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universal sinfulness of the human race, and from gree that-7 as in ch, viii. 21; 1 Sam. ii. 5; the misery accompanying the same, which is now Isa. xlvii. 7) he, like a day-laborer, find pleasure absolutely universal and without exception, so in his day, or, “be satisfied with his day." that it has the appearance of unpitying severity when God visits those belonging to ihis race with

This is the meaning of 7787 with the accus.punishment (comp. vers. 5, 6). N-3, the (comp. Jer. xiv. 10; Ps. cii. 15, and often); not customary optative formula (as in ver. 13; ch.

** to satisfy,” in the sense of “ to discbarge, to vi. 8), here connected with an accusative of the

make good,” [E. V. to accomplish] as Delitzsch object, specifying the contents of the wish (so

explains it, when he translates: “until he disalso in ch. xxxi. 31, 35 ; Ps. xiv. 7 ; Deut. xxviii.

| charges (accomplishes) as a hireling his day." 67). Hence not: “ who makes [E. V.: can

In favor of this latter rendering indeed, Lev. bring] a pure one out of an impure " (Rosenm ,

xxvi. 34, 43, and 2 Chron. xxxvi. 21 may be Arnheim, Welte, [Renan]); nor: “where can

cited; but the sense thence resulting is in each a pure one be found among the impure?” as if ?

case harsh and artificial. For just why it should

be said of a bireling, that he (in death) “makes here could have the partitive sense before the

sense before the complete" his days (comp. ávravaranpowv, Col. singular x?. ["The Opt. rendering not only i. 24) is not altogether apparent: the comparidenies the possibility (of a morally clean coming son of the noi (comp. ch. vii. 1) seems superout of a morally unclean), but gives utterance to the desire that it was otherwise.” Dav.). Not

fluous, inconsistent indeed, if we have to do simone: to wit, "comes forth.” [Not therefore

| ply with the thought; “until the completion of “can bring forth," as might be inferred from

the days of his life.” [It is difficult to see why the literal rendering of 19.-'?]. Not one pure

the definition adopted by the E. V. and Del. is

not perfectly suitable to the connection. The will ever come forth in the line of development objection to it is that it is not supported by which has once been contaminated by sin; comp. usage. 737 meads everywhere “to regard faPs. li. 7 [5]; also the expression 77x de X vorably, to take pleasure in." We are not justi. Ps. xiv. 3, which reminds us very closely of this fied in taking it in any other sense here. But anx xs. Ewald, with whom Dillmann agrees, the expression “ to enjoy as a hireling his day" punctuates x? instead of 5, and conforms the | is variously understood. Some take igi' here second member to the first: “Oh that there

in some specific sense; e. g., the day of his diswere one !” for the reason that a wish does not

charge, his last day as a hireling (Bernard); his properly contemplate an answer. But a wish

day of rest (Rodwell); and something similar is which is in itself incapable of realization is equi

suggested by Jerome's optata dies. But this valent to a question, the answer to which is a

thought would have been more distinctly exstrong negation. Moreover the passage is in

pressed.-Others (Hengst., Wordsworth, Noyes, comparably stronger and more emphatic accord

| Barnes), explain it as a wish that man may enjoy ing io the common rendering, than according to

his life at least as much, with the same freedom that of Ewald. [“ Moreover, why should he de

from care, as the bireling. But to this there are sire one such specimen? Plainly, the desire is

several objections. (1) 1737 would scarcely be nothing to the purpose, except as implying that

used to express this idea, least of all, as here, not one such is to be found ; and precisely this

without any qualification. (2) That Job reis asserted in the proper and usual construction

garded the day or service of a hireling as a term of the words.” Con.). On the relation of this

of hardship, from which deliverance was to be assertion by Job of the universality of human

sought rather than as affording any measure of corruption to the earlier affirmation of Eliphaz

satisfaction to be desired, is evident from the in ch. iv. 17 seq., see the Doc. and Eth. Remarks,

parallel passage in ch. vii. 1, 2. Comp. ch. iii. Vers. 5, 6, (the former the antecedent, the lat

19. (3) He has already expressed the burden ter the consequent).-If his days are deter of his longing in 1977. This clause is rather mined (o'rinn, lit. cut off [decisi], sharply

to be regarded as an amplification of that bounded, defined arotbuos; comp. Isa. X. 22; thought: the rest, the enjoyment which the end 1 Kings xx. 40), the number of his months of the day's labor brings. It is unnatural to with Thee (viz. “ is established, firmly fixed;" euppose that having reached in thought the goal JAX here equivalent to py, comp. ch. x. 13), of rest, he would go back to the joyless, even and Thou hast made for set] his limit (read

| though painless toil preceding it. We are thus ipn with the K'thibh, not the plural with the

led to the explanation that the enjoyment hero K'ri, which is here less suitable, there being but

spoken of is that which succeeds the labors of one limit, one terminus to this earthly life)

the day. The hireling's real enjoyment of his which he cannot pass (lit. “and he passes it

day comes when the shadow" of evening (ch. not") [observe that the particle Dx in the first

vii. 2) brings with it the rest which he covets, member of the verse extends its influence over

and the wages he has earned. In like manner all three members] : then look away from Job desires for man agitated by unrest (ver. him, ("?y? yu the opposite of ver. 3 a; 1) a respite, however brief, the satisfaction

which the end of toil and sorrow would bring. comp. ch. vii. 19) that he may rest (Son here

It is not death however that he here prays may as in 1 Sam. ii. 5 : “to rest, to keep holiday,”

come, for that, as the following verses show, is a to be released from the inn of ver. 1) that he hopeless condition. And yet the thought of the may enjoy as a hireling his day.-The last end of toil suggests at once the thought of death member literally reads: “ until that (to the de- and that hopeless beyond.-E.].

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Third Strophe : Vers. 7-12. The hopelessness / pires (12", Imperf. consec., because the cheer. of man when his earthly life is ended.

less consequences of death are here further set Ver. 7. For there is yet hope for the tree. forth), and where is he?-where does he then '], " for" introduces the reason for the request go to? what becomes of him? Comp. the simipreferred in ver. 6 in behalf of miserable and af- lar yearning question in Eccles, iii. 21. Alicted man: “look away from him,” etc. (“The Ver. 11. The waters flow away [lit. roll predication of hope made very strongly both by off] out of the sea, and a stream fails and w and the accent, the main division of the verse dries up. This is the protasis of a simile, the is at hope.” Dav.).-If it be cut down, it apodosis of which is introduced, ver. 12, by ! Bhoots up again (viz., the stump left in the "go," as below in ver. 19, and as above in chap. ground, comp. Isa. vi. 13), and its sprout v. 7 ; xi. 12 (in which latter passages indeed npur, the tender young shoot from the root the figure follows, not precedes, the thing illusSsuckling). LXX. Sadauvos; comp. ch. viii. 16) | trated). Comp. the description, imitative of the faileth not. Carey, Delitzsch, and others, cor- present passage, in 188. xix. b,

present passage, in Isa. xix. 5, describing the rectly understand the tree of whose vitality and drying up of the Nile ( 17) by a Divine judgpower of perpetual rejuvenescence Job seems ment-a description which indeed the advocates more particularly to think here to be the date of a post-solomonic authorship of our book repalm, which on account of this very quality is gard as the original of the passage before us called by the Greeks doivee. It is not so proba-1 (e. g., Volck, de summa carm. Job sent., p. 31). ble that the oak or terebinth [E. V. “teil”] (O' here should be taken of an inland sea or body mentioned in the parallel passage in Isa. vi. 13, of water, a sense which the application of the is intended here.

word to the lake of Tiberias, Numb. xxxiv. 11; Vers. 8, 9, present not properly “another the Euphrates, Isaiah xxvii. 1; the Nile, see case,” (Dillmann), but they develop the illustra- above, abundantly justifies. Such a drying up tion already presented still further and more of large bodies of water is 10 uncommon forcibly.-If its root becometh old in the phenomenon in the torrid regions of the East. ground (I'Pin?, inchoative Hiph., senescere), -E.) and its trunk dieth in the dust (comp. Isa. Ver. 12. So man lies down and rises no xl. 24), i. e., if the tree die, not interrupted in its more; till the heavens are no more, they growth by the violent hand of man, while yet

awake not.-O'ng una w, until the failure, young and vigorous, but decaying with age, becoming dry and dead down to the roots. i. e., the disappearance of the heavens (comp. the Through the scent of water (i, e., 80 soon as exactly equivalent phrase, n7997, Ps. lxxii. it feels the vivifying energy of water ; comp.. Judg. xvi. 9) [T., may be taken either subjec

7), the same in meaning with Dix? 79, Psalm tively of the scenting, or inhalation of water

cxlviii. 6. For according to the popular conception by the tree; or, better, of the scent which water

of the ancient Hebrews, the heavens endure forbrings with it. “When the English army landed

ever: Ps. Ixxxix. 30 (29); Jer. xxxi, 35. When in Egypt in 1801, Sir Sydney Smith gave the

in Ps. cii. 27 ; Isa. li. 6; Ixv. 17 the heavens are troops the sure sign that wherever date-trees

described as waxing old and being changed, this grew there must be water." Vide R. Wilson's

statement does not exclude their eternal existHistory of the Expedition to Egypt, page 18] it

ence; for the supposition of a destruction of the sprouts (again; comp. Ps. xcii. 14) and puts

universe in the sense of its annihilation is every. forth boughs (comp. ch. xviii. 16 ; xxix. 19),

where foreign to the Hebrew Scriptures. The like a young plant; or also like a sapling

expression before us, “not to awake till the heanewly planted (LXX. : ÚÇ VEOAUTOV). That this

vens are no more,” is accordingly in any case description also is pre-eminently suitable to the

equivalent to “not to awake for ever" (or “nepalm appears from the fact that, as every ori

ver to awake”), as the third member of the ental knows very well, in every place where

verse also clearly indicates : and are never this tree grows, water must be very near at

aroused out of their sleep-they sleep a hand, generally from the indestructible vitality Osiy nv, Jer. li. 39, 57, an endless sleep of and luxuriant fulness of this pilvopov OUTOV, Ideath. It is assuredly straining the language. (comp. Delitzsch on this passage. [- Even when

and at variance with the connection, and with centuries have at last destroyed the palm-says

Job's present mood, to assume in the expression Masius in his beautiful and thoughtful studies

an implication that when the phenomenal heaof nature-thousands of inextricable fibres of pa

vens should disappear, man would awake. How rasites cling about the stem, and delude the tra

far Job's mind does reach out towards the idea veller with an appearance of life.” DEL.]).

of a resuscitation of humanity will be seen preVers. 10–12 present the contrast to the above: sently. Amid such fluctuations of thought and the hopelessness of man in death.

feeling as characterize his utterances, we are Ver. 10. But man dies and is brought not to look for self-consistency, much less for a

careful and exact expression of the highest forms down (w?n here in the intrans. sense confectum

of truth, whether as revealed elsewhere, or even esse, to be prostrated, to be down, whence the

as at times revealed to his own mind.-E.] How usual signification, “to be weak,” is derived : unchangeable the cheerless outlook on such an [the Imperf., when transitive, is written ohn';

eternal condition of death in Sheol presents itself

to Job, is shown by the vividly expressed wish when intransitive, as here, 1907']); man ex- which immediately follows that God, if it wero

possible, would cause him again to emerge out 7) of the trunks and roots of the tree which has of this condition, which, however, he immediately recognizes as a yearning which is absolutely in.

been cut down. The 79'?n, in a word, which capable of being realized.

Job yearns for is a release from service which 8. Third Division: Fourth and Fifth Strophes: would be at the same time a “springing up” Continuation and conclusion of the description anew from death to life. That this double meanof the hopelessness of man in the prospect of ing is not forced, that it is a beautiful and happy death: vers. 13-22.

stroke of genius, will not seem at all incredible Fourth Strophe: Vers. 13-17: Sif God would to any one who will carefully trace out our au. only permit a hope of the cessation of His wrath, thor's masterly use of words in their various posand of his restoration from Sheol, how joyfully

ufully sibilities.-E.) he would endure) until the change should come;

Ver. 15. Thou wouldst call (to wit, in this but now He punishes without pity his sins.]

discharge by Ewald and others referred to the Ver. 13. Ah that Thou wouldst hide me

forensic call to the final trial, wherein Job confi(Hiph. as in Ex. ii. 3) in the realm of the dead. dently hoped to be acquitted; but the connection wouldst keep me secret until Thy wrath here indicates rather the call of love, yearning should change (comp. the description of such after its object; "the voice of God returning to a hiding from God's wrath in 18a. xxvi. 20; Ps. I take His creatures to Himself” (Dav.)-E.], and ii. 5. xxxi. 21 (201), wouldst appoint me I would answer Thee (would follow Thy

call); Thou wouldst yearn after the work a set time (a pn, see on ver.5), and then re-of Thy hands (chap. x. 3); i. e., Thou, 88 meml

mber me-viz., for good, in order to re-esta- Creator, wouldst feel an affectionate longing atblish me in the fellowship of Thy grace, and cause ter Thy creature, which Thou hadst hitherto me to live in the same. This last expression ???n! treated' harshly, and rejected. “The true chaaccented with the emphasis of glowing passion, is racter of the relation of love between the Creator the culmination of the yearning wish which Job and His creature would again assert itself, it here expresses, from which, however, he imme. would become manifest that wrath is only a diately recoils again, as from a chimerical idea waning power (Isa. liv.8), and love the true and which has no real foundation.

essential necessity of His being." DEL. [** Job Ver. 14. If man dies, will he live?-.e., must have had a keen perception of the profound is it possible that he who has once died, will relation between the creature and his Maker in come to life again? The asyndetic introduction the past, to be able to give utterance to such an of this short but frequent question after the pre-imaginative expectation respecting the future." ceding verse, produces a contrast which is all Schlott.] Although only a "phantasy of hope" the stronger. No answer to the question fol- (Schlott.), it still furnishes an unconscious prolows, because it is self-evident to the reader that phecy of that which was accomplished in Christ's it can be answered only in the negative. But descent into Hades for the salvation of the saints strong as is his conviction of the impossibility of the Old Covenant. of a return to life of the dead, equally sweet and Ver. 16. For now Thou numberest my gracious is the charm of the thought which steps, i. e., for at this time Thou watchest every dwells on the opposite possibility, which he has step and motion, as those of a transgressor, just expressed in the form of a wish. ["If a comp. chap. xiii. 27. n '], as in chap. vi. 21, man die, etc., finely natural interpretation of the

introducing the contrast between a point of time cold reason and of doubt. striving to banish the beautiful dream and presentiment of a new bo

on which the eye fixes in the future, and the sad dily life with God; but in vain, the spirit tram

reality of the present. [?? assigns the reason ples down the rising suspicion, and pursues more for the wish which forms the contents of vers. 13-15. eagerly the glorious vision." Dav.1 All the It is not necessary, with Hirzel and Schlott., to days of my warfare would I wait, until my supply any tbing between vers. 15 and 16, as, e.g., discharge (lit. “ my exchange." comp. chap. X. / “Thou dost not yearn for Thy creature now, for," 17) should come.Job uses the term “war- etc. The construction of Umbreit, etc., which takes fure” here somewhat differently from chap. vii. Inpe'? as an emphatic clause,="" indeed now,” 1 to denote not only the remainder of his toil- is to be rejected.--E.-And dost not hold some and troublesome days on earth, but “the Thyself back on account of my sins. whole dismal interval between the present and This is the most satisfactory rendering of xy that longed-for goal” in the future when he

non hy noun. It is found already in Mercier,

was by should be released from Hades; this release is here, in accordance with the figure of military l(non reservas nec differs peccati mei punitionem), service, designated as an “exchange” or “dis- and is of late advocated by Delitzsch (and charge.” [Hence the change" here spoken Wordsworth. It seems to Del. “that the sense of is not, as the old Jewish expositors, followed intended must be derived from 78 720, which by some moderns, have explained it, the change

means to keep anger, and consequently to delay produced by death. The word 72 ?n, however, the manifestati

the manifestation of it; Amos i. 11.”] Dillhas here a double significance, which should be mann's explanation gives the same sense: appreciated to realize the full beauty of the pas- “ Thou dost not pass over my sins;" a rendersage. In addition to its primary and principal sing, indeed, which rests on an emendation of meaning as expressing the discharge of the sol. | dier whose term of hard service has expired, it

01the text to : in-hyngyn xs, which is favored

in some measure by the version of the LXX. suggests also the "sprouting" anew (9??', ver. Also the rendering advocated by Ewald, Heilig..

Schlott. and Hahn: “ Thou givest no considera- / patch on, and gen. to add.” So Delitzsch. But tion to my sing” (to ascertain, namely, whether (1): It looks very much like hyper-criticism to tbey do in truth deserve to be punished so decide, from a very limited usage, that a word, severely), does not differ very essentially. Other the essential meaning of which is to sew, may explanations lack satisfactory support: such as mean to sew on, but cannot mean to sew up; or, those of the Rabbis, which differ widely among if the essential meaning be to plaster, to patch, themselves: e. g. Raschi's: “Thou waitest not that it may mean to patch on to (to add a patch). over my sins, i. e. to punish them;" Ralbag's : but not to patch over. (2) The point becomes “Thou waitest not for my sins=repentance still weaker in a case where the word is used, punishment;" Aben-Ezra's: “Thou lookest not as here, in a figurative, not a literal sense. (3) except on my sins.” The same may be said of The parallelism favors the meaning to sew, or the attempt of Rosenm., Hirzel and Welte to to patch up. It seems somewhat incongruong, render the sentence as an interrogative without after representing God as having sealed up 17: “Dost Thou not keep watch over my sin ?" transgressions in a bag, to represent Him in the So E. V., Conant, Dav., Rod., Gesen., Fürst. —

next clause as stitching, patching, or fabricating In view of ch. xiii. 27 b, it is not apparent why

other sins. On the other hand, the thought of

sealing sin in a bag is suitably supplemented by this rendering should be said to “lack satisfac

| the thought that the bag is not only officially tory support.” The preposition 7y cannot be sealed, but carefully sewed together; or if, urged against it, for it harmonizes well with the with Bernard, we explain: “ With such care idea thus expressed; and the interrogative form dost Thou store up my iniquities in Thy bag, gives vividness, force and variety to the passage. Ithat if Thou seest the slightest possibility of its --E.]

I giving way in any part, so tbat some of them Ver. 17. Sealed up in a bag is my gullt. might slip out and be lost, Thou immediately

(4) Admit'yua, lit. " wickedness," as in ch. xiii. 23 b. stoppest up the hole with a patch."

ting that the apparent blasphemy of the expresbere of the aggregate of Job's former transgreg-sion may be explained away, as above by Zöck. sions (comp. ch. xiii. 26 6), of the sum total, the ler, its admitted audacity still remains. But Job entire mass of guilty actions committed by him, is not now in one of his Titanic moods of defiance. which, as he must believe, is preserved and He resembles not so much Prometheus hurling sealed up by God with all care as a treasure, to charges against the Tyrant of the skies, as Hambe used against him in his own time; comp. llet, meditating pensively on death and the undisDeut. xxxii. 34; Hios. xiii. 12. For the figura-1 covered country from whose bourne no traveller tive expression: “to tie up in a bag,”=to keep returns,” but with an infinitely purer pathos in remembrance, comp. Ps. lvi. 9; 1Sam. XXV. than is found even in the soliloquy of “ the me. 29. Ewald, Hirzel, Renan, incorrectly explain lancholy Dane." It is but a moment ago (ver. the “ guilt sealed in a bag” to be the judicial 156) that he recognized in a strain of inimitable sentence of condemnation by God already issued

beauty the yearning bent of Creative Love. against Job, which now only awaits execution; He is now indeed complaining of the present for of the preservation of such penal sentences severity of God's dealings with him, but the in a bottle all oriental antiquity knows nothing I plaintive tenderness of that sentiment still floats whatever. [The figure is taken “from the model over his spirit and lingers in his words, softenof preserving collected articles of value in a sealed

ing them into the tone of a subdued reproachful bag.” Del. 1-And Thou hast devised a&di- moan, very different from the bitter outcry of tions to my transgressions: lit. “and Thou rebellious defiance.-E.] hast still furtber stitched (to wit, other, new Fifth Strophe: vers. 18-22. Conclusion : comtransgressions) on my transgressions; i. e. hast pleting the gloomy delineation of that which in inade mine iniquity still greater than it is, and

aquily still greater than it is, and reality awaited Job, in opposition therefore to punished it accordingly more severely than it the yearning desire of his heart. deserves. This accusation which Job here pre- Ver. 18. But in sooth a falling mountain ferg against God is a bold one; but it is too crumbles away: observe the paronomasia in much to affirm that it is “pure blasphemy" (Dillm.), because the language of Job through

h the original between the participle Spij de

-at the be וְאוּלס] (יִבּוֹל) נבל and הַר out is simply tropical

and his real thought is

that God's treatment of him is as severe as if, in ginning as elsewhere strongly adversative, addition to his actual transgressions, he were introducing in opposition to the dream of a posburdened with a multitude of such as had been sible restoration in the preceding strophe the fabricated (comp. Hengstenberg on the passage). stern reality, the inexorable and universal law, Hence the rendering of Ewald: “Thou hast which dooms everything to destruction. The patched up, sewed up my transgression” (E. V., I use of this conjunction here is a strong confirmDillmann, Good, Wemyss, Bernard, Con., Barnes, lation of the position maintained in the concluDav., Rod.], is equally unnecessary with the ding remarks on ver. 17 that the sentiment of similar rendering of Umbreit, Vaih., Böttch. :

vers. 15-17 lingers also around vers. 16, 17, and “and Thou coverest up my sins.” Substan- that accordingly ver. 17 b cannot be a daring tially the right interpretation is given by Rosen

suggestion of the charge of fabricating iniquity müller, Arnh., Hirz., Welte, Delitzsch, Hengst.

against Job.--E.-And a rock grows old Gegen., Fürst, Noyes, Renan, Words. ].

out of its place. ppi is rightly rendered: [The main argument in favor of the interpre- /

“10 grow old, to decay” by the LXX., and tation adopted here by Zöckler is that 920 among moderns by Hirzel, Umbreit, Vaihinger, means properly not to sew up, but “to sew on, Schlottmann. The topical meaning: “to be removed” is indeed admissible, and is sup-, crumbling into rocks, the rocks breaking down ported by the Vulg., Rosenm., Ewald, Hahn, from age into stones, the stones wearing away and generally by the majority of moderns. The into dust, and the dust being washed by the wamore pregnant meaning of tbe passage, however, ters into the abyss; whether accordingly all ngwould be lost by the adoption of this latter ren- ture is not thus resolving itself into the dust to dering, which is simply prosaic in its simplicity, which man too at the last returns. What hope

Ver. 19. In this verse a and 6 continue the is there indeed for man, whose “house of clay series of figures begun in ver. 18, which are is crushed like the moth” (ch. xiv. 19), when intended to illustrate the unceasing operation the doom even of the everlasting mountains isof the Divine penalty or process of destruction dust.-E.] decreed for men, whereas c first introduces that Ver. 20. Thou overpowerest him forever which is to be illustrated by means of the 1-then he passeth away.-12 with accus. adæquationis (as in ch. v. 7 ; xi. 12; xii. 11). if the person is not: “to assail ” (Hirzel) [Con. Water hollows out stones (comp. the Lat. Del.], but as in ch. xv. 24; Eccles. iv. 12, "to gutta cavat lapidem); its floods wash away

overpower,” and 793? is not "continually, the dust of the earth. non, fem. sing., Severmore,” but “forever;" comp. ch. iv. 20; referring to the plural ??!, according to xx. 7: xxiii. 7.-As to the emphatic an', Gegenius, & 146 12 143] 3, Green. & 275, 4. a

: "then he passeth away,” Greek Baivet, bi xerai, The harshness of the consiruction which is

comp. ch. X. 21; also in respect of form the same necessitated by taking n'in the sense which

poet. Imperf. in ch. xvi. 6, 22; xx. 25.—Dis. belongs to it elsewhere of a self-sown growth, figuring his countenance, so Thou send. is shown in the rendering of E. V.: “Thou est him away; i. e., in the struggle of death, washest away the things which grow out of the or when decay sets in. Thou makest him unlike dust of the earth.” Moreover, the limitation-himself, distortest his features, etc., and so send“gelf-sown”-is against this rendering, which would require rather some more comprehensive est

ive est him forth out of this life (nro as in Lev.

XX. 23; Jer. xxviii. 16; the 1 consecut, very term, such as 443?. The fem. suffix in 7ndd

TO ? nearly as in Ps. cxviii. 27). originates in the same principle which deter- Ver. 21. Should his sons be in honor, he mines the fem. form of the verb, and like the knows it not; if they are abased he perlatter refers to D2.-E.].–And the hope of mortal man [note the use of wijk, bringing

ceives them not: [5 after 1? here of the

direct object : in ch. xiii. 1 however as dat. ethiman into the category of destructible matter.E.]-Thou destroyest: i. e. just as incessantly

cus. Del.]. The same contrast between 79, to and irresistibly as the physical objects here come to honor, and y, to be insignificant, to mentioned yield to the gradual processes of de- sink into contempt, is presented in Jer. xxx. 19; struction in nature, so dost Thou cause man to for 703 comp. also Is. lxvi. 5. The mention of perish without any hope of being brought to the children of the dead man has nothing relife again, and this too at once, suddenly markable about it, since Job is here speaking in (N7X7, Perf. of the accomplished fact. [For general terms of all men, not especially of himthe form of the verb see Green, 8112, 31). self. It is somewhat different in ch. xix. 17; The four figures here used are not intro- see however on the passage. The description in duced to exemplify the idea of incessant the passage before us of the absolute ignorance change ruling in the realm of nature, whereas of the man who is in Sheol of that which takes from man all hope of a change for the place in the world above, reminds us of ch. iii. better in his lot is taken away (so Hahn, 13 seq. Comp. in addition Eccles. ix. 5, 6 (see who takes the I in c in the adversative sense, Comm, on the passage). but they describe the processes of destruction in Ver. 22. Only his flesh in him feels pain, nature, and more especially in the lower sphere and his soul in him mourns: i. e., he himof inorganic nature, as types of the gradual self, his nature, being analyzed into its consticeaseless extinction to which man succumbs in tuent parts of soul and body (comp. ch. xvii. 16), death. This moreover is not to be understood as perceives nothing more of the bright life of the though Job contemplated those processes with a upper world; he has only the experience of pain view to console himself with the thought that his and sorrow which belongs to the joyless, gloomy destruction in death was a natural necessity, existence of the inhabitants of Sheol, surrounded (Hirzel), but in order to exhibit as forcibly and by eternal night. The brevity of the expression thoroughly as possible the absolute hopelessness makes it impossible to decide with certainty wheof his condition in prospect of the dark future ther Job here assumes that man carries with him which death holds up before him ; see vers. 20- to Sheol a certain corporeality (a certain residue, 22, which admit of no other than this disconso- kernel, or some reflex of the earthly body), or late sentiment for ver. 19c. [The descending whether he mentions the “flesh" along with the gradation in the series of objects from which the “soul ” because (as is perhaps the case also in illustrations here are taken is quite noticeable- Is. lxvi. 24; Judith xvi. 17) he attributes to the mountain-rock-stones-dust; and suggests at decaying body in the grave a certain consciousleast the query whether we do not have here ness of its decay (Dillmann; comp. Delitzsch, something more than four distinct emblems of who would cast on the departed soul at least "a decay, whether it is not intended to show a suc- painful reflection" of that process). The former cession of stages in the process: the mountains view, however, is the more probable in view of



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