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what is said in ch. xix. 27 (see below, Doctrinal content, the lingering misery of the imprisoned and Ethical Remarks on ch. xix., No. 3). By soul. It is no uncommon thing even for us to means of 19y, “in him," occurring in both

speak of the comfort, rest, equality, etc., of the

grave, as though its occupants might have some members, the two factors of the nature belong-l consciousness of the same. So on the other ing to the man who has died are emphatically hand it would seem that Job here introduces into represented as belonging to him, as being his the resting-place of the body something of that own; the suffixes in 10? and we are thus in which made the place of the departed soul an like manner strengthened by this doubled by

b, Jobject of dread. It may be indeed, as our Comm.

suggests above, that the passage reflects some as in Greek the possessive pron. by idioc. It is peculiarity in the opinion of antiquity touching not probable that “only,” is through a hy. the relation of the corporeal and spiritual parts perbaton to be referred simply to hy, express- of humanity, after death, but our grounds for ing the thought: “only he himself is henceforth

affirming this are too precarious.-E.]. the object of his experiences of prin and mourning, he concerns himself no more about the

DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL. gs of the upper world (Hirzel, Delitzsch), It is undeniable that Job in this reply to Zo[Noyes, Schlott.). This rendering is at variance

phar's attack, which at the same time closes the with the position of the words, and with the dou-firs

u first colloquy, shows himself decidedly superior bled use of the Dillmann rightly says: “the to the three friends not only in acuteness, high limiting 1x belongs immediately not to the sub- poetic flight of thought, and penetrative fiery

energy of expression, but also in what may be ject, but to the action : he no longer knows and

called doctrinal correctness, or purity. perceives the things of the upper world, be 19 latter respect he seems to have made progress in

In the henceforth only conscious of pain, etc." Heng- the right direction from the stand-point which stenberg on the contrary arbitrarily explains' ho ná

explains he had previously occupied. At least he exhi

;) sand so Wordsworth]: The situation in ver. 22 hits in

bits in several points a perception of sin which is in general not that of the dead, but of one wbo is in some measure more profound and accurate, is on the point of death, of whose flesh (animated

in so far as he, notwithstanding that he repeats as yet by the soul) alone could the sense of pain

the emphatic asseveration of his innocence (see be predicted (?).

especially ch. xiii. 16,19), makes mention of his [Vers. 21, 22 are a description of the after

own sins, not simply of those of his opponents. life in two of its principal aspects. (1) As one

No doubt it is one of his principal aims to critiof absolute separation from the present, and so

cize sarcastically and severely their one-sided of entire unconsciousness and independence in wisdom (ch. xii. 2 seg.: xiii. 1 seg.): no doubt regard to all that belongs to life on earth (ver. he censures with visible satisfaction the one21).—(2). As one of self-absorbed misery, the sided application which they make of their narself-absorption being indicated by the repeated

row doctrine of retribution, and holds (ch. xiii. Ti'sy, and the double suffixes in each member of 9) that if God in the exercise of rigid justice, yer. '22. The thought of ver. 21 leads naturally should scrutinize them, the result would be anyto that of ver. 22. The departed knows nothing thing but favorable to them! Now, however, of the living, nothing of all that befalls those more decidedly and explicitly than in his previwho during life were in the closest union with ous apologies, he includes himself also in the himself; the consciousness of his own misery fills universal mass of those who are sinfully cor him.

and guilty before God. He several times admits The description in ver. 22 of his experience in the last division (ch. xiii. 23-xiv. 22) that

by his sin he had furnished the inexorable Diof that misery is more obscure.—7 may be ren- vine Judge, if not with valid and sufficient cause dered on account of”: “ only on his own ac- at least with occasion for the severe treatment count his flesh suffereth pain, etc.The objec- which He had exercised toward him. Here belongs tion to this is its non-emphatic position, and the the prayer, addressed to God to show him how separation between it and X. In any case the much and how grievously he had in truth sinned suffix 1' refers to the man, not (as Conant, Dav., 1(ch. xiii. 23). Here also belongs the supposiRen., Rod.) to “flesh ” in a, and to “soul”, in

, in tion which he expresses (ch. xiii. 26) that pos

ist sibly it was the “transgressions of bis youth” b, for in that case ??? would require 44 of which he was now called to make supplemenThe proper rendering of 19x therefore is “in tary confession; and following thereupon we him” (in = Germ. an ; i. e., his flesh and spirit have his lamentation, which reminds us of as belonging to him, as that with which he is in- | David's penitential prayer (Ps. li. 7; comp. Ps. vested).-But why connect the “flesh” here with xiv. 3)—concerning the nature of human deprathe " soul?” The simplest explanation seems to

vity, which he represents as embracing all, and be that the realm of the dead, the under-world, organically transmitting itself, so that no one is in its broadest extent embraces both the grave, excepted from it (ch. xiv. 4)-an utterance which where the body lies, and Hades where the soul agrees in substance with the proposition pregoes, as may be seen in Ps. xvi. 10. where hixu viously advanced by Eliphaz (ch. iv. 17), but

which more profoundly authenticates the truth and nu are conjoined ; and that accordingly, under consideration, so that the Church tradiby poetic personification, the mouldering flesh tion is perfectly justified in finding in it one of is here represented as sharing the aching dis- the cardinal sedes doctrinæ on the subject of ori.

ginal sin. IIere finally belongs the description, | Scblottmann, who (on ver. 15) rightly emphainvolving another distinct confession of his own sizes the thought that “Job must have had 3 sinfulness, in which he shows how God unspa-deep experience in the past of the inwardness ringly punishes his sin, lies in wait, as it were, of the relation between the creature and his for it, and carefully notes it in His book (a Creator, if he was able to give such an expresthought which is favored by the corresponding sion to it as this dreamy hope of the future;''Hebrew expression “ to seal transgression in a on the other side by Delitzsch, who not less bag”)-nay, more, seems to interest Himself in strikingly and beautifully points out "how totally wilfully enlarging this, His register of sins (ch. different would have been Job's endurance of xiv. 16, 17). With these several indications of suffering, if he had but known that there was & more profound and comprehensive conscious- really a release from Hades," and how at the ness of sin, which are indeed still far from sig- same time in the wish of Job that it might be nifying a genuine contrite submission beneath so, there is revealed the incipient tendency of the God's righteous discipline, that true penitence growing hope.“For," he continues, "the which God's personal interposition at last works author of our book confirms us in what one of in him (ch. xlii. 2 seq.), there stands imme- the old writers says, tbat the hope of eternal life diately connected another evidence of progress is a flower which grows on the brink of hell. in Job's frame of mind, which is also contained in the midst of the hell of the feeling of God's in the closing division of this discourse, espe- wrath, in which Job is sunk, this flower blooms cially in the 14th chapter, which is character- for him. In its blooming, however, it is not yet ized by wondrous beauty and astonishing power. a hope, but a longing. And this longing cannot Job utters here for the first time, if not the hope, unfold itself into a hope, because no light of at least the yearning desire for a release from the promise shines into the night which rules in state of death (ch. xiv. 13-17). He prays that, Job's soul, and which makes the conflict yet instead of being shut up in an eternally forlorn darker than it is in itself.” separation from God in the gloomy realm of 1 2. When we compare Job's frame of mind, shadows, he may rather be only kept there for a and religious and moral views of the world, as season, until the Divine wrath is ended, and indicated in this discourse, with those expressed then, when the Creator should remember His in his former discourses, we find these two points creature, to be restored to His fatherly love and of superiority and progress: a more correct incompassion. This does not indeed amount to a sight into sin, and above all, in his relation to hope that He would one day be actually released the Divine Creator, an inward sense of fellowfrom Hades; it is simply a dream, born of the ship blossoming into what is at least a lirely longing of this sorely tried sufferer, which im&- longing after eternal union with God. In other gination summons before him as a lovely picture respects, however, the present outpouring of his of the future, of which, however, he himself is sorely tempted and afflicted heart exhibits retrothe next moment assured that it can never be a gression rather than progress. The illusion of reality! If we should still call it a hope, we à God tyrannically tormenting and hostilely must in any case keep in view the wide interval persecuting him has a stronger hold upon him which separates this forlorn flame of hope, flick-than ever before (see especially ch. xiii. 15 seq.). ering up for once only, and then immediately And this illusion is all the stronger in that, on dying out, from that hope of a resurrection the one hand, he finds within bimself that the which with incomparably greater confidence is witness of his conscience to his innocence is expressed in ch. xix, 25 seg. At best we can more positive than ever (ch. xiii. 16, 19), while but say, with Ewald: “ The hope exists only in on the other hand, he is unable to free himself imagination, without becoming a certainty, from the preconceived opinion which influences while the speaker, whom it has surprised, only him equally with the three friends, which admits follows out the thought, how beautiful and glo- no other suffering to be possible for men than rious it would be, were it really so.” This sim- that of penal retribution for sin (comp. ch. xiii. ple germ-hope of a resurrection, however, 23, 26; xiv. 16 seq.). There arises thus : acquires great significance as a step in the doc- strange conflict between his conscience, which trinal and ethical course of thought in our book. is comparatively pure, and the gloomy anxieties For it is the clear radiance of an unconscious produced by that preconceived notion, and by prophecy of the future deliverance of spirits out the contemplation at the same time of his of their prigon through Christ's victory over the unspeakable wretchedness-a conflict which, in powers of darkness (Matt. xii. 40 seq.; Luke proportion as he neither can nor will relinquish xxiii. 43; Eph. iv. 8 seq.; Phil. ii. 10 seq. ; Col. his own righteousness, urges him to cast suspiii. 15; 1 Pet. iii. 18 seq.; Rev. i. 18; Heb. ii. cion on God's righteousness, and to accuse Him 14), which here shines forth in the depths of a of merciless severity. This unsolved antinomy soul beclouded by the sorrows of death. On the produces within him a temper of agonizing other side Job expresses so strong a yearning gloominess, which in ch, xiii. 13 seq. expresses after permanent reconciliation with his Creator, itself more in presumptuous bluster and Titan80 pure a representation of the nature of the like storming against God's omnipotence, in ch. communion of man with God, as a relation which xiv. 1 seq. more in a tone of elegiac lamentation behooves to be of eternal duration, that this and mourning. Immediately connected herevery intensity of the religious want and longing with is the melancholy, deeply tragical characof his heart carries with it, in a measure, the ter which attaches to his utterances from beginpledge that his yearning was not in vain, or that ning to end of this discourse. For it has been his ričelv nap érida would one day be ful-truly remarked of the passage in ch. xii. 7 seq., filled. Comp. on the one side what is said by in which, with a view to surpass and eclipse that which had been said in the right direction. In the spring season. So it is with man; by his three predecessors, he describes the ! One generation grows while one decays ;" absolute majesty of God in nature and in the

(Bryant's Transl.) history of bumanity, that it is “a night-scene

Or like this meditation of SIMONIDES (Anthol. Gr. (Nachtgemälde), picturing the catastrophes which

Appendir, 83): God brings to pass among the powers of the

“Nought among men unchangeablo endures, world of nature and of humanity;" and that Sublime the truth which he of Chios spoke: the one-sidedly abstract, negative, repelling,

• Men's generationg are like those of leaves!'

Yet few are they who, having heard the truth rather than attractive representation of God's

Lodge it within their hearts, for hope abides wisdom, is the reflection of the midnight gloom With all, and in the breasts of youth is planted." of his own feelings, which permits him to contemplate God essentially only on the side of Or like this elegy from Moschus (III. 106 seq.): His majesty, His isolation from the world, and u The meanest herb we trample in the field, His destructive activity. [“For the wisdom Or in the garden nurture, when its leaf,

At winter's touch is blasted, and its place of God, of which he speaks, is not the wisdom

Forgotten, soon its vernal buds renews, that orders the world in which one can con And, from short slumber, wakes to life again. fide, and in which one has the surety of see

Man wakes no more!--man valiant, glorious, wise,

When death once chills him, sinks in sleep profound, ing every mystery of life sooner or later glo

A long, unconscious, never-ending sleep." riously solved; but this wisdom is something

(GISBORNE.) purely negative. .... Of the justice of God he does not speak at all, for in the narrow Or like that saying of the Arabian panegy. idea of the friends he cannot recognize its con- rist of Muhamed, KAABI BEN-Sohair:- "Every trol; and of the love of God he speaks as little | one born of Woman, let his good fortune as the friends, for as the sight of the Divine love I last never so long, is at last borne away on the is removed from them by the one-sidedness of bier, etc.”: or like that still more impressive detheir dogma, so is it from him by the feeling of scription in the Jagur Veda: “ While the tree the wrath of God which at present bas posses- that has fallen sprouts again from the root, sion of his whole being. Hegel bas called the fresher than before, from what root does mortal religion of the Old Testament the religion of sub-man spring forth when he has fallen by the hand limity; and it is true that, so long as that ma- of death? nifestation of love, the incarnation of the God- Finally, it has been rightly shown that besides bead, was not yet realized, God must have rela- the tone of mourning and hopeless lamentation tively transcended the religious consciousness. | which sounds through this discourse, it is also From the book of Job, however, this view can be pervaded by a tone of bitterness and grievous irbrought back to its right limits; for, according ritation on the part of Job, not only against the to the tendency of the book, neither the idea of friends (this being most forcibly expressed in God presented by the friends, por by Job, is the | ch. iv. 7 seq.) but even in a measure against God, pure undimmed notion of God that belongs to especially in those passages where he presumpthe Old Testament. The friends conceive of God tuously undertakes to argue with Him (ch. xiii. as the absolute One, who acts only according to 13 seq.), and where he even reproaches Him justice; Job conceives of Him as the absolute with making fictitious and arbitrary additions to One, who acts according to the arbitrariness of his list of charges, after the manner of the His absolute power. According to the idea of friends when they calumniated him and invented the book, the former is dogmatic one-sidedness, | falsehoods against him (ch. xiv. 17; see on the the latter the conception of one passing through passage). A singular contrast with this tone of temptation. The God of the Old Testament con- defiant accusations is furnished in the plaintive sequently rules neither according to justice alone pleading tone with which he submits the twofold nor according to a • sublime whim.'' Delitzsch condition on which he is willing to prosecute his I.: 239, 2407.

controversy with God, to wit, that God would alIt has been still further truly remarked that low a respite for a season from his sufferings, the mournfulness of his lamentations over the and that He would not terrify and confound him hopeless disappearance of man in the eternal with His majesty (ch. xiii. 20-22). It is everynight of the grave-in contemplating which he where the terrible idea of a God who deals with is led to regard the changes which take place in men purely according to His arbitrary caprice, the vegetable kingdom as more comforting and not according to the motives of righteousness and hope-inspiring than the issue of man's life, with a Father's love, this “phantom which the tempwbich he can compare only the processes of de- tation has presented before his dim vision instead struction and the catastrophes of inorganic na of the true God,”-it is this which drives him to ture (chap. xiv. 7 seq., 18 seq.)-has its echo in these passionate outbreaks, which in several reclassical heathenism in such passages as the fol. spects remind us of the attitude of a hero of lowing from HORACE (Od. IV. 7,1):

Greek tragedy towards the fearful might of an

inexorable Fate. [" This phantom is still the “Nog ubi decidimus

real God to him, but in other respects in no way Quo pins Æneas, quo dives Tullus et Ancus, Pulvis et umbra sum us."

differing from the inexorable ruling fate of the Greek tragedy. As in this the hero of the drama

seeks to maintain his personal freedom against Or like this from Homer (I1. VI, 146 seq.):

the mysterious power that is crushing him with u Like the race of leaves

an iron arm, so Job, even at the risk of sudden Is that of humankind. Upon the ground The winds strew one year's leaves; the eprouting wood

destruction, maintains the steadfast conviction Puts forth another brood, that shoot and grow

of his innocence in opposition to a God who has devoted him, as an evil-doer, to slow but certain lamentation in the closing division, especially destruction. It is the same battle of freedom in ch. xiv., over the vanity and perishableness against necessity as in the Greek tragedy. AC- of the life of man on earth, which is compared cordingly one is obliged to regard it as an error, now to a driven leaf, now to the process of arising from simple ignorance, when it has been mouldering, or being devoured by the moth, recently maintained that the boundless oriental now to a fading flower, or a rock worn away imagination is not equal to such a truly exalted | and bollowed out by the waters, together with task as that of representing in art and poetry the those passages which are interwoven with this power of the human spirit, and the maintenance | lamentation, in which he glances at the begin. of its dignity in the conflict with hostile powers, ning of life, poisoned by sin, and at its dismal because a task that can only be accomplished by outlook in the future appointed for it after death an imagination formed with a perception of the by the Divine justice, which is contemplated by importance of recognizing ascertained pheno- itself, isolated from grace and mercy. - The fol. mena. In treating this subject, the book of Job lowing extracts from the older and later practinot only attains to, but rises far above, the height cal expositors may serve to indicate how these attained by the Greek tragedy; for on the one themes may be individually treated. band it brings this conflict before us in all the Ch. xiii. 7-10. BRENTIUS: All creatures profearful earnestness of a death-struggle; on the claim the Creator, and cry out in speech that other however it does not leave us to the cheer- cannot be described: God has made me--as less delusion that an absolute caprice moulds hu- | Paul also says (Rom. i. 19; comp. Ps. xix. 1 mau destiny. This tragic conflict with the Di- seq.). If any one therefore properly considers vine necessity is but the middle, not the beginning the nature of beasts, birds, fishes, he will disnor the end, of the book; for this god of fate is cover the wonderful wisdom of the Creator (not the real God, but a delusion of Job's tempta- certain examples of the same being here brought tion. Human freedom does not succumb, but it forward, such as the instinct which the deer comes forth from the battle, which is a refining and the partridge exhibit, the wonderful strength fire to it as conqueror. The dualism, which the of the little sucking-fish [Echineis]). Thus by Greek tragedy leaves unexplained, is here cleared the natures of animals the invisible majesty of up. The book certainly presents much which, God is made visible and manifest. For not only from its tragic character, suggests this idea of did God create all things, but He also preserves, destiny, but it is not its final aim-it goes far nourishes and sustains all tbings: the breath, beyond: it does not end in the destruction of its whether of beasts or of men, is all lodged in hero by fate; but the end is the destruction of His hand.-COCCEIUS: What all these things the idea of this fate itself.” Delitzsch I. 242 severally contribute to the knowledge of the seq.].

Creator, as it would be a most useful subject of thought, so it is too vast to be here set forth by

us. Suffice it that Natural Theology is here HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL.

established by Job. ... When he says “this" The points of light which these three chapters (nxi, ver. 9), he doubtless points out individual exhibit in a doctrinal and ethical respect, have things. He thus confesses that every single a background of gloom, here and there of pro- thing was made and is governed by God, not found blackness. The homiletic expositor never only masses of things, and the universe as a theless finds in them in rich abundance both | whole, as the Jews dream. In fact individual texts for exhortation and comfort, and themes animals, plants, etc., utter their testimony to the for didactic edification. Here belongs of course Divine efficiency. ... These opinions, either the beautiful passage containing the physico- | by the light of nature, or the intercourse of the theological argument for an infinitely powerful fathers, were transmitted even to the gentiles, and wise Maker and Ruler of the world (ch. xii. -HENGSTENBERG: In order to make the wisdom 7-12)—, passage which in detail indeed exhibits of the friends quite contemptible, Job attributes no progressive development, but which does pe-| to the animals a knowledge of the Divine omnivertheless present an occasion for such a teleo- | potence and wisdom, their existence being sa logic advance of thought, in so far as it dwells eloquent proof of those attributes, so that they first on the animal world, then on the realm of can become teachers of the man who should be human life and its organic functions, in order to 80 blind and foolish as to fail to know the produce from both witnesses for a Supreme Wis- divine omnipotence and wisdom. That which dom ordering all things. But here still further can be learned from brutes, that as to which we belongs the description which follows of the Di- may go to school to them, Job will not be so vine majesty and strength which display them- foolish as not to know, neither will he need to selves in the catastrophes of human history (ch, learn it first from his wise friends. ... Just as xii. 13-25),—& description which may be made here the animals, so in Ps. xix. the heavens are the foundation of reflections in the sphere of represented as declaring the glory of God, which historical theology, or ethical theology, as well is revealed in them. Jehovah, the most proas the physico-theological argument. Here found in significance of the Divine names, here belongs again the passage wbich follows, in bursts forth suddenly out of its concealment, the which Job sharply censures the unfriendly lower names of God being in this connection judgment and invidious carping of his oppo- unsatisfactory. Jehovah, Jahveh, the One who nents (ch. xiii. 1-12)—a passage which reminds Is, the absolute, pure Being, is most approprius in many respects of New Testament teach- | ately the name by which to designate the First ings, as e. g. of Matt, vii. 1-5, and of Matt, xxiii. Cause of all existences. 2 seq.-Finally, we may put in this class the Ch. xii. 11-13. COCCEIUS: If the mind judges concerning those things which are presented the external affliction, internal trials are geneeither by signs, such as words, or by themselves, rally added.-(On ver. 26): Even the sins of as food to the palate, whether they are true or youth God brings to judgment in His own time false, useful or injurious; if by experience (by (Ps. xxv. 7). Think of that, young men and which many things are seen, heard, examined), women, and flee youthful lusts! by the knowledge of very many things, and of Ch. xiv. 1 seq. BRENTIUS: Man's misery is things hidden, and by sagacity it is fitted to set forth by the simile of the flower; for bodily make a proper use of things-does it not behoove beauty and durability can be compared to that God, who gave these things should be omni- | nothing more suitably than to the flower and scient without weakness, nay, with fulness of the shadow. ... Verily with what miseries power, so that all things must obey His nod? man is filled, is too well known to need reciting. For He beholds not, like man, that which For nowhere is there ary state or condition of belongs to another, but that which is His own. men which does not have its own cross and triNevertheless neither is judgment given to man bulation; and thus all things everywhere are for nought, but so that he may have some power filled with crosses. ... The thing to be done, of doing that which is useful, of refusing, or of therefore, is not to sbun the cross, but to lay not accepting that which is hurtful. Much less hold on Christ, in whom every cross is most is God's wisdom to be exercised apart from om easily borne.--ZEYSS: Although no man is by nipotence or sovereignty over all creatures. nature pure and holy (ver. 4), true believers

Ch. xii. 16 seq. CRAMER: Not only true but nevertheless possess through Christ a two-fold also false teachers are God's property; but He purity: (1) in respect of their justification ; (2) uses the latter for punishment (2 Thess. ii. 10), in respect of their sanctification and renewal: yet in such a way that He knows how to bring Heb. i. 3; ix, 14; 1 John i. 7, etc. forth good out of their ill beginning. The Lord Ch. xiv. 7 seq. Zeyss: As a tree sprouts up is a great king over all gods; all that the earth again, so will men, who have been cut down by produces is in His hand (Ps. xcv. 3); even faise the axe of death, germinate again out of the religions must serve His purposes (comp. Oeco- grave on the Last Day; John v. 28, 29.—HENGlampadius, who remarks on ver. 16 6: I refer STENBERG: The prospect of a future life here this to pevdou proksiac, or false religions, of which vanishes away from Job. How indeed could it the whole earth is full; he says here, that they be otherwise, seeing that he has lost altogether come to be by His nod and permission). Such out of his consciousness and experience the true might and majesty He displays particularly nature of God, on which that hope rests, God's toward the mighty kings of earth, to whom He justice and mercy? In these circumstances the gives lands and people, and takes them away belief in an endless life must of necessity perish again, as He wills (Dan. iv. 29).-ZEYSS: Rulers, within him, for to this faith there was not given and those who occupy their place, should dili- until the latter part of the Old Dispensation any gently pray to God that He would keep them firm declaration from God to which it could from foolish and destructive measures (in diets, cling, while before that it existed rather in the council-chambers, in regard to wars, etc.), in form of a longing, a yearning, a hope. Further order that they may not plunge themselves and on, however, [in Job's history) it again recovers their subjects into great distress (1 Kings its power. iii. 9).

Ch. xiv. 13-17: See Doctrinal and Ethical RcCh. xiii. 14 seq. BRENTIUS: You see from marks, No. 1. this passage that it is harder to endure the lia- Ch. xiv. 18 seq. CRAMER : Nothing on earth bility and dread of death than death itself. For is so firmly established, but it must perish ; and it is not hard to die, seeing that whether disease they who occupy themselves with the things of precedes or not, death itself is sudden; but to earth, must perish in them (Sir. xiv. 20 seq. ; 1 hear in the conscience the sentence of death John ii. 16 seq.).-ZEYss: Although mountains, (scil.-Thou shalt surely die!) this indeed is stones and rocks, yea, all that is in the world, most hard! This voice no man can hear with are subject to change, God's word, and the grace out despair, unless, on the other hand, the Lord therein promised for believers, stand fast forshould say to our soul: I am thy salvation ! ever; Ps. cxvii, 2; Isa. liv. 10.–Vict. ANDREÆ: WOHLFARTH: “Earthly things lost-little lost; Like an armed power the feeling of his present honor lost-much lost; God lost-all lost!" thus cheerless condition again overpowers Job, and does Job admonish us.

| again the feeble spark is extinguished, which Ch. xiii. 23-28. OECOLAMPADIUS: See the had just before (vers. 13-17), illumined his soul stages by which the calamities come, swelling with so tender a gleam of hope. To his former one above the other. (1) To begin with, the reflections on nature (vers. 7-12) he now opposes face is hidden, and friendship is withheld; then the fact, no less true, that even that which is (2) enmity is even declared; (3) persecution most enduring in nature itself, such as mounfollows, and that without mercy, or regard for tains, rocks, and soils, must gradually decay. frailty; (4) reproaches and grave accusations | And so it seems to him now, in accordance with are employed, and the memory of past delin- this fact, as though human life also were desquencies is revived; (5) guards are imposed, tined by God only to endless annihilation. Death lest he should escape, and fetters in which he | it is—with its pale features so suddenly disfimust rot. (Mercier and others, including of late guring the human countenance-which again Hengstenberg, bave called attention to these stands in all its horror, and annihilating power, same five stages.)-ZEYss (on ver. 24): Besides 'before his despairing soul !

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