صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني

rectly LXX., Vulg.-Comp. pain in ch. vi. 25; | (comp. John xvi. 2), “an advocacy contrary to xl 2), and as if nia? (defectively for ni?'?). one's better knowledge and conscience, in which could even in one instance sink the meaning of

the end is thought to sanctify the means." the stern word ]'?, “to strive, to quarrel!"

Ver. 11. Will not His majesty (DNV, as Furthermore it is a long moral reproof and ani- in ch. xxxi. 23, exaltation, dignity; noi “a kinmadversion of the friends which immediately fol- dling of wrath,” or “a lifting up for contenlows, vers. 7-12. His reply and vindication of tion,” as Böttch. renders it after the Vulg.) himself to God first follows ver. 13 seq., or in confound you (ch. iii. 5), and the dread of deed properly not before ver. 17 seq.

Him (iing the dread, the terror which He Second Strophe : Vers. 7-12. [Scathing rebuke inspires) fall upon you-then, namely, when of their dishonesty and presumption in assuming He will' reveal Himself as your Judge. Job to be God's advocates (vers. 7-9), and warning here anticipates what according to ch. xlii. 7 seq. of the consequences to themselves when God really happened afterwards. ["It is a pecushall rebuke them for their conduct].

liarity of the author of our book that he drops Ver. 7. Will ye for God [xs emphatic] every now and then hints of how the catastrospeak that which is wrong, will ye for the unity of conception and the authorship of

phe is to turn out, showing unmistakably both Him speak deceitfully?—The preposition the book.” Dav.] signifies here “for, in favor of any one,” as also of ashes: to wit, then when God' will judge

Ver, 12. Your maxims (become) proverbs in ver. 8, Judg. vi. 31. On 75!y comp. ch. v. you. ON??, "memorable sayings, apothegms, 16; vi. 30.

memorabilia [Dav. “old saws"] (comp. Mal. Ver. 8. Will ye show partiality for Him iii. 16; Esth. vi. 1): so does he name here, not (lit. “ lift up His countenance,” i. e. show pre- without irony, the admonitions and warnings ference for His person), or will ye take the which they bud addressed to him, in part as the part of God's advocates ? (lit. "contend for Chokmah of the ancients, or even as divinely God, comp. Syas 2'?, Judg. vi. 31). These are inspired communications. [“ The sarcasm in the two possible ways in which they could iv. 7; and viii. 8.” Dav.] 'he characterizes

the word is cutting: comp. 81-77 of Eliph. ch. “speak in favor of God:” either as clients, dependents, taking His part slavishly, for mer- these maxims as 198 hop, i. e. as empty and cenary ends, or as patrons or advocates, presump-unsubstantial like ashes or dust, like ashes (the tuously and naively taking Him under their emblem of nothingness and worthlessness, Is. protection. (There thus appears a subtle and xliv. 20) scattered to every wind. The second very effective irony in these questions of Job’s. member is strictly parallel: Your bulwarks His charge of partiality is also, as Davidson become bulwarks of clay. [ While ver. says, “a master-stroke of argumentation, effect- 12 a says what their speeches, with the weighty ually debarring the friends from any further nota bene, are, ver. 128 says what their bal defense of God in this direction, or almost at all."'-E.].

become; for 3 always denotes a κίνησις-γένεσις, Ver. 9. Will it be well [for you] when and is never the exponent of the predicate in a Be searches you out (goes to the bottom of simple clause.” DEL.] 3), lit. back, ridge" you, pn as in Prov. xxviii. 11; Ps. cxxxix. 23)| (comp. ch. xv. 26) bere equivalent to breastor can you deceive Him as a man is work, bulwark; so does Job call here the readeceived ? viz. in regard to your real disposi- sonings behind which they sought refuge, the tion and the sentiment of your heart, of which glittering, pathetically urged arguments which a more searching investigation must reveal to they had arrayed against him. Comp. ningy, Him that it by no means corresponds to His Is. xli. 21, and óxvpbuata, 2 Cor. 2. 4. [The holy nature and life.-Son, Hiph. from shoi rendering of E. V. “your bodies (are like) to

bodies of clay,” is evidently taken from the sig(in Imperf. aboon, with a non-syncopated 71, nification - backs" and the whole verse is a for thorp, Gesen. & 53 [2 52] Rem. 7 [Green, & reminder of their mortality. But this is much

less suited to tbe language used, less pertinent 142, 3]), is lit. "to cause to waver [to hold up anything swaying to and fro), to keep one in

to the context, and less effective for Job's pursuspense, to make sport of any one,” [E. V. "to pose than the rendering here given.-E.] For mock"], hence to deceive; ensnare; comp. pn, mud, potter's clay, as an emblem of what Gen. xxxi. 7; Judg. xvi. 10; Jer. ix. 4.) is frail, easily destroyed, incapable of resistance, [Schlott., who renders : “will ye mock him?"' comp. ch. xxxviii. 14; Is. xlv. 9 seq. explains by quoting from Jarchi: “dicendo : in Second Division : Second Section : Declaration honorem tuam mendacia nos finximus"].

of his consciousness of innocence as against God Ver. 10. Surely he will sorely chastise in the form of a solemn confession, in which he you (ch. v. 17) if ye are secretly partial : boldly challenges Him: vers. 13-22. i. e. if ye are actuated not by love of the truth First Strophe : vers. 13-16. [Turning from the and conscientious conviction, but by selfish in- friends, he expresses more emphatically than terest in your relations with Him, as One who before his purpose to appeal to God, cost what is mightier. That with which Job hereby it may at the first, confident of ultimate acquitreproaches them is (as Del. rightly observes) a tal. Dillmann says: “It seems that the poet ζήλος θεου αλλ' ου κατ' επίγνωσιν, Rom. X. 2 intentionally cut this atroplue short, in order by


this very brevity to emphasize more strongly “Wherefore should I seek to save my life at any the gravity of these thoughts.”']

price-I who have nothing more to hope for?" Ver. 13. In silence leave me alone: lit. Compared with this interpretation, which is the "be silent from me" (???), i. e., desist from only one suited to the context, and which is me, cease from your injurious assaults, and let adopted by Umbreit, Ewald, Vaih., Dillm., etc.,

the many interpretations which vary from it are me be in peace. [According to Schlott, the

to be rejected, especially those according to preposition here is the ju of source or cause :

which the second member is not to be regarded be silent because of the weight of my words; as a continuation of the question, but as an acc. to the above, a constr. prægnans is assumed. assertion-according to Hirzel in the positive Conant, etc., translate: “Keep silence before form: "and even my life do I risk”-according

Barnes thinks it “possible that Job may to Hahn and Delitzsch in the negative: “nay, have perceived in them some disposition to I even put my life at stake:” in like manner, interrupt him in a rude manner in reply to the that of Böttcher: “ wherefore should I seek to severe remarks which he had made"

Comp: preserve my life at any price, seeing that I wilon ch. vi. 29. More probably, however, the lingly expose it, etc." verse is, like ver. 5, an expression of his weari

[Wordsworth agrees in this interpretation of ness with their vain platitudes, and unjust accu- the meaning of each member of the verse, but difsations, and a demand that they should stand fers from Zöckler, etc., in the application: “The by in silence while he should plead directly question (he says) put hypoi hetically. You with God.-E.]-Then will I speak, or: in may ask me why I am ihus bold to desire to exorder that I may speak. [Conant: “ That I pose myself to a trial before God? The reason now may speak : 78;77781.". Strong double is because I am sure that I have a good cause ; emphasis in the use of the cohortative future, I know that in the end He will do me right. See and the pronoun; the latter emphasizing the what follows.”—The Vulg. renders: “Quare lafirst person, the former his strong determination cero carnes meas dentibus meis, et animam mean to speak.-E.] — And let come upon me porlo in manibus meis ?” Hengstenberg follows what will. 777 as in Deut. xxiv. 5. 77 this rendering, explaining the first clause of the here for young np, a condensed form of expres- wrong, the violence which he would do to his

moral personality, if by silence he should plead sion similar to 777 ??!, 2 Sam. xviii. 22; comp. guilty to the accusations of the friends. SchulEwald, 2104, d.

tens, who is followed in substance by RosenmülVer. 14. Wherefore should I take my ler, Good, Wemyss, Bernard, Barnes, Renan, flesh into my teeth: i. e. be solicitous to save Davidson, Carey, Rodwell, Elzas, regards both and to preserve my body at any price, like a members as proverbially expressing the idea of beast of prey, which drags off its booty with its risking life, and the clause hip-hy not in its teeth, and so secures it against other preying usual interrogative sense, but as equivalent to: animals. This proverbial saying, which does not occur elsewhere, is in itself clear (comp. in spite of every thing.” (Schult., super quid, on Jer. xxxviii. 2). The second member also sig- any account.) ip is thus a resumption of the nifies essentially the same thing: and (where- p in 13 b. This rendering gives a consistent fore should I) put my soul in my hand: i. e. and forcible sense throughout: Be silent now, risk my life, seek to save it by means of a des- and let me alone, and I for my part will assuperate exertion of strength (comp. the same redly speak, be the consequence what it may: expression in Judg. xii. 3; 1 Sam. xix. 5; Cost what it may, I will risk it all, I will risk xxviii. 21). [This, says Dillmann, is indeed my person and my life: lo, He will slay me, etc., “scarcely the original meaning of the phrase; yet in his very presence, etc, (comp. on ch. ix. nor is it to be understood, as commonly ex. 21, 22). The objection to this is of course the plained, that what one has in the hand easily unusual rendering of 773-5. On the other hand falls out and is lost. The primary meaning is rather: to commit or entrust the life to the the objection to the interpretation adopted in hand in order to bear it through, i. e. to make a

our comm. is the unusual sense in which we are desperate effort to save it (see Ewald on the constrained to take the proverbial expressions passage): such an attempt is indeed dangerous, of the verse, particularly the latter— to take because if the hand fails, the life is lost, and so

the life in the hand "- which according to this the common explanation attaches itself naturally interpretation must mean to seek to save the life, to the phrase, to expose the life to apparent it. It is thus at best a choice between difficulties,

whereas in every other instance it means to risk danger. Here, however, the original meaning is altogether suitable, and indeed necessary,

or unusual expressions. And it may fairly be because only so do the first and second members queried whether the difficulty in regard to agree : why should I make an extreme effort to 70-by is not largely obviated by the close consave my life?"] Such a desperate effort Job nection in which it stands with the no just prewould make, in case he should declare himself ceding.-E.]. guilty of the reproaches brought against him, while at the same time he bore no consciousness my disease, which will certainly bring about my

Ver. 15. Lo, He will slay me: viz. through of guilt within himself. This, however, would speedy dissolution (comp. ch. vi. 13; vii. 6; is, not be of the least avail, for according to ver. 25; 1. 20). I have no (more) hope ; i. e., I 15 a he has nothing more to hope for, he sees do not direct my thoughts to the future, I am not before him nothing but certain death from the hand of God. Hence, therefore, his question : in a state of waiting, expectation (hm without

it ואחותי With


from a.

an obj., præstolari, exactly as in ch. vi. 11, and, would be imperfect, and that the contrast between xiv. 14), and this indeed is so naturally, because what would thus be said of God in this verse and for me there is nothing more to wait for, seeing that which has been said in ver. 15 would be too that my condition is hopeless, and my fate long violent). since decided. So, according to the K'thibh is Second Strophe : Vers. 17-22. [“ Determination the phrase box is to be explained, while the to cite God finally reached, with conditions of K'ri, rd is must signify in accordance with the

pleading before Him.”—Dav.).

Ver. 17. Hear, o bear my declaration.suffix: "until then, viz., until I am slain, I wait” (so substantially Luther), or again: "I wait for ping yod, a strongly emphasized appeal that Him, that He may slay me” (Delitzsch) [i. e., they should hear him, essentially the same in “I wait what He may do, even to smite with signification as Is. vi. 9, only that here is not indeath"]. The context by no means yields the tended as there a continued but an attentive bearrendering of the Vulg., which also rests on the ing for the time being ; comp. ch. xxi. 2; xxxvii. K’ri ; etiam si occiderit me, in ipso (Deo) sperabo | 2.-779, here “declaration,” signifies in Ara(so also E. V., “though he slay me, yet will I trust in Him”]: an utterance which has ac

bic confession, religion. Its synonym ins in quired a certain celebrity as a favorite sentiment the second member, (and let my utterance alike of pious Jews and Christians (comp. De- sound in your ears), formed from the Hiph. litzsch on the passage), as the funeral text of of the verb 711 (ch. xv. 17; Ps. xix. 3) signithe Electoress Louise Henriette of Brandenburg, fies here (the only place where it occurs in the and as the poetic theme of a multitude of popu- . T.) not “ brotherly conduct” as in post-biblar religious hymns. It scarcely expresses how.lical Hebrew, but “utterance.” ever the meaning here intended by Job, which is better to supply on or xian, "let it enter, is far removed from any expression of a hope let it sound in your ears," than to repeat women reaching beyond death.--Only my ways (viz., the innocence of my ways) will I prove in

Ver. 18. Behold now I have made ready His presence. 7x, referring back to the whole preceding sentence, hence the same as “never-the cause. Opp? 79, causam instruere, as in theless, however.” He has already despaired ch. xxiii. 4; comp. the simple 7285, ch. xxxiii. of life, but of one thing he does not despair, 5. On b comp. ch. xi. 2. freely and openly to prove before God the blame- Ver. 19. Who is he that will contend lessness of his life: “physically therefore he can with me? i. e., attempt with success to prove succumb, that he concedes, but morally he can- that I am in the wrong. As to the thought comnot” (Del.).

pare the parallel passages, Isa. 1. 9; Rom. viii. Ver. 16. Even this will be my salvation | 34; and as to the lively interrogative sin ? that the unholy comes not before Him: ch. iv. 7.-Then indeed (if any one succeeds i. e., does not dare to present himself so confi- in that, in convicting me of 'wrong) I would be dently before Him. In the fact that He is filled silent and die : then, as one defeated within with rappnoia towards God he sees accordingly and without, I would without offering further a pledge of salvation, i. e., of victory in the trial resistance, let death come upon me as merited in which he is involved. For this sense of any punishment. The explicitness and calmness with comp. 1 Sam. xiv. 45; 2 Chron. xx. 17; Hab. which he makes this declaration shows how imiii. 8 (not however in ch. xxx. 15, where it sig- possible it seems to him that he should be proved nifies rather prosperity, and that of the earthly guilty, how unalterably firm he stands in the sort). [“. He wavers between two contradic-consciousness of his innocence. [E. V., “ for tions : on the one side he believes according to now, if I hold my tongue, I shall give up the an opinion widely prevalent in the Semitic East, ghost,” is less simple, and less suited to the conthat no one can see God without dying; on the nection). other side he reassures himself with the thought Ver. 20. Only two things do not Thou that God cannot reveal Himself to the wicked.” unto me: these are the same two things which Renan]. 1977 is referred by Böttcher, Schlott., he has already deprecated in ch. ix. 34 in order [Con., Dav., and so E. V.), etc., to God: "He that he may successfully achieve his vindication, also ministers to my help. to my deliverance, for, and so, as it is here expressed in b, not be etc. But this does not agree with the contents obliged to hide before God. In ver. 21 we are of the preceding verse. For the neuter render-told wherein they consist, viz., a, in heavy uning of 47, which we find already in the LXX., remitting calamities and chastisements (" Thy (Kal Touró LOL 'Tozhcetau eis ournpiav) comp. ch. band remove Thou from me”), 72 here of the xv. 9; xxxi. 28; xli. 3. [In favor of the per- hand wbich punishes, as previously paw in ch. sonal sense for Nin, referring it to God, Schlott. ix. 34); and b, in terror, confusion, and trepimann argues that it would scarcely be said of a circumstance in Hebrew that it would be any

dation produced by His majesty ; comp. above, body's salvation: and Davidson objects to the ver, 11.,

Ver. 22. Then-if these two alleviations are Deuter rendering that it originates in a cold conception of Job's mental agitation, and gives to granted to me-call Thou and I will answer:

i. e., summon me then to a criminal trial, or nyari? a sense feeble almost to imbecility. On which would be eventually still more advantagethe other hand Dillmann argues against the mag

ous to me: “allow me the first word, let me be culine sense that in that case the connection be- the questioner.” Obviously it is in this sense tween the first and second members of this verse

that we are to take b, where zon, “to reply" (supply 727) is connected transitively with ac- the destruction which had begun in his body, cus. of the person, as elsewhere neq; comp. ch.

that he compares himself to a “driven leaf," xx. 2 ; xxxii. 14; xl. 4.

i. e. one that is tossed to and fro by the wind 6. Third Division. The vindication of himself (comp.: Lev, xxvi. 36), and to the dry chaff, to God, with a complaint over the vanity and which is in like manner blown about (comp. Ps.

i. 4, etc.). helplessness of human existence: ch. xiii. 23–

Ver. 26. For Thou decreest for me bitter xiv. 22. [“ That Job, lifted up by the proud things (or also with consecutive rendering of consciousness of innocence, might really fancy for the moment that God would answer his chal-?: “that Thou decreest,” etc.). ning here lenge, is not in itself improbable in view of the is equivalent of course to "bitter painful punpresent temper of his soul, and the entire plan ishments;" and ano, lit. to “ write,” refers to of the poem, according to which such an inter- a written decree announcing a judicial sentence: course of God with men as may be apprehended comp. ch. xxxi. 35; Ps. cxlix. 9; Is. 1. 1.by the senses lies within the bounds of possi- And makest me to inherit the iniquities bility (ch. xxxviii. seq.), and should not be de- of my youth: the sins of my earlier years, scribed (with Schlottm.) as a fanatical thought; long since forgiven and forgotten, by comparison although indeed he could not long continue in with which as being the half-conscious misbethis fancy; not only the non-appearance of God, haviour of childhood, or the manifestations of but also every consideration of a more particular youthful thoughtlessness (Ps. xxv. 7), 80 serere sort must convince him of the idleness of his wish.” and fearful a penalty would seem to be needless Dillmann. Hence the sudden change of his apo- cruelty. [“ He can regard his affliction only as logy to a lamentation].

the inheritance of the sins of his youth, since First Strophe : Vers. 23-28. Having repeatedly he bas no sins of his mature years that would announced his purpose (ver. 13 seq., 17 seq.), Job incur wrath to reproach himself with.” Del. -now at length passes directly to the demonstra- E. Ver. “makest me to possess," etc., not suffition of his innocence, but at once falls from a ciently expressive. “Ilis old age inherited the tone of confident self-justification into one of sor- accumulated usury and consequence of youthful rowful lamentation, and faint-hearted despair, sins.” Dav.] “To cause one to inherit anyout of which he does not again emerge during thing” is the same as causing him to experience this discourse.

the consequences of anything (here the bad conVer. 23. How many are (then) my iniqui- sequences, the punishments); comp. Prov. xiv. ties and sins; my wickedness and my sin 18; Ps. lxix. 37 (36); Mark x. 17; 1 Cor. vi. make known to me!-Inasmuch as naun 10, etc. denotes sin or moral aberration in general (oc

Ver. 27. And puttest my feet in the casionally also indeed sins of weakness), jy block : i. e. treatest me as a prisoner. Den? transgression or evil-doing of a graver sort, ywa poet. for bem?, Ewald, & 443, 6. [jussive in form however flagrant wickedness, open apostasy from though not in signification ; used simply “from God (comp. Hoffmann, Schrifibew. I., 483 seq.), the preference of poetry for a short pregnant the enumeration which is here given is on the form.” Del.], comp. ch. xv. 33; xxiii. 9, 11.whole neither climactic nor anti-climactic, but 7 here and ch. xxxiii. 11 is a wooden block alike in a and b the more special and stronger with a contrivance for firmly fastening the feet expression precedes, while the more general term of a prisoner, the same with the men of Jer. follows. Observe still further that the charac- | 21. 3, and the Fúanv of Acts xvi. 24, or Todokák, teristic expression used to denote the smallest or the Roman instruments of torture called and slightest offenses, nixa (Ps. xix. 13) is not cippus, codex or nervus. In times still recent introduced here at all. Of 'such failures of the wooden blocks of this kind were in use among most insignificant sort Job would indeed be per- the Arabians, as Burckhardt had occasion to fectly well aware that he was guilty; comp. observe (Travels, p. 420). And watchest all above ch. ix. 2, 14 seq.

my paths: i. e. does not allow me the slightest Ver. 24. Wherefore hidest Thou Thy freedom of motion: comp. ch. vii. 12; x. 14.face (a sign of the Divine displeasure, comp. Is. Around the roots of my feet Thou dost liv. 8) and regardest me as Thine enemy? set bounds: i. e. around the place where I —The question is an expression of impatient stand, where the soles of my feet are placed (the wonder at the non-appearance of God.

soles firmly fixed in one point being compared Ver. 25. A driven leaf wilt Thou terrify? to the roots of a tree), Thou dost make marks,

bounds, lines of demarcation, which Thou dost nobyong with He interrog. like dann, ch. xv. 2. not permit me to cross. This is the simplest Comp. Gesenius 100 [98], 4 [E. V.“ wilt and philologically the most suitable definition thou break a leaf,” etc. And so Bernard: but of the Hithpael op.??? (from pn, npr); found against usage). And pursue the dry chaff ? only here, in which definitions Gesenius, Ewald The meaning of this troubled plaintive double (1st Ed.), Schlottm., Hahn, Del , Dillm., (Con., question is: How canst Thou, who art Almighty Elz.-and see below the rendering of Hirzel, and All-sufficient, find Thy pleasure in perse- Noyes, etc.), etc., essentially agree. Not essencuting and afilicting a weak and miserable crea- tially different as to the sense, although philoloture like me? It is not with reference to the gically not so well authenticated are the explauniversal frailty of mankind, of which he par- nations of Rosenm., Umbreit (Hengst., Mers); took (Habn), but with special reference to the etc.: “ Thou drawest a circle around my feet;' fearful visitation which had come on him, and of Ewald (2d Ed.): "Thou makest sure of my feet” (comp. Peshito and Vulgate: vestigia | belongs immediately to the notion contained in pedum meorum considerasti); of Hirzel (Fürst]: the subject, man, whom it characterizes accord• Thou dost make Thyself a trench" around ing to his innate quality of weakness (as also ia the roots of my feet [others, e. g. Noyes, ch. xv. 14; xxv. 4), while the two following Renan, Davidson, Rödiger, take ipn in this clauses illustrate the shortness of his life, (732? sense of cutting or digging a trench, but regard constr. st. of 737, comp. ch. x. 15), and the the Hithpael as indirectly and not directly trouble which fills it can, as in ch. iii. 17, 26). reflexive, sibi, not se susculpere" dost dig a trench for thyself”]; of Raschi, Mercier, etc.:

It is disputed whether the second verb in ver. 2, “Thou fastenest Thyself to the soles of my feet."; spa means to wither, or to be cut off. Etymolo[E. V., Good, Wem., Bernard, etc. i Thou gically both these definitions are possible, since brandest (settest a print upon, E. V.) the soles of my feet;" evidently supposing the expression spy may be taken either as Imperf. Niph. of to refer to some process of branding criminals 5573-610, succidi, or as Imperf. of a secondary in the feet: for which, however, there is no good authority.] – The three parallel figures Kal. Sep (an alternate form 559), synonymous contained in the verse all find their actual with Spy to wither, to become dry, marcescere. explanation in the fearful disease, with which the meaning to be cut off, however, is less suitaJob was visited by God, in consequence of which ble to the flower than to fade [the latter, and not he was doomed to one place, being unable to

the former, being, as Dillmann points out, the move on account of the unshapely swelling of

natural destiny alike of the flower and of man]; his limbs. [** Mercier has already called attention to the gradation which marks the proofs comp. 1s. xl. 7; Ps. xxxvii. 2; xc. 6; ciii. 15 given in these verses of the Divine anger. (1) the two parallel passages of our book, ch. xviii.

seq.; Matt. vi. 30; 1 Pet. i. 24; moreover, in God hides His face. (2) He shows Himself an

16; and xxiv. 24, it is by no means necessary enemy. (3) He issues severe decrees against him. (4) He punishes sins long since passed to render hp in the sense of succidi, præcidi (5) He throws him into cruel and narrow im- (against Hirzel, Gesenius, Delitzsch [Conant, prisonment.” Hengst.]

Dav., E. V.), etc.). On b comp. ch. viii, 9; Ps. Ver. 28. Although he (the persecuted one) xc. 5, 9, 10. [Conant regards the article before as rottenness wastes away, as a garment 48 as having a definite signification, “that which which the moth has eaten (comp. ch. iv. marks the passing and declining day.” This, 19): This forcible description of the weakness however, would scarcely be in harmony with and perishableness of his condition is given to the verb'nna, which describes rather the feetemphasize the thought, how unacccountably severe is God's treatment of him (comp. above ing shadow of the cloud, to which the art. would

be equally suitable. Merx transposes ver. 28, ver. 25). It is introduced by 197! (instead of

of chap. vii., and inserts it here between vers. X objectivizing the subject, and giving to 1 and 2, thus depriving it of the force and beauty the discourse a more general application, valid which belong to it as the closing verse of that also for other men,” and at the same time pro strophe, and as a transition to this, and at the viding a transition to the following lament, same time weakening the beauty and pathos of referring to human misery in general. ["Thou this passage by the accumulation of figures. hast set this enclosure around one who does not-E.] grow like a tree, but moulders away moth-eaten Ver. 3. And upon this one dost Thou like a garment. Job looks at bimself ab extra ; keep Thine eye open ? viz. in order to watch he will hardly own himself; he hardly recog- him, and to punish bim for his sins, comp. Ps. nizes himself, so changed is he by aflliciion and xxxiv. 17 [16]. 78, emphatically connecting disease, and he speaks of himself in the third something new with what has already been person. How natural and touching is this!" Wordsworth.]

given, like our “over and above." ?='hy, Third Division: Second and Third Strophes : “ upon this one,” i. e. upon such an The lament over man's mortality, frailty and he is here described, upon so wretched a vanity continued: ch. xiv. 1-12.

creature (Psalm ciii. 14). „[The pronoun here Second Strophe : vers. 1-6. [Man's physical descriptive, “such an one,” talis, rather than frailty and moral impurity by nature made the demonstrative. By position the phrase is emground of a complaint against the severity of phatic. E. V., Conant, etc., render the verb simGod's treatment, and of an appeal for forbear-ply " to open,”=so much as open the eyes, so ance.]

much as look upon him. The rendering given in Verg. 1, 2. Man, born of woman, of few our commy. “ to keep the eye open upon predays, and full of trouble, cometh up as a supposes a double emphasis, the first and prinflower (and withereth, and fleeth as a cipal one on the pronoun, the second on the verb. shadow, and abideth not].—This is the -E.]-And me (['ns, emphatic, me) this paronly right construction of the passage.

The first verse contains only the subject, together

ticularly wretched example of the human race), with three appositional clauses more particularly

dost tbou bring into judgment before

Thee ?-i. e., to judgment at Thy tribunal, descriptive of the same. Of these the first, where it is impossible to maintain one's cause. ! (

Ver. 4. O that a pure one might come synonymous with “man,” e. g. Sir. x. 18: yév- forth out of an impure: i. e., would it were vnua vaikós, and Matt. xi. 11: yévvntos yvv.), only possible that one might remain free from the

one as

phrase which is elsewhere exactly

3) יְלוּד אִשָׁה

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