be to the man who directs his own heart, wbo ties and profound truths of this eulogy of Divine stretches out his hands toward God, and who wisdom that we are principally to find the purges his works of sin: He dares to list up

his face before God, without spot, without crime;

for if conscience, sin, or Satan should accuse us HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL

it is God who justifies; it is Christ who died and Suggestions of this Discourse. It is neither ne

is neither ne- rose again, and the Christian shall rise together cessary nor advisable to subdivide it in thus with Him.... All these promises are fulfilled in treating it. For as vers. 2–5 are simply in the Church, in which by faith tears are wiped troductory to the main theme, so vers. 13-20 away, and mourning disappears (Rev. xxi. 4); show how the wisdom of the Most High, incom- the body indeed suffers pain, but the inward man prehensible in itself, and His omniscience, canis renewed day by day (2 Cor. iv. 16). alone become comprehensible to man, thus fur- Ver. 20. Starke: The Divine threatenings nishing the basis for the practical and hortatory are to be applied to the soul that rests in carepart, in which every homily on such a theme as

less security, but not to the soul that is tried the present one must find its issue. The whole

with temptation and anguish (2 Thess. v. 14). — is to be left in its organic connection. The fol

HengstenBERG; Job had spoken of death as his lowing hints however may serve for the treat

only hope. Very true, says Zophar, it is the ment of particular passages.

only hope, if thou remainest as thou art! ZoVer. 7. EcoLAMPADIUS: By the four greatest

pbar is quite right in making all Job's hope, and dimensions of the greatest things the idea of su all his salvation depend on his knowing himself preme perfection is conveyed. ... Wisdom is as a sinner. His error begins only when he higher than the heaven, deeper than hell,

comes to determine more particularly the way broader than the sea, and longer than the earth, and mode of recognizing sin, when-that is be

treats sinners and transgressors as convertible reconciled and made one." Comp. also the remarks of Eco

terms. In his sense Job could not acknowledge lampadius, Cocceius, etc., cited be.ow (Homiletical and Practical).

| himself a sinner.

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