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universal sinfulness of the human race, and from gree that-Ty as in ch. viii. 21 ; 1 Sam. ii. 5; the misery accompanying the same, which is now

Isa. xlvii. 7) he, like a day-laborer, find pleasure absolutely universal and without exception, so

in his day," or, “be satisfied with his day.” that it has the appearance of unpitying severity when God

visits those belonging to this race with This is the meaning of 957 with the accus.punishment (comp. vers. 5, 6). 19-?, the (comp. Jer. xiv. 10; Ps. cii. 15, and often); not customary optative formula (as in ver. 13; ch. make good” [E. v. to accomplish] as Delitzsch

“to satisfy,” in the sense of “to discharge, to vi. 8), here connected with an accusative of the explains it, when he translates: "until he dis; object, specifying the contents of the wish (so also in ch. xxxi. 31, 35; Ps. xiv. 7 ; Deut. xxviii. charges [accomplishes] as a hireling his day.” 67). Hence not: " who makes [E. V.: can

In favor of this latter rendering indeed, Lev. bring] a pure one out of an impure ?" (Rosenm , cited; but the sense thence resulting is in each

xxvi. 34, 43, and 2 Chron. xxxvi. 2i may be Arnheim, Welte, [Renan]); nor:

66 where can a pure one be found among the impure?" as if ;? be said of a hireling, that he (in death)"makes

case harsh and artificial. For just why it should here could have the partitive sense before the complete ” his days (comp. avtavaranpoīv, Col. singular X74. [“The Opt. rendering not only i. 24) is not altogether apparent: the comparidenies the possibility (of a morally clean coming son of the pipe (comp. ch. vii. 1) seems superout of a morally unclean), but gives utterance to the desire that it was otherwise.” Dav.]. Not Auous, inconsistent indeed, if we have to do simone: to wit, “comes forth.”. [Not therefore ply with the thought: "until the completion of “can bring forth,” as might be inferred from the definition adopted by the E. V. and Del. is

the days of his life.” [It is difficult to see wby the literal rendering of 1???]. Not one pure not perfectly suitable to the connection. The will ever come forth in the line of development objection to it is that it is not supported by which has once been contaminated by sin ; comp. usage. 787 means everywhere “to regard faPs. li. 7 [5]; also the expression 777 vorably, to take pleasure in." We are not justi. Ps. xiv. 3, which reminds us very closely of this fied in taking it in any other sense here. But inx xS. Ewald, with whom Dillmann agrees, the expression “ to enjoy as a hireling his day" punctuates x} instead of x5, and conforms the is variously understood. Some take ini here second member to the first; “Oh that there in some specific sense; e. g., the day of his diswere one!” for the reason that a wish does not charge, his last day as a hireling (Bernard); his properly contemplate an answer. But & wish day of rest (Rodwell); and something similar is which is in itself incapable of realization is equi- thought would have been more distinctly es:

suggested by Jerome's optata dies. But this valent to a question, the answer to which is a strong negation. Moreover the passage is in- pressed. --Others (Hengst., Wordsworth, Noges, comparably stronger and more emphatic accord- his life at least as much, with the same freedom

Barnes), explain it as a wish that man may enjoy ing to the common rendering, than according to that of Ewald. [“. Moreover, why should he de- from care, as the bireling. But to this there are sire one such specimen? Plainly, the desire is used to express this idea, least of all, as here,

several objections. (1) 7787 would scarcely be nothing to the purpose, except as implying that not one such is to be found ; and precisely this without any qualification. (2) That Job reis asserted in the proper and usual construction garded the day or service of a hireling as a term of the words.” Con.]. On the relation of this of hardship, from wbich deliverance was to be assertion by Job of the universality of human sought rather than as affording any measure of in ch. iv. 17 seq., see the Doc. and Eth. Remarks. 19. (3) He has already expressed the burden corruption to the earlier afirmation of Eliphaz satisfaction to be desired, is evident from the

passage in ch. vii. 1, 2. Comp. ch. iii. Vers. 5, 6, (the former the antecedent, the latter the consequent);- If his days are deter- of his longing in 5707"). This clause is rather mined (opyiin, lit. cut off [decisi], sharply to be regarded as an amplification of that bounded, defined átorouws; comp. Isa. x. 22; thought: the rest, the enjoyment which the end 1 Kings xx. 40), the number of his months of the day's labor brings. It is unnatural to with Thee (viz. “ is established, firmly fixed;" suppose that having reached in thought the goal

here equivalent to apy, comp. ch. 1. 13), of rest, he would go back to the joyless, even and Thou hast made (or set] his limit (read though painless toil preceding it. We are thus ipn with the K'thibh, not the plural with the led to the explanation that the enjoyment here K'ri

, which is here less suitable, there being but spoken of is that which succeeds the labors of one limit, one terminus to this earthly life)

the day. The bireling's real enjoyment of his which he cannot pass (lit. " and he passes it day comes when the shadow” of evening (ch. not”) [observe that the particle ox in the first vii. 2) brings with it the rest which he covets, member of the verge extends its influence over

and the wages he has earned. In like manner all three members] : then look away from Job desires for man agitated by unrest (aver. him, (nye nyo the opposite of ver. 3 a; 2) a respite, however brief, the satisfaction comp. ch. vii. 19) that he may rest (bon here it is not death however that he here prays may

which the end of toil and sorrow would bring. as in 1 Sam. ii. 5 : “to rest, to keep holiday,” come, for that, as the following verses show, is a to be released from the last of ver. i) that he hopeless condition. And yet the thought of the may enjoy as a hireling his day.-The last end of toil suggests at once the thought of death member literally reads: “until that (to the de- and that hopeless beyond.-E.].

uncommon

Third Strophe : Vers. 7-12. The hopelessness (pires (09!!!, Imperf. consec., because the cheerof man when his earthly life is ended.

less consequences of death are here further set Ver. 7. For there is yet hope for the tree. forth), and where is he?-where does he then '?, "for” introduces the reason for the request go to? what becomes of him? Comp. the simipreferred in ver. 6 in behalf of miserable and af- lar yearning question in Eccles, iii. 21. flicted man: “ look away from him," etc. [" The

Ver. 11. The waters flow away [lit. roll predication of hope made very strongly both by off] out of the sea, and a stream fails and

and the accent, the main division of the verse dries up.—This is the protasis of a simile, the is at hope.” Dav.]. - If it be cut down, it apodosis of which is introduced, ver. 12, by ! shoots up again (viz., the stump left in the “go,” as below in ver. 19, and as above in chap. ground, comp. Isa. vi. 13), and its sprout v. 7; xi. 12 (in which latter passages indeed p}', the tender young shoot from the root the figure follows, not precedes, the thing illus(suckling], LXX. pádauvos; comp. ch. viii. 16) trated). Comp. the description, imitative of the faileth not. Carey, Delitzsch, and others, cor- present passage, in Isa. xix. 5, describing the rectly understand the tree of whose vitality and drying up of the Nile (05, 17?) by a Divine judge power of perpetual rejuvenescence Job seems ment-a description which indeed the advocates more particularly to think here to be the date of a post-solomonic authorship of our book repalm, which on account of this very quality is gard as the original of the passage before us called by the Greeks qoivik. It is not so proba- (e. 9., Volck, de summa carm. Job sent., p. 31). ble that the oak or terebinth [E. V. “teil"] [Op here should be taken of an inland sea or body mentioned in the parallel passage in Isa. vi. 13, of water, a sense which the application of the is intended here.

word to the lake of Tiberias, Numb. xxxiv. 11; Vers. 8, 9, present not properly "another the Euphrates, Isaiah xxvii. 1; the Nile, see case,” (Dillmann), but they develop the illustra- above, abundantly justifies. Such a drying up tion already presented still further and more of large bodies of water is no forcibly.- If its root becometh old in the phenomenon in the torrid regions of the East. ground (iP????, inchoative Hiph., senescere), 1-E.] and its trunk dieth in the dust (comp. Iga. Ver. 12. So man lies down and rises no xl. 24), i. e., if the tree die, not interrupted in its more; till the heavens are no more, they growth by the violent hand of man, while yet awake not.—Dip na V, until the failure, young and vigorous, but decaying with age, becoming dry and dead down to the roots. - i. e., the disappearance of the heavens (comp. the Through the scent of water (i. e., so soon as exactly equivalent phrase, 177??? W, Ps. lxxii. Judg. xvi. 9) ['), may be taken either subjec-7), the same in meaning with Dire? , Psalm tively of the scenting, or inhalation of water cxlviii. 6. For according to the popular conception by the tree; or, better, of the scent which water of the ancient Hebrews, the heavens endure forbrings with it. "When the English army landed ever: Ps. lxxxix. 30 [29]; Jer. xxxi. 35. When in Egypt in 1801, Sir Sydney Smith gave the in Ps. cii, 27 ; Isa. li. 6; Ixv. 17 the heavens are troops the sure sign that wherever date-trees described as waxing old and being changed, this grew there must be water.” Vide R. Wilson's statement does not exclude their eternal exist. History of the Expedition to Egypt, page 18] it ence; for the supposition of a destruction of the sprouts (again; comp. Ps. xcii. 14) and puts universe in the sense of its annihilation is everyforth boughs (comp. ch. xviii. 16'; xxix. 19), where foreign to the Hebrew Scriptures. The like a young plant; or also like a sapling expression before us, not to awake till the heanewly planted (LXX. : Üç VEOAUTOV). That this

vens are no more,” is accordingly in any case description also is pre-eminently suitable to the equivalent to "not to awake for ever” (or “nepalm appears from the fact that, as every ori- ver to awake”], as the third member of the ental knows very well, in every place where verse also clearly indicates : and are never this tree grows, water must be very near at aroused out of their sleep-they sleep a and luxuriant fulness of this pia.vdpov putóv, death. [It is assuredly straining the language, band, generally from the indestructible vitality byly nap, Jer. li. 89, 57, an endless sleep of (comp. Delitzsch on this passage. ["Even when centuries have at last destroyed the palm-says Job's present mood, to assume in the expression

and at variance with the connection, and with Masius in his beautiful and thoughtful studies of nature—thousands of inextricable fibres of pa-vens should disappear, man would awake. How

an implication that when the phenomenal hearasites cling about the stem, and delude the tra- far Job's mind does reach out towards the idea veller with an appearance of life.” DEL.]).

of a resuscitation of humanity will be seen preVers. 10–12 present the contrast to the above: sently. Amid such fluctuations of thought and the hopelessness of man in death.

feeling as characterize his utterances, we are Ver. 10. But man dies and is brought not to look for self-consistency, much less for a down (ohn here in the intrans, sense confectum of truth, whether as revealed elsewhere, or even

careful and exact expression of the highest forms esse, to be prostrated, to be down, whence the as at times revealed to his own mind.-E.] How usual signification, “to be weak,” is derived : unchangeable the cheerless outlook on such an [the Imperf., when transitive, is written ohn'; eternal condition of death in Sheol presents itself

to Job, is shown by the vividly expressed wish when intransitive, as here, 10]);

; man ex- which immediately follows that God, if it wero

see on ver.

possible, would cause him again to emerge out | 7) of the trunks and roots of the tree which has of this condition, which, however, he immediately been cut down. The non, in a word, which recognizes as a yearning which is absolutely in. capable of being realized.

Job yearns for is a release from service which 8. Third Division: Fourth and Fifth Strophes: would be at the same time a “springing up” Continuation and conclusion of the description anew from death to life. That this double meanof the hopelessness of man in the prospect of ing is not forced, that it is a beautiful and happy death: vers. 13-22.

stroke of genius, will not seem at all incredible Fourth Strophe: Vers. 13–17: [If God would to any one who will carefully trace out our auonly permit a hope of the cessation of His wrath, I thor's masterly use of words in their various posand of his restoration from Sheol, how joyfully

sibilities.-E.] he would endure) until the change should come;

Ver. 15. Thou wouldst call (to wit, in this but now He punishes without pity bis sins.]

discharge by Ewald and others referred to the Ver. 13. Ah that Thou wouldst hide me forensic call to the final trial, wherein Job confi(Hipb. as in Ex. ii. 3) in the realm of the dead, dently hoped to be acquitted; but the connection wouldst keep me secret until Thy wrath here indicates rather the call of love, yearning should change (comp. the description of such after its object; “the voice of God returning to a hiding from God's wrath in Isa. xxvi. 20; Ps. take His creatures to Himself” (Dav.)-E.], and xxvii.5; xxxi. 21 [20]), wouldst appoint me I would answer Thee (would 'follow Thy

call); Thou wouldst yearn after the works a set time (a pn, .5), and then re- of Thy hands (chap. x. 3); i. e., Thou, as member me-'viz., for good, in order to re-esta- Creator, wouldst feel an affectionate longing af. blish me in the fellowship of Thy grace, and cause ter Thy creature, which Thou hadst hitherto me to live in the same. This last expression '??????? treated barshly, and rejected. “The true chaaccented with the emphasis of glowing passion, is racter of the relation of love between the Creator the culmination of the yearning wish which Job and His creature would again assert itself, it here expresses, from which, however, he imme. would become manifest that wrath is only a diately recoils again, as from a chimerical idea waning power (Isa. liv. 8), and love the true and which has no real foundation.

essential necessity of His being.” Del. ("Job Ver. 14. If man dies, will he live?-. e., must have had a keen perception of the profound is it possible that he who has once died, will relation between the creature and his Maker in come to life again? The asyndetic introduction the past, to be able to give utterance to such an of this short but frequent question after the pre- imaginative expectation respecting the future.” ceding verse, produces a contrast which is all SculoTT.] Although only a "phantasy of hope” the stronger. No answer to the question fol- (Schlott.), it still furnishes an unconscious prolows, because it self-evident to the reader that phecy of that which was accomplished in Christ's it can be answered only in the negative. But descent into Hades for the salvation of the saints strong as is his conviction of the impossibility of the Old Covenant. of a return to life of the dead, equally sweet and Ver. 16. For now Thou numberest my gracious is the charm of the thought which steps, i.e., for at this time Thou watchest every dwells on the opposite possibility, which he bas step and motion, as those of a transgressor, just expressed in the form of a wish. ["If a comp. chap. xiii. 27. niny ?, as in chap. vi. 21, man die, etc., finely natural interpretation of the cold reason and of doubt, striving to banish the introducing the contrast between a point of time beautiful dream and presentiment of a new bo- on which the eye fixes in the future, and the sad dily life with God; but in vain, the spirit tram- reality of the present. ['? assigns the reason ples down the rising suspicion, and pursues more for the wish which forms the contents of vers. 13-15. eagerly the glorious vision.” Dav.] All the It is not necessary, with Hirzel and Schlott., to days of my warfare would I wait, until my supply any thing between vers. 15 and 16, as, e.g., discharge (lit.“my exchange,” comp. chap. x.

“Thou dost not yearn for Thy creature now, for,' 17) should come.—Job uses the term “war- etc. The construction of Umbreit, etc., which takes fare” here somewhat differently from chap. vii. py? as an emphatic clause,="indeed now,” 1 to denote not only the remainder of his toil- is to be rejected.-E.]-And dost not hold some and troublesome days on earth, but “the Thyself back on account of my sins. whole dismal interval between the present and This is the most satisfactory rendering of x's should be released from "Hades; this release is noon by noon. It is found already in Mercier, here, in accordance with the figure of military (non reservas nec differs peccati mei punitionem), service, designated as an “exchange" or "dis- and is of late advocated by Delitzsch (and charge.” [Hence the “change" here spoken Wordsworth. It seems to Del. “ that the sense of is not, as the old Jewish expositors, followed intended must be derived from 78 pp, which by some moderns, have explained it, the change

means to keep anger, and consequently to delay produced by death. The word 79?n?, however, the manifestation of it; Amos i. 11.”] Dilihas here a double significance, which should be mann's explanation gives the same appreciated to realize the full beauty of the pas- “Thou dost not pass over my sins;" a rendersage. In addition to its primary and principal ing, indeed, which rests on an emendation of meaning as expressing the discharge of the soli the text to : in-hy nayn xs, which is favored dier whose term of hard service has expired, it

in some measure by the version of the LXX. suggests also the "sprouting" anew (, ver. Also the rendering advocated by Ewald, Heilig.

sense:

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Schlott. and Hahn: “Thou givest no considera- patch on, and gen. to add.” So Delitzsch. But tion to my sins” (to ascertain, namely, whether (1): It looks very much like hyper-criticism to they do in truth deserve to be punished so decide, from a very limited usage, that a word, severely), does not differ very essentially. Other the essential meaning of which is to sew, may explanations lack satisfactory support: such as mean to sew on, but cannot mean to sew up; or, those of the Rabbis, which differ widely among if the essential meaning be to plaster, to patch, themselves: e. g. Raschi's: “Thou waitest not that it may mean to patch on to (to add a patch), over my sins, i. e. to punish them;" Ralbag's : but not to patch over. (2) The point becomes “Thou waitest not for my sins=repentance still weaker in a case where the word is used, punishment;" Aben-Ezra's: “Thou lookest not as here, in a figurative, not a literal sense. (3) except on my sins.” The same may be said of The parallelism favors the meaning to sew, or the attempt of Rosenm., Hirzel and Welte to to patch up. It seems somewhat incongruong, render the sentence as an interrogative without after representing God as having sealed up o?: Dost Thou not keep watch over my sin ?” transgressions in a bag, to represent Him in the [So E. V., Conant, Dav., Rod., Gesen., Fürst.-next clause as stitching, patching, or fabricating In view of ch. xiii. 27 6, it is not apparent why other sins. . On the other hand, the thought of this rendering should be said to "lack satisfac- sealing sin in a bag is suitably supplemented by

the thought that the bag is not only officially tory support.” The preposition Sy cannot be sealed, but carefully sewed together; or if, urged against it, for it harmonizes well with the with Bernard, we explain: “With such care idea tbus expressed; and the interrogative form dost Thou store up my iniquities in Thy bag, gives vividness, force and variety to the passage. that if Thou seest the slightest possibility of its --E.]

giving way in any part, so tbat some of them Ver. 17. Sealed up in a bag is my gullt. might slip out and be lost, Thou immediately , wickedness," as in ch. xiii. 23 b, stoppest up the hole with a patch.” (4) Admit

ting that the apparent blasphemy of the expresbere of the aggregate of Job's former transgres- sion may be explained away, as above by Zöck. sions (comp. ch. xiii. 26 b), of the sum total, the ler, its admitted audacity still remains. But Job entire mass of guilty actions committed by him, is not now in one of his Titanic moods of defiance. which, as he must believe, is preserved and He resembles not so much Prometheus hurling sealed up by God with all care as a treasure, to charges against the Tyrant of the skies, as Hambe used against him in his own time; comp. let, meditating pensively on death and the “undisDeut. xxxii. 34; Hos. xiii. 12. For the figura- covered country from whose bourne no traveller tive expression: “to tie up in a bag,”=to keep returns,” but with an infinitely purer pathos in remembrance, comp. Ps. lvi. 9; 1 Sam. xxv. than is found even in the soliloquy of “the me29. Ewald, Hirzel, Renan, incorrectly explain lancholy Dane." It is but a moment ago (ver. the “guilt sealed in a bag” to be the judicial 15 b) that he recognized in a strain of inimitable sentence of condemnation by God already issued beauty the yearning bent of Creative Love. against Job, which now only awaits execution; ] He is now indeed complaining of the present for of the preservation of such penal sentences severity of God's dealings with him, but the in a bottle all oriental antiquity knows nothing plaintive tenderness of that sentiment still floats whatever. [The figure is taken from the mode over his spirit and lingers in his words, softenof preserving collected articles of value in a sealed ing them into the tone of a subdued reproachful bag.” Del.]— And Thou hast devised acdi- moan, very different from the bitter outcry of tions to my transgressions: lit. " and Thou rebellious defiance.-E.] hast still further stitched (to wit, other, new

Fifth Strophe : vers. 18-22. Conclusion: comtransgressions) on my transgressions; 1. e. bast pleting the gloomy delineation of that which in made mine iniquity still greater than it is, and reality awaited Job, in opposition therefore to punished it accordingly more severely than it the yearning desire of his heart. deserves. This accusation which Job here pre- Ver. 18. But in sooth a falling mountain fers against God is a bold one; but it is too crumbles away: observe the paronomasia in much to affirm that it is “ pure blasphemy,” the original between the participle hoi de(Dillm.), because the language of Job throughout is simply tropical, and his real thought is scribing 777 and sau chiar). [0928? at the bethat God's treatment of him is as severe as if, in ginning as elsewhere strongly adversative, addition to his actual transgressions, he were introducing in opposition to the dream of a posburdened with a multitude of such as had been sible restoration in the preceding strophe the fabricated (comp. Hengstenberg on the passage). stern reality, the inexorable and universal law, Hence the rendering of Ewald: “ Thou hast which dooms everything to destruction. The patched up, sewed up my transgression ” [E. V., use of this conjunction here is a strong confirmDillmann, Good, Wemyss, Bernard, Con., Barnes, ation of the position maintained in the concluDav., Rod.], is equally unnecessary with the ding remarks on ver. 17 that the sentiment of similar rendering of Umbreit, Vaih., Böttch. : vers. 15-17 lingers also around vers. 16, 17, and “' and Thou coverest up my sins." Substan- that accordingly ver. 17 b cannot be a daring tially the right interpretation is given by Rosen- suggestion of the charge of fabricating iniquity müller, Arnlı., Hirz., Welte, Delitzsch, Hengst. against Job.-E.]-and a rock grows old [Gesen., Fürst, Noyes, Renan, Words.). [The main argument in favor of the interpre- «10 grow old, to decay

out of its place. par, is rightly rendered :

by the LXX., and tation adopted here by Zöckler is that 500 among moderns by Hirzel, Umbreit, Vaihinger, means properly not to sew up, but “to sew on, Schlottmann. The topical meaning: “to be

is not לָנֶצַח and ",

removed” is indeed admissible, and is sup-, crumbling into rocks, the rocks breaking down ported by the Vulg., Rosenm., Ewald, Hahn, from age into stones, the stones wearing away and generally by the majority of moderns. The into dust, and the dust being washed by the wamore pregnant meaning of the passage, however, ters into the abyss; whether accordingly all nawould be lost by the adoption of this latter ren- ture is not thus resolving itself into tbe dust to dering, which is simply prosaic in its simplicity. which man too at the last returns.

What hope Ver. 19. In this verse a and b continue the is there indeed for man, whose “house of clay series of figures begun in ver. 18, which are is crushed like the moth” (ch. xiv. 19), when intended to illustrate the unceasing operation the doom even of the everlasting mountains isof the Divine penalty or process of destruction dust !-E.]. decreed for men, whereas c first introduces that

Ver. 20. Thou overpowerest him forever which is to be illustrated by means of the 11-then he passeth away.-1 with accus. adequationis (as in ch. v. 7; xi. 12; xii. 11). if the person is not: “to assail” (Hirzel) [Con. Water hollows out stones (comp. the Lat. Del.], but as in ch. xv. 24; Eccles. iv. 12, to gutta cavat lapidem); its floods wash away

overpower,”

"continually, the dust of the earth. goun, fem. sing., evermore,” but “forever;" comp. ch. iv. 20; referring to the plural 7ņ!!, according to Gesenius, & 146 [143] 3, [Green. & 275, 4. then he passeth away,” Greek Baivet, bi yeral,

xx. 7; xxiii. 7.—As to the emphatic janoi

, The harshness of the construction which is necessitated by taking pop in the sense which comp. ch. 2, 21; also in respect of form the same

poet. Imperf. in ch. xvi. S, 22; xx. 25.-Dis. belongs to it elsewhere of a self-sown growth, figuring his countenance, so Thou send. is shown in the rendering of E. V.: “Thou est him away; i. e., in the struggle of death, washest away the things which grow out of the or when decay sets in, Thou makest him unlike dust of the earth.” Moreover, the limitation - himself, distortest his features, etc., and so send“self-sown”-is against this rendering, which would require rather some more comprehensive est him forth out of this life inho as in Lev. term, such as 5237 The fem. suffix in TDD nearly as in Ps. cxviii. 27).

xx. 23; Jer. xxviii. 16; the I consecut. very originates in the same principle which deter- Ver. 21. Should his sons be in honor, he mines the fem. form of the verb, and like the knows it not; if they are abased he perlatter refers to Dr.-E.].–And the hope of mortal man [note the use of oil, bringing direct object : in ch. xiii. 1 however as dat. ethi

ceives them not: [5 after 12 here of the man into the category of destructible matter. E.)-Thou destroyest: i. e. just as incessantly

cus. Del.]. The same contrast between 779, to und irresistibly as the physical objects here come to honor, and 13, to be insignificant, to mentioned yield to the gradual processes of de- sink into contempt, is presented in Jer. xxx. 19; struction in nature, so dost Thou cause man to for 77. comp. also Is. lxvi. 6. The mention of perish without any hope of being brought to the children of the dead man has nothing resife again, and this too at once, suddenly markable about it, since Job is here speaking in (770x7, Perf. of the accomplished fact. [For general terms of all men, not especially of himthe form of the verb see Green, & 112, 3]). self. It is somewhat different in ch. xix. 17; The four figures here used are not intro- see however on the passage. The description in duced to exemplify the idea of incessant the passage before us of the absolute ignorance change ruling in the realm of nature, whereas of the man who is in Sheol of that which takes from man all hope of a change for the place in the world above, reminds us of ch. iii. better in his lot is taken away (80 Hahn, 13 seq. Comp. in addition Eccles. ix. 5, 6 (see who takes the 1 in c in the adversative sense, Comm. on the passage). but they describe the processes of destruction in Ver. 22. Only his flesh in him feels pain, nature, and more especially in the lower sphere and his soul in him mourns: i. e., he himof inorganic nature, as types of the gradual self, his nature, being analyzed into its consticeaseless extinction to which man succumbs in tuent parts of soul and body (comp. ch. xvii. 16), death. This moreover is not to be understood as perceives nothing more of the bright life of the though Job contemplated those processes with a upper world; he has only the experience of pain view to console himself with the thought that his and sorrow which belongs to the joyless, gloomy destruction in death was a natural necessity, existence of the inhabitants of Sheol, surrounded (Hirzel), but in order to exhibit as forcibly and by eternal night. The brevity of the expression thoroughly as possible the absolute hopelessness makes it impossible to decide with certainty wheof his condition in prospect of the dark future ther Job here assumes that man carries with him which death holds up before him; see vers. 20- to Sheol a certain corporeality (a certain residue, 22, which admit of no other than this disconso- kernel, or some reflex of the earthly body), or late sentiment for ver. 19 c. [The descending whether he mentions the “flesh" along with the gradation in the series of objects from which the “soul” because (as is perhaps the case also in illustrations here are taken is quite noticeable- Is. lxvi. 24; Judith xvi. 17) he attributes to the mountain-rock-stones—dust; and suggests at decaying body in the grave a certain consciousleast the query whether we do not have here ness of its decay (Dillmann; comp. Delitzsch, something more than four distinct emblems of who would cast on the departed soul at least “a decay, w) it is not in nded to show a suc- painful reflection" of that process). The former cession of stages in the process; the mountains view, however, is the more probable in view of

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