صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني

.(בְּכָל־אֵלֶּה before לֹא יָדע) position of the words

wields the weapon, as in Hab. I. c. and Mic. ii., look the retrospective reference which is to be 1, are, however, so nearly identical as descrip- looked for to the various kinds of animals tive of the character here referred to, that either already cited. Neither with Ewald (Hengst., resolves itself into the other. Conant, who Noyes) is it to be taken in the sense of among adopts the rendering of E. V.: “he into whose all these," as if the passage contained a referhand God bringeth” (E. V. adds abundantly")ence to a knowledge possessed by all the creai. e. whom God prospers, objects that by the tures of God as their Creator, or possibly to the other rendering “the thought is expressed very groaning of the creature after the Godhead, as coarsely, as to form, when it might be done in described in Rom. viii. 18 sq. This partitive the Hebrew with great felicity.” It is difficult rendering of 3 (which Renan as well as Ewald to see, however, how the sentence: “he who

adopts: “ qui ne sait parmi tous ces étres," etc.) is takes God in his hand” could be expressed more idiomatically or forcibly than in the words

at variance with the context, as well as the of the passage before us. Wordsworth somewhat differently: " who grasps God in his hand.

-That the hand of Jehovah hath made The wicked, in his impious presumption, imagines that he can take God prisoner and lead

this.-nxi refers essentially to the same object Him as a captive by his power." But this is with 7778-52, only that it embraces a still wider les natural than the above.-E.)

circle of contemplation than the latter expresSecond Strophe: vers. 7-12. [* Return to the

sion, which refers only to the classes of animals thought of ver. 3—the shallowness of the friends'

| afore-mentioned. It denotes “the totality of wisdom on the Divine. Such knowledge and that which surrounds us," the visible universe, deeper every one possessed who had eyes and

the whole world (tà Baetóueva, Heb. xi. 3); ears. For (1) every creature in earth and sea and air proclaimed it (7-10); and (2) every comp. Is. Ixvi. 2; Jer. xiv. 22; where 1758-53 man of thought and age uttered it in the general is used in this comprehensive signification ; so ear (11, 12)."' Dav.]

also above in ch. xi. 8 seq., to which description Ver. 7. But ask now even the beasts- of the all-embracing greatness of God there is they can teach thee.—[“D?X?, recovery from

here a manifest reference. Ewald, Dillmann

[Conant, Davidson) translate: “that the band the crushing thought of vers. 4-6, and strong

of Jehovah hath done this.” By nxi, “this,'' antithesis to the assumption of the friends.” Ewald understands “the decreeing of suffering Dav.] n., as also 7' in the second member, and pain” (of which also the groaning creation voluntative [or, jussive], hence not literally

would testify); Dillmann refers it to the mighty

and wise administration of God among His creafuture-"they will teach it to thee”-as commonly rendered. Here the form of address is

tures; both of which explanations are manifestly

more remote than the one given above. [" The different from that adopted heretofore in this discourse, being now directed to one only of the

meaning of the whole strophe is perveried if friends, viz. to Zophar, to whose eulogy of the

nxiis, with Ewald, referred to the destiny of absolute wisdom of God (ch. xi. 7-9) reference

severe suffering and pain.' ... Since as a is here made, with the accompanying purpose

glance at what follows shows, Job further on of presenting a still more copious and elaborate

| praises God as the governor of the universe, it description of the same.

may be expected that the reference is here to Ver, 8. Or think thoughtfully on the

God as the creator and preserver of the world. earth: lit. “think on the earth," i. e. direct

1... Bildad had appealed to the sayings of the thoughtfully thy observation to the earth (which

| ancients, which have tbe long experience of the comes under consideration here, as is evident

past in their favor, to support the justice of the from what follows, as the place where the lower

Divine government; Job here appeals to the order of animals is found, the wor, Gen. ix. 2;

absoluteness of the Divine rule over creation." 1 Kings v. 13), and acquire ihe instruction

Delitzsch.)-Apart from the Prologue (ch. i. which may be derived from her. The render

21), the name 717. occurs only here in the ing of all as a substantive, in the sense of

mouth of Job, for the reason doubtless that the “shrub” (comp. ch. xxx. 4; Gen. ii. 5), is on

| whole expression here used, which recurs again

word for word in Is. xli. 20 (ch. lxvi. 2) was several grounds untenable ; for now, “shrub” | one that was everywhere much used, not unfreis, according to those passages, masculine; the quently also among the extra-Israelitish monouse of the preposition

theists (and the same is true of the expression instead of the genit.,

1378 787, ch. xxviii. 28). or instead of Sy or before 1987, would be | Ver. 10. In whose hand is the soul of singular; and the mention of plants in the midst every living thing, and the breath of all of the animals (beasts, birds, fishes), would be the bodies of men.--Evidently these words out of place (against Berleb. Bib., Böttcher, I are more naturally referred to the act of preUmbreit, etc.).

servation than to that of creation.” SCHLottm.] Ver. 9. Who would not know in all Observe the distinction between was, the lower this, etc.—So is 7778-52 to be rendered, giving principle of life, which fills all animals, and to ? the instrumental sense, not with Hahn- Din, the godlike personal spirit of man. Other" who knows not concerning all this." which wise in Eccles. iii. 19, 21, where 1747, in a wider would yield too flat a sense, and lead us to over- sense, is ascribed even to the beasts.

Vers. 11, 12. To the knowledge of God which , and here, where he is exposing the vulgarity of rests on the observation of the external cosmos the friends' much-boasted insight, it is quite in (notitia Dei naturalis externa 8. acquisita), is here place to refer to the facility any one had for added the human wisdom and insight which coming in contact with such information ; and springs from experience, especially that of the in xiii. 2, where Job recapitulates xii. 13-25, aged, as a second source from which Job might these two sources of information, sight and hear. draw (which may be regarded as the equivalent say are directly alluded to.”—Besides Delitzsch of that which is sometimes called notitia Dei and Hengstenberg, Schlottmann and Merx connaturalis interna).

nect the verse with the preceding. On the conVer. 11. Does not the ear prove sayings, trary Con., Dav., Dillm., Ren., Good, Wemyss, even as [! adæquutionis, as in ch. v. 7] the etc., connect it with the following, and correctly

so on account of the strict connection in thought, palate tastes food for itself (15, Dat. com

and especially the resumption of the thought in modi). Both comparisons illustrate the power of judicious discrimination possessed by the

varying language in ver. 16.-In answer to the

objection of abruptness in the transition if ver. human spirit, by which it discerns the inner

13 be detached from the preceding, Davidson worth of things, especially as it exists in aged

says well that “it is quite in place; the whole persons of large experience. So again later in Elibu's discourse, ch. xxxiv. 3. The opinion

chapter and speech is abrupt and passionate."

-E.). of Umbreit, Delitzsch, etc., that Job in this verse

First Division: Second Section: An animated utters an admonition not to receive without

description of the exercise of God's wisdom and proof the sayings of the ancients, to wit, those of which Bildad had previously spoken, ch. viii.

power, by way of actual proof that he is by no

means wanting in the knowledge of God, wbich 10 ("should not the ear prove the sayings ?''),

Zophar had denied to him : vers. 13-25. [It is lacks proper support. A reference to that

possible perhaps to exaggerate this idea that Job remote passage in the discourse of Bildad should bave been more clearly indicated than by the

in the passage following is consciously emulating

his opponents. Something there is of this no accidental circumstance that there as here the

doubt, but it must not be forgotten that the deword ??, “sayings, utterances,” is used. scription here given of the Divine wisdom and Moreover the “ aged ” who are here mentioned

omnipotence is an important part of Job's argu

ment, as tending to show that these attributes so (D'YO!, as in ch. xv. 10; xxix. 8) are by no

far from being employed by the ends which they means identical with the fathers of former gene- had described, are exercised to produce hopeless rations, whom Bildad had mentioned there. confusion and ruin in human affairs.-E.).

Ver. 12. Among the aged is wisdom, First double strophe : Vers. 13-18 (consi and a long life (works, gives) understand. | of two strophes of 3 verses each). ing (or lit. " length of days is understanding"]. I a. Vers. 13-15. [The theme in its most geneThe verse is related to the preceding as logical ral statement). consequent to its antecedent: As the ear deter Ver. 13. With Him are wisdom and mines the value of words, or the palate the taste might, His are counsel and discernment. of food, so aged men have been able to acquire

- The suffixes in ipy and is point back to Jefor themselves in the course of a long life a true insight into the nature of things, and a truly

| hovah, vers. 9, 10, to whom the whole following rational knowledge of the same,--and I have

description to ver. 25 in general relates. ["• With been to school with such men, I have also ven- Ilim, oy, him, doubly emphatic (a) in oppositured to draw from this source! This is the tion to the just mentioned wisdom of men, ver. meaning of the passage as clearly appears from 12 ; (b) with awe-ful omission of Divine name, the context, and it makes it unnecessary to and significant allusion and intonation in the assume: a. with Starke, etc., that Job reckons pronoun.” Dav.). The verse before us forms bimself among the aged, and as such gets him- as it were the theme of this description, which self in the fullness of his self-consciousness presents Job's own personal confession of faith against the three friends as being younger tban in respect to the nature and wisdom of God. It himself (which is distinctly refuted by what we is therefore neither an expression of the doctrifind in ch. v. 26 ; xxix. 8, 18; xv. 10); b. with mal views of a “hoary antiquity,” or of the aged Ewald, to conjecture the loss of a passage after sages of ver. 12 (Umbreit) [Ewald, Schlottm.), ver. 12, which would furnish the transition from nor a statement of that which is alone to be esthat verse to ver. 23; c. with Dillmann, that teemed as genuine Divine wisdom, in antithesis originally ver. 12 stood before vers. 9, 10, to the more imperfect “wisdom of the aged ” thus immediately following ver. 8; d. with (Delitzsch, lengstenberg). There is to be sure Delitzsch, Hengstenberg, etc., that ver. 23 is a certain progression of thought from ver. 11 to be connected closely and immediately on: the adapiation to their uses of the organs with ver. 12, so that thus the following order of of hearing and of taste, the wisdom of men of thought would be expressed: assuredly wisdom age and experience, and the wisdom of God, is to be found among the aged, but in reality transcending all else, and united with the highand in full measure it is to be found only with est power, are related to each other as positive, God, elc. fi.e. with Conant, that the verse is to be comparative, and superlative. But there is not rendered interrogatively, on the ground that Job the slightest intimation of the thought that the would not appeal to tradition in support of his absolute wisdom of God casts into the shade positions; to which Davidson replies that “ Job those rudiments of itself which are to be found assails tradition only wbere he has found it false; I in the sphere of the creature, or would hold them

up as utterly worthless. Rather is what is said | their good, are in His hand, and constrained to of the same in our verse in some measure the serve His purposes. He thus makes evil, moral fruit, or a specimen of the wisdom of the aged, which Job also claims to possess, as a pupil of

and intellectual, subservient to the good: Gen. I. such aged men. Comp. below Cocceius, in the 20; Ps. xviii. 27. [“ do and 710 here are to Homiletical Remarks on ch. xii. 10-13. Of the be understood not so much in the ethical as in four designations of the absolute Divine intelli the intellectual sense: if a man thinks himself gence here given, which accord with the lan-wise because he is superior to another, and can guage of Is. xi. 2, and the accumulation of which lead him astray, in comparison with God's wisintensifies the expression to the utmost, 722n dom the deceiver is not greater (in understanddenotes that side of God's intelligence which ing) than the deceived; He has them both in “ perceives things in the ground of their being, his hand, etc.” Dillm.] and in the reality of their existence" ["the ge- Ver. 17. He leads counsellors away stripneral word and idea comprehensive of all others,” | ped: or“who leads counsellors, etc.”—for from Dav.). 77742that “which is able to carry out this point on to the end of the description (ver. the plans, purposes, and decisions of this uni-24) Job speaking of God uses the present partiversal wisdom against all hindrance and opposi- I ciple. The circumstantial accus. Sivwhich tion” [“ virtus, 721, vir.” Dav.); 1738, that

here and in ver. 19 is used in connection with “ which is never perplexed as to the best way of reaching its purpose;" 07312A, that “ which can 7?13, (and that in the singular, like din, ch. penetrate to the bottom of what is true and xxiv. 7, 10), is rendered by the ancient versions false, sound and corrupt, and distinguish between “captive,” or “chained" (LXX., Targ. on ver.

19: ai quałárovc; Targ. on ver. 17 : catenis rincthem:" Delitzsch; rij “actively force, passively | tos), whereas etymologically the signification strength, firmness :" Dav.).

“made naked (ezutus), violently stripped” is the Ver. 14. Lo, He tears down, and it is not only one that is authenticated. The word therebuilt up (again). This is the first example of fore is equivalent to the expression 90' Didy the irresistible exercise of this absolute might | and wisdom of God. Job describes it as directed

"naked and barefoot,” Is. XX. 4, not to i bareabove all else to the work of tearing down and

foot” alone, as Oehler, Hitzig, Dillmann, etc., destroying, because in his recent mournful ex

suppose from comparison with the LXX. in Mic. periences he had been led to know it on this side

i. 8. Naturally we are to understand the deof its activity; comp. ch. ix. 5 seq., where in

scription here to be of counsellors led away like manner the mention of the destructive acti

stripped as captives taken in war: comp. Is. I. c. vities of the Divine omnipotence precedes that

and 2 Chron. xxviii. 15, as also what pertains to of its creative and constructive operation. Whe- Disz, “counsellors” in ch. iii. 14. — And ther there is a reference to Zophar's expression (ch, xi. 10; so Dillmann) is doubtful. Hesbuts

judges He makes fools. 5517', as in Isa. up a man (lit. “He shuts over a man"), and xliv. 25, to infatuate, to show to be fools. Such it cannot be opened. The expression 10

an infatuation of judges as would cause the mili

tary and political ruin of their country to prosy, “to shut over any one,” is to be explained | ceed directly from them (as in the breaking out from the fact that use was frequently made of of great catastrophes over certain kingdoms, e. pits, perhaps of cisterns, as prisons, or dun- 19. over Egypt, Is. xix. 17 seq. ; over Israel and geons: comp. Gen. xxxvii. 24; Jer. xxxviii. 6; | Judah, 2 Kings xix. 26, etc.), is not necessarily Lam. iii. 53. Where this species of incarcera- to be assumed here (comp. v. 20), although cation is not intended, 720 is used either with the tastrophes of that character are here especially accus. or with 72 (comp. ch. iii. 10; and 1 | prominent in the thought of the speaker. Sam. i. 6).

Ver. 18. He looses the bond of kings; i. Ver. 15. Lo, Ee restrains the waters, and e., He looses the bond, or the fetters, with which they dry up (Is. 1. 38); He letteth them kings bind their subjects, He breaks the tyranforth (again), and they overturn the earth. nical yoke of kings, and brings them rather into A remarkable parallel in thought to this descrip bondage and captivity, or as the second member tion of the operation of the Divine omnipotence expresses this thought more in the concrete: He in the visible creation, now withdrawing and now “binds a girdle on their loins.” It seems that 117x giving life, but ever mighty in its agency, may lit. “girdle,” in this second member should accord be found in Ps. civ. 29, 30. A reference to Zo- | with dip in the first. So much the more should the phar's comparison of past calamity with vanished

latter be pointed in, and be construed as stat. waters (ch, xi. 16) is scarcely to be recognized.

6. Vers. 16–18.'[Resumption of the themespecially of the Divine wisdom bringing confu- bind). Of less authority, etymologically, is the sion and humiliation on earth's mightiest]. interpretation required by the Masoretic punc

Ver. 16. With Him are strength and true tuation regarded as st. constr. of dia, «disci. knowledge (17 Win, precisely as in ch. xi, 6). | pline, castigatio," although it gives a sense quite His are the deceived and the deceiver nearly related to the preceding, it being presup. [the erring one, and the one who causes to err]: | posed that “discipline" is to be understood in i. e., His intelligence is so far superior to that of the sense of “rule, authority” (so among the man that alike he who abuses his wisdom in moderns, Rosenm., Arnh., Vaih., Hahn, Delitzsch leading others astray, and he who uses it for [Ges., Carey], etc.). But “discipline" is a dif


to ,אסר from ,מאסר =) מוסר .

ferent conception from “ authority,” and “nne b. Vers. 22–25. [The Divine energy as especan very well take for its object Dindia, fetters, | cially operative among nations]. ch. xxxix. 5; Ps. cxvi. 16, but not castigationem." Ver. 22. [This verse must naturally form the So Dillmann correctly, who also however rightly prelude to the deeper exercise of power and inrejects the interpretation of Ewald, Hirzel, Hei-sight among nations, and its highest generalizaligst., Welte, etc., according to which is 70'tion, comp. 16 b." Dav.).-He discovereth denotes “the fetters, with which kings are deep things out of the darkness, and bound," so that the relation between a and b | brings forth to light the shadow of death; would be not that of a logical progression, but i. e., not : “ He puts into execution His hidden of direct antithesis, as in ver. 15. [Hengsten- purposes in the destiny of nations" (Schlottm.), berg calls attention to the paronomasia of 10x: |

paronomasia of 10x, 1 [“ for who would call the hidden ground of all 2013, and Via).

appearances in God, 713 58 !" Dilllm. 1. but: Second Double Strophe : Vers. 19-25 (divided

“He brings forth into the light all the dark

plans and wickedness of men which are hidden into one strophe of three, and one of four verses): 1

in darkness;' comp. 1 Cor. iv. 5: Owritei [The description continued: the agency of the Divine wisdom in confounding the great of

Kpu Td TOÙ OKOTOUS K. T. 2., and the proverb:

There is nothing spun so fine but all comes to earth).

the light ;' see also ch. xxiv. 13 seq. ; Is. xxix. a. Vers. 19-21. [Special classes of leaders | 15; Rom. xiii. 12; 1 Thes. v. 5, etc. [Deep brought to shame described].

things out of the darkness, nip?y, must mean hidVer. 19. He leads priests away spoiled den tendencies and principles, e.g., those run(see on ver.17), and those firmly established ning under national life, ver. 23, naturally more He overthrows. [Dyn) “priests,” not

subtle and multiplex than those governing indi

vidual manifestation on however elevated a scale) “princes(E. V.) “In many of the States of and darkness, and shadow of death, figures (xi. 8). antiquity the priests were personages no legs im

descriptive of the profoundest secresy. These portant, were indeed even more important and

secret tendencies in national life and thoughthonored than the secular authorities.” Dillm.

never suspected by men who are silently carried • The juxtaposition of priests and kings here

on by them-He detects and overmasters either points to the ancient form of priestly rule, as we

to check or to fulfil.” David. A truth “ which encounter the same in the person of Jethro, andhr

' | brings joy to the good, but terror to all the chilin part also in Melchizedek.” Schlott.).—All ob- dren

zedek." Schlott.]: A obil dren of darkness (xxiv. 13 seq.), and not withjects are called "?! , “firmly-enduring "Tout threatening significance even to the friends Sperpetual], which survive the changes of time. of Job.” Dillmann). Hence the term is applied, e. g., to water which | does not become dry (aquæ perennes), or firmly

Ver. 23. He makes nations great, andfounded rocks (Jer. xlix. 19; 1. 44), or mighty, destroys them; He spreads nations abroad invincible nations (Jer. v. 15), or, as here, dis-and-causes them to be carried away (or : tinguished and influential persons (Vulg., optie carries them away captive," comp. 70377, sy. mates). [950, slip, in Piel, overthrow, aptly

nonymous with 775 177, abducere in servitutem ; also antithetic [to prix.” Dav.).

2 Kings xviii. 11). [Rodwell: “then straitens Ver. 20. Be takes away the speech of them: leads them, i. e., back into their former the most eloquent: lit. of “the trusted," of borders”). Instead of X y the LXX. (itathose who have been tried as a people's orators

vūv) as well as some of the Rabbis read xIva, and counsellors ; for they are the DPR) (from

" who infatuates, makes fools." But the first 72x, to make firm, trustworthy, not from DXI,

member of the verse corresponds strictly in sense to speak, as D. Kimchi thinks, who would ex to the second, on which account the Masoretic plain the word diserti, as though it were punc. reading is to be retained, and to be interpreted tuated D'IPX)). On 6 comp. Hog. iv. 11 ; and as of increase in height, even as the parallel noin regards Dj's, "taste, judgment, tact," see 1 | in b of increase in breadth, or territorial enSam. xxv. 33.

largement (not as though it meant a dispersion

among other nations, as the Vulg. and Aben Ezra Ver. 21. He pours contempt on nobles (exactly the same expression as in Ps. cvii. 40),

incorrectly interpret this nov). [The ? in both and looses the girdle of the strong. (O'pox members, says Schlottmann, is not used Arainalit. "containing of great capacity” Delitzsch : ice with the accus., but as sign of the Dat. com“to hold together, especially to concentrate modi.] strength on anything"] only here and ch. xli. 7;

Ver. 24. Be takes away the understandi. e., He disables them for the contest (by causing '.. the under-carments to hang down loosely, thus ing (a? as in ver. 3) of the chief of the peoproving a hindrance for conflict; comp. Is. v. 27; ple of the land (19787-Oy, can certainly also below ch. xxxviii. 3; xl. 7). The transla- signify “the people of the earth, mankind," tion of Delitzsch is altogether too forced, and by

[Hirzel], after Isa. xlii. 6; for its use in the

virzó . consequence insipid : “ He pours contempt on the rulers of the state, and makes loose the belt more limited sense of the people of a land, comp. of the mighty.''

below ch. xv. 19). [“We have intentionally

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translated dina “nations,” Dy people, for '92 n2in, Inf. absol. as obj. of the verb; comp. ch. is the mass held together by the ties of a com- ix. 18; and for the signification of n2in, “to mon origin, language, and country; by, the plead, to vindicate one's cause against an accupeople bound together by unity of government." sation," comp. Amos v. 10; Isa. xxix. 21 ; also Delitzsch).-And makes them wander in a

below ver. 15, ch. xix. 5. PON, to desire, to be pathless waste : (997 85, synonymous with

inclined, here essentially as in ch. ix. 3. [j'en' 17-8eba, or with 7-1X, comp. disse mes ch. always for ron' in pause). That passage (ix. xxxviii. 26 ; and Ewald, & 286, 8). The whole

3) certainly stands in some measure in contraverse, the second member of which recurs ver.

diction to this, implying as it does the impossiin Ps. cvii. 40 presents an exact Hebrew | bility of contending with God; it is however equivalent for the Latin proverb: quem Deus per

contest of another sort from that which is indere vult, prius dementat, à proverb on which the

tended there that he proposes here, & contest history of many a people and kingdom, from the

not of one arrogantly taking the offensive, but earliest antiquity down to the present, furnishes

of one driven by necessity to the defensive. an actual commentary that may well make the Ver. 4. But ye are (only) forgers of lies.heart tremble. Concerning the catastrophes of DAX 05481 puts another antithetic sentence historic nationalities in the most ancient times, which the poet here may not improbably have

alongside of the first which was introduced by had before his mind, comp. Introd., % 6, e. 0948 (ver. 3), without however laying any spe

Ver. 25. They grope in darkness with-cial stress on DAX; hence: “and however, but out light, and He makes them to wander like a drunken man. Comp. Is. xix. 14, and

again,” etc.; not: ye however” (Hirzel).especially above in ch. v. 13, 14, & similar de pe 990 (from 90, “to plaster, to smear, scription by Eliphaz, which Job here seems desirous of surpassing, in order to prove that he is

to paste together;" comp. 590, “ plaster” Ez. in no wise inferior to Eliphaz in experimental xiii. 10 seq., and Talmudic 07590 grease) are lit. knowledge of the righteous judgments of God, o daubers of lies," i. e,, inventors of lies, concinthe infinitely Wise and Mighty One.

natores 8. inventores mendacii; not: “imputers, 4. Second Division : First Section : Resolution | fasteners of falsehood," assutores mendacii, as to appeal to the judicial decision of God, before Stickel. Hirzel, Schlottmann, Delitzsch, etc., exwhich the barsh, unloving disposition of the plain both against philology and the context friends will assuredly not be able to maintain lineither ch. xiv. 17 nor Ps. cxix. 69 support this itself, but will be put to shame: ch. xiii. 1-12. definition); nor again: “deceitful patchers,”

First Strophe: Vers. 1-6. [Impatience with sarcinatores falsi, i. e., inanes, idutilis, as Hupfeld the friends, and the purpose to appeal to God]. I explains.-Physicians of no value are ye

Ver. 1. Behold, mine eye hath seen all (that), mine ear hath heard and perceived

all. — 5058 897 are not “patchers” [Con. for itself.–Sa here equivalent to 17.28-52, "all

"botchers "] of vanity," i. e., such as patch to

gether empty unfounded assertions (Vulg., Ew., that has been here set forth," all that has been Olsh., Dillm.), [Good, Con., Dav.], but in acstated (from ch. xii. 13 on) in respect to the evi- cordance with the universal usage of X37: dences of the Divine power and wisdom in the "worthless, useless physicians," medici nihili, life of nature and men. [72%, dativus commodi,

miserable quacks, who are incapable of applying or perhaps only dat. ethicus : and has made it

to Job's wounds the right medicine to soothe and intelligible to itself (sibi); 1'? of the apprehen

heal. [“ Job calls their false presuppositions sion accompanying perception.” Del.].-On ver.

regarding his guilt pu, their vain attempts at 2 comp. ch. xii. 3, the second member of which a Theodicy and Theory of Providence' 7'?X. " is here repeated word for word.

Dav.]. Ver. 3. But I will speak to the Almighty. | Ver. 5. Oh that ye would be altogether 0298, “but nevertheless," puts that which now silent-that would be reckoned to you follows in emphatic antithesis to the preceding :

for wisdom.-Comp. Prov. xvii. 28; the Latin “notwithstanding that I know all this, I wili proverb: si tacuisses, philosop

| proverb: Si tacuisses, philosophus mansisses; also still," etc. [ Three feelings lie at the back of

ihe honorable title, “bos mutus," the mute ox, this antithesis: (1) The folly of longer speaking

given to Thomas Aquinas during his student life to the friends. (2) The irrelevancy of all such

at Paris, by his fellow-students, as well as by his knowledge as they paraded, and which Job had

teacher, Albertus Magnus. The jussive, 77 , in abundance. (3) Antagonism to the prayer is used in a consecutive sense: “then would it of Zophar that God would appear-Job desires be, prove, pags for;" comp. Ewald, & 347, a, nothing more nor better-but I, to the Almighty | Gesen., & 128, 2. will I speak.” Dav.). Observe also the signifi | Ver. 6. Hear now my reproof, and give cantly accented 'X, I (ěyà uèv), which puts the heed to the charges of my lips.-So corspeaker in definite antithesis to those addressed rectly Hirzel, Dillm, Del., etc., while several (DAX, ver. 4, vueis dè), as one who will not fol- other moderns explain: “ Hear my defense [Con., low their advice to make penitent confession of E. V., " reasoning ”], and attend to the argubis guilt towards God; who will rather plead ments of my lips.” As if nnain could signify against God.-I desire to plead with God. anything else than ireyyos, correptio (so cor

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