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whatever sort. [A8 Dillmann observes, that 17 or opino of warlike invasions—still which is communicated by a direct revelation nothing could be deduced from the passage in from God does not need to be supported by the

favor of the post-solomonic origin of our book: wisdom of antiquity].

comp. on ch. xii. 24. Ver. 18. That which wise men declare

3. Second Division : An admonitory didactio without concealment from their fathers.

discourse on the retributive justice of God as -This verse, which is an expression of the ob- exbibited in the fate of the ungodly: vers. 20-35. ject of 779DN, coördinate with ''!7-7!, is [“ Now follows the doctrine of the wise men, added without i, because it is substantially iden- which springs from a venerable primitive age, tical with that which Eliphaz “had seen." an age as yet undisturbed by any strange way oņizna belongs not to find x)? (so the ancient thinking, as we should say), and is supported by

of thinking (modern enlightenment and free versions, and Luther) but to the logically domi- Eliphaz's own experience." Delitzsch. " It is nant verb 1772, to which they sky is sub- not so much the fact that the evil-doer receives

his punishment, in favor of which Eliphaz apjoined as an adverbial qualification. " To declare and not to hide” is equivalent to a single thers, as rather the belief in it, consequently in a

peals to the teaching handed down from the fanotion, “to declare without deception,” pre- certain degree the dogma of a moral order in cisely like John 1. 20, ομολογείν και ουκ αγνεισθαι.

the world.” Wetzstein in Delitzsch). Ver. 19. A more circumstantial description of dniax:-To whom alone the land was inward discontent and the restless pain of an

First' Strophe : Vers. 20-24. Description of the given (to inhabit), and through the midst earthly-minded and wicked man who defies God, of whom no stranger had forced his way. and cares not for Him. - [Zöckler takes the verb 2 here not in the

Ver. 20. So long as the wicked liveth, sense of a chance sojourning in a land, or tra- (lit., all the days of the wicked) he suffereth veling through it, but in the sense of a forcible intrusion, war gedrungen; a national amalgama- torment (hinn?, lit. he is writhing and twist. tion resulting from invasion. The language willing, viz., from pain), and so many years as include a foreign admixture from whatever are reserved for the oppressor [“ which acsource.-E.]. Seeing that y? Nn denotes here cording to ver. 32, are not very many,” Dillm.] with much more probability is the land” rather P'?, tyrant, one who commits outrageous viothan “the earth” (and so again in ch. xxii. 8; lence, as in ch. xxvii, 13; vi. 23 ; Ps. xxxvii. xxx. 8), and that what is expressly spoken of is 35; Is. xiii. 11, etc.). The second member, in the non-intrusion of strangers (o'm), Schlott- which op 1909 is an (adverbial] accusative mann's view that the passage refers to the first clause, and pa?)? ???? a relative clause depatriarchs, “the nobler primitive generations pending upon it, resumes the temporal clause, of mankind,” who as yet inhabited the earth

á all the days of the wicked,” which for the sake alone, is to be rejected. The reason why Eli- of emphasis stands at the beginning of the entire phaz puts forward the purity of the generation sentence. The LXX. renders differently: črn of his forefathers as a guarantee of the sound- åpcountà dedouéva duváorn; and similarly Deness and credibility of their teachings is that litzsch: “and a fixed number of years is re

among the sons of the East' purity of race was from the earliest times considered as the which gives a much flatter thought than our ex

served for the oppressor,” a rendering however sign of highest nobility” (Del.) [" The meaning position. Against the rendering of the Targ., is, I will give you the result of the observations Pesh., and Vulg. [also E. V.) “and the number of the golden age of the world, when our fathers of years is hidden to the oppressor," it may be dwelt alone, and it could not be pretended that urged that in that case the reading must have they had been corrupted by foreign philosophy; and when in morals and in sentiment they were been papy? 1?. [Not necessarily.—> is often pure.” Barnes. “Eliph.," says Umbr., "speaks used as a sign of the dativus commodi. or incomhere like a genuine Arab.” The exclusiveness modi, where we should expect j?.-E. 9., Mic. and dogmatic superciliousness which are to this day characteristic of Oriental nationalities are ii. 4 ļ von 7'%, where the removal of the nadoubtless closely associated with the race-in- tion's portion from it, is represented by the preetinct which here finds expression. In propor. position ļ, becuuse of the injurious consetion as a people, either from lack of courage, or from an effeminate love of luxury, or from a sor- quences to it. So here the hiding of the number did love of gain prostrates itself to foreign in- of the oppressor's years from him is represented fluences, and carries the witness of its degrada- byļ, because of the misery this causes to him. tion in the impurity of its blood, it cannot, in the On the other hand it may be said in favor of this judgment of an oriental sage, produce, or trans

construction that it is much simpler and stronger, mit, pure and sound doctrine.-E.]. It is unnecessary herewith to assume that the age of Eli- that it introduces an additional thought, such as phaz, in contrast with the boasted age of the the change of peony for jön might lead us to fathers, was a period of foreign domination, like expect (Del.), and that it is in entire harmony the Assyrian-Chaldean period in the history of with the context. The central thought of the Israel (Ewald, Hirzell, Dillmann). Or granting passage, the essential element of the oppressor's that such a period is referred to—although we misery is apprehension, anxiety, the premonition are under no necessity of understanding either of his doom. How the darkness of this feature of the picture is deepened by this stroke-"the or, with a neuter construction, the unknown number of his years is laid up in darkness," so something, the mysterious Power (which sugthat he knows not when, or whence, or how the gests the comparison that follows]) as a king blow will fall.—Furthermore the rendering "hidden” seems more suitable for 12%) than “re

ready for the onset.—ap2 cannot belong to served,” in the sense of “determined,” being the object of the verb, as rendered by the Lxx. more vivid, and more closely connected with the [ like a leader falling in the first line of the subjective character of the description. Even battle") and the Targ. (" to serve the conqueror if we render it by “reserved,” the idea of “bid-deadly anguish," which suddenly seizes on the

as a foot-stool”], but only to the subject. The den” should be included.-E.].

Ver. 21 seq., describe more in detail the rest- wicked, is compared to a king, armed for battle, less pain of soul, or the continual sing of meaning of the Hapaxleg. 117? (=1179, Ew.,

who falls upon a city; comp. Prov. vi. 11.- The the wicked. [It is doubtful whether the follow. 156, 6) is correctly given on the whole by the ing description is to be limited to the evil-doer's Pesh. and Vulg., although not quite exactly by anxiety of spirit, or whether it includes the realization of his fears in the events of his life. it better by “the round of conflict, the circling

proelium. The Rabbis, Böttch., Del., etc., render On the whole Delitzsch decides, and apparently of an army” [** the conflict which moves round with reason, that as the real crisis is not intro- about, like tumult of battle," Del.] ; but Dillduced until further on, and is then fully de- mann best of all, after the Arabic 177 by “onscribed, the language in vers. 21-24 is to be un

set, storming, rush of battle ;" for this is the derstood subjectively.-E.].

Ver. 21. Terrors (the" plural 0'170 only only meaning that is well suited to ļ 779, pahere) sound [lit.: the sound of terrors) in his ratus ad, as well as to the principal subject 23. ears; in (the midst of) peace the destroyers fall upon him; or, if we regard TIC not as a irretrievable destruction of the wicked is his

Second Strophe : Vers. 25-30. The cause of the

precollective, but as singular (comp. ch. xii. 6): sumptuous opposition to God, and his immode" the destroyer falls upon him.” As to xi3 with rate greed after earthly possessions and enjoy. the accus. in the sense of “coming upon any ments. The whole strophe forms a long period, one,” comp. ch. xx. 22; Prov. xxviii. 22. consisting of a doubled antecedent (marked by

Ver. 22. He despairs (lit., he trusts not, he the double use of '?, ver. 25 and ver. 27), and a dares not) of returning out of the darkness consequent, vers. 29, 30. (viz., of his misfortune, see vers. 25, 30), and Ver. 25. Because he has stretched out he is marked out for the sword. 58, the his hand against God (in order to contend same with 99% (which form is given by the K’ri with Him), and boasted himself against the and many MSS.) Part. pass. of 3, signifies remark above, 3 at the beginning is not “ for

Almighty. [As indicated in the introductory literally, “watched, spied out,” which yields a perfectly good sense, and makes both the mid- (E. V.), introducing a reason for what precedes, dle rendering of the Participle, (“ anxiously but “ because,” the consequent of which is not looking out for the sword”—so the Pesh. and given until ver. 29 seq.) 722, lit. "to show Vulg.) and Ewald's emendation to joos, seem oneself a hero, a strong man;" ¿. e., to be proud, superfluous.

insolent; comp. ch. xxxvi. 9; Is. xlii. 13. Ver. 23. He wanders about for bread: " Ah Ver. 26 continues the first of the two antecewhere ?” [i. e., shall I find it]? The meaning is dents, so that it is still under the regimen of obvious: in the midst of super-abundance he, the '3 in ver. 25 ... has run against Him with greedy miser, is tortured by anxieties concern-(erect) neck (comp. ch. xvi. 14) with the ing his food—a thought which the LXX. (also thick bosses (lit. with the thickness of the Wemyss and Merx], misunderstanding the short bosses, comp. Ewald, 8 293, c) of his shields. emphatic interrogative 78, “where” (for In a the proud sinner is represented as a single which they read 78, “vulture"], have ob- antagonist of God, who 78939, i. e., erecto colle, scured, or rather entirely perverted by their sin. (comp. Ps. lxxv. 6 [5]) rushes upon Him; in b gular translation : kararétaktai eis oita yuýlv: he is become a whole army with weapons of of["he wanders about for a prey for vultures,' fense and defense, by virtue of his being the Wem.]. With 178 comp. the similarly brief leader of such an army. 17.307 in ch. ix. 19.--He knows that close by

Ver. 27. Introducing the second reason (for him [lit. as in E. V., “ready at his hand'], of the wicked. Because he has covered his

ver. 29 seq.), consisting in the insatiable greed (179, like t-by ch. i. 14 7?, near, close face with his fatness (comp. Ps. lxxiii. 4-7), by," Ps. cal. 6 (5); 1 Sam. xix. 3) a dark day and gathered (nipo y here in the sense of a na(lit. day of darkness; comp. ver. 22) stands tural production or putting forth, as in ch. xiv. ready-to seize upon him and to punish him 9) fat upon his loins. qia, as in ch. xviii. 12).

Ver. 28. And abode in desolated cities, Ver. 24. Trouble and anguish terrify him. houses which ought not to be inhabited, mpya 73 here not of external, but of internal in 0.45, lit. “ which they ought not to inneed and distress, hence equivalent to anguish babit for themselves ;" the passive rendering of and alarm; comp. ch. vii. 11.-It overpower- 30" [Gesen., Del.] is unnecessary, the meaning eth him (the subj. of 109?? is either 12,3? of the expression in any case being, (domus non

In view of the

“6 and he does not bow

"тт

habitandze) which are destined for ruins.- cordance with the interpretation now prevalent We are to think of an insolent, sacrilegious of app=n%???, (with the suffix Dz) from a dence-whether it be his pleasure-house, or his root (which is not to be met with) 762, = Arab. fortified castle—in what is and should remain nal, as to attain, to acquire,” and so used in the according to popular superstition, an accursed sense of quæstum, lucrum (comp. the post-biblical and solitary place, among the ruins, it may be, piop, pajwvās). A possession “ bowing down to of an accursed city ; Deut. xiii. 13-19; comp. the earth” is e. g. a full-eared field of grain, a Josh. vi. 26; 1 Kings xvi. 34; also what is re

fruit-laden tree, a load of grain weighing down ported by Wetzstein (in Delitzsch I. 267 n.) con- that in which it is borne, etc. cerning such doomed cities among modern ori- fact that all the ancient versions present other entals.* Hirzel altogether too exclusively takes the reference to be to a city cursed in accord- readings than 09.??—e. g., LXX.: 058 [adopted ance with the law in Deut. (1. c. ) -—against which by Merx]; Vulg. obri, radicem suam: Pesh. that what is spoken of here is not the rebuilding op, words ; Targ. giroap, etc.—the attempts forbidden in that law, but only the inhabiting of of several moderns to amend the text may to such ruins. Possibly the poet may have had in some extent be justified. Not one of these howmind certain particular occurrences, views, or ever, yields a result that is altogether satisfaccustoms, of which we have no further knowledge. Perhaps we may even suppose some such widely: tory, neither Hupfeld's 779?? (non extendet in spread superstition as that of the Romans in ro- terra caulam), nor Olshausen's Dha? (“their lation to the bidentalia to be intended. [Noyes, sickle does not sink to the earth”), nor BöttchBarnes, Renan, Rodwell, etc., introduce ver. 28 with “ therefore,” making it the consequence of er's op? (6 their fullness”), nor Dillmann's what goes before. - Because of his pride and

! self-indulgence, the sinner will be driven out to dwell among ruins and desolations. To this down ears of corn to the earth.” [Carey sugview there are the following objections. (1) It gests that there may be a transposition here, and deprives the language of the terrible force which that instead of oben we should read bhog from belongs to it according to the interpretation given above. (2) It leaves the description of root Spa " to cut;" the translation then being: the sin referred to in ver. 27 singularly incom

“neither shall the cutting (or offset) of such explete and weak. This would be especially no- tend in the carth."

The verbal root be found ticeable after the climactic energy of the description of the sin previously referred to in only in Isa, xxxiii. 1 (1959, Hiph. Inf. with vers. 25

, 26. Having seen the thought in ver. Dagh. dirimens for 7.kzno) seems to signify 25 carried to such a striking climax in ver. 26, we naturally expect to find the thought suggested perficere, to finish; hence E. V. here renders rather than expressed in ver. 27 carried to a si- the noun “perfection.” Bernard likewise "acmilar climax in ver. 28. (3) After dooming the complishment, achievements.”. For 703 the sinner to dwell an exile among “stone-beaps,” | Good, Lee, Noyes, Umbreit, Renan, Con., Rod

“ to spread, extend,” is preferred by (D*9, it seems a little flat to add, “he shall not well, etc. (E. V., “ prolong"). The preposition be rich," if the former circumstance, like the 5 however suits better the definition “ to bow latter, is a part of the penalty.-E.].

down,"

,” which on the whole is to be preferred. Vers. 29, 30. The apodosis: Therefore) he -E.] does not become rich (Ilos. xii. 9 [8]), and

Ver. 30. Be does not escape out of the bis wealth endures not (has no stability, darkness (of calamity, ver 22); a fiery heat comp. 1 Sam. xiii. 14), and their possessions (lit. a flame] withereth his shoots, and he (i. e., the possessions of such people) bow not passes away (7407? forming a paronomasia with down to the earth.—This rendering is in ac

the 9909 of the first member) by the blast because Goil has cursed him Qen. iii. 14), without adding the second member the figure of a plant, so fre

* " As no one ventures to pronounce the name of Satan of His [God's] mouth; comp. ch. iv. 9. In 'alah el-la'ne. 'God's curse upon him! so a man may not prerume to inhabit places which God has appointed to desola- quent throughout our book, previously used also tion. Such villages and cities, which, according to tradition by Eliphaz (comp. ch. v. 3, 25 seq.) [and already tion of Divine judgment, are not uncommon on the border: suggested here according to the above interpreof the desert. They use ploces, it is said, where the primary tation of 29 b], again makes its appearance, commandments of the religion of Abraham (Din İbrahim) being used in a way very similar to ch. viii. 16 will never be colonized by a semític tribe, because they hold seq.; comp. also ch. xiv. 7. The parching heat the belief th t it has been destroyed on account of Nimrods bere spoken of may be either that of the sun, or apostasy from God, and his hostility to His favored one Abra- of a hot wind (as in Gen. xli. 6; Ps. xi. 6). him. The tradition which has even been transferred by the tribes of Arabia Petrea into lalamism of the d solation of

Third Strophe : Vers. 31–35. Describing more the city of iting (or Medain Salih) on account of disobedience in detail the end of the wicked, showing that his to God, prevents anyone from dwolling in that remarkable prosperity is fleeting, and only in appearance, city, which consiats of thousands of dwellings cnt in the rock, and that its destruction is inevitable. some of which are richly ornamented; without looking round, and muttering prayers, the desert ranger hurries

Ver. 31. Let him not trust in vanity-ho through even as does the great procession of pilgrims to is deceived (178n?, Niph. Perf. with reflexive Mekka, from fear of incurring the punishment of God by the slightest delay in the accursed city."

sense: lit. he has deceived himself) [Renan: Insensé!] for vanity shall be his possession | maging ” (van as in Lam. ii. 6; Prov. viii. 36, [17718n; Ges., Fürst., Con., etc., like E. V.“re- etc.), proceeds from the wicked himself.

A recompense :” Delitzsch: “vot compensatio," but ference to the process of cutting off the sour permutatio, acquisitio; and so Ewald and Zöckler grape for the manufacture of vinegar (Wetzstein, -Eintausch, exchange]. !, written the first Delitzsch) is altogether too remote here. – In retime 18, is used here essentially in the same gard to the variety of figures here derived from sense as in ch. vii. 3, and hence = delusion, va- 13 (12) seq. ; Hos. xiv. 6 seq. ; Sir. xxiv.; and

the vegetable kingdom, comp. further Pg. xcii. nity, evil. In the first instance the sense of emp; in general my Theol. Naturalis, p. 218

seq. tiness, deception predominates, in the second

Ver. 34. For the company of the proflithat of calamity (the evil consequences of trusting in vanity). For the sentiment comp. ch. iv. gate is barren.-7ņ as in ch. viii. 13 ; xiii. 8; Hos. viii. 8; and the New Testament pas- 16 7929a (ch. iii. 7) is here and in ch. xxx. 3 sages which speak of sowing and reaping; Gal. used as a substant. in the sense of “stark death " vi. 7 seq.; 2 Cor. ix. 6.

(LXX.: Jávaros), barrenness, hard rock, comp. Ver. 32. While his day is not yet (lit. "in Matth. xiii. 5; and 777. signifies here not inhis not-day,” i. e., before bis appointed time has deed specially the family, as in ch. xvi. 7, but yet run its course; comp. ch. x. 22; xii. 24), it still the family circle, the kinsfolk, tribe, or clan. is fulfilled, viz., the evil that is to be exchanged, —And fire devours the tents of bribery: it passes to its fulfillment; or also: the exchange i. e., the fire of the Divine sentence (comp. ch. i. fulfills itself, aspn referring back immediately 16) consumes the tents built up by bribery, or , . --50 Hirzel, Dillmann. And the tents of those who take bribes (oikove dopo

δεκτών, LΧΧ.). his palm-branch (np. as in Isa. ix. 13; xix. Ver. 35. They (the profligate, for an in 15) is no longer green, is dry, withered. The whole man is here represented as a palm-tree,

ver. 34 was collective) conceive (are pregnant but not green and flourishing, as in Ps. xcii. 13 with) misery, and bring forth calamity. (12), but as decaying with dried up branches— 1.8 and Spy, synonyms, as in ch. iv. 8; comp. by which branches we are not to understand the parallel passages Ps. vii. 15 (14); Isa. xxxiii. particularly his children, especially seeing that 11; lix. 4. "The Infinitives absolute in a, which only one is mentioned instead of several. are put first for emphasis, are followed in b by

Ver. 33. He loses (or shakes off] like a the finite verb: and their body prepares devine his grapes (lit., his unripe grapes ; 12 ceit, i. e., their pregnant womb (not their “ in

ward part," as Del. renders it) matures deceit, Ouoas, late or unripe grape; comp. ripens falsehood, viz., for themselres; comp. ver. Isa. xviii. 5; Jer. xxxi. 29 ; Ezek. xviii. 2) and 31. For ;????, to prepare, to adjust, comp. ch. casts down, like an olive, his blossoms, xxvii. 17; xxxviii. 41; for op??, “deception,” i. e., without seeing fruit, this, as is well-known, Gen. xxvii. 35; xxxiv. 13; Mic. vi. 11 ; Prov. being the case with the olive every other year, xi. 1, etc. for only in each second year does it bear olives in anything like abundance; comp. Wetzstein in Delitzsch [1. 272 n. “ In order to appreciate

DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL. the point of the comparison, it is needful to know 1. Job's persistence in holding what the friends that the Syrian olive-tree bears fruit plentifully assume to be a delusion, and especially in mainthe first, third, and fifth years, but rests during taining an attitude of presumptuous defiance tothe second, fourth, and sixth. It blossoms in wards God, compels them to enter on a new cirthese years also, but the blossoms fall off almost cle of the discussion with him. This is opened entirely without any berries being formed.” | by Eliphaz in the new arraignment of Job before Add the following from Thomson's Land and the us. In respect of doctrinal contents this disBook : “ The olive is the most prodigul of all course exhibits little or nothing that is new, 83 fruit-bearing trees in flowers. It literally bends indeed is the case generally with what the friends under the load of them. But then not one in a produce from this point on. It revolves, as well hundred comes to maturity. The tree casts them as that which Bildad and Zopbar say in the seoff by millions, as if they were of no more value quel, altogether about the old thesis, that Job's than flakes of snow, which they closely resemble. sufferings have a penal significance. The speakers So it will be with those who put their trust in assume that to have been sufficiently demonvanity. Cast off they melt away, and no one strated by what they have said before, and actakes the trouble to ask after such empty, use-cordingly do not undertake to prove it further to

him, but being themselves unqualifiedly right, less things, etc.” I. 72). The verb din in a they imagine that they have only to warn and is variously rendered by commentators; e. g., threaten and upbraid him in a tone of the harsh“ broken (man bricht, vi impersonal] as from est reproof. The fact that Job had spoken er.

vine are his unripe grapes," Schlott. ; or: citedly, daringly, and inconsiderately against “ He (God) tears off as of a vine his young God, is, to their minds, transparent proof, which grapes ” (Del., Hahn); or: “he (the wicked) needs no further confirmation, of the correctness wrongs as a vine his unripe grapes" (Hupfeld) of their coarse syllogism: “All suffering is the The rendering given above (Ewald, Hirzel, Dill-penalty of sin; Job suffers severely; therefore, mann) [E. V., Con., Noy., Carey, Ren., Rod.], Job is a great sinner.” And so assuming him to etc. ), is favored by the parallelism of the second be impenitent, and hardened in presumption, member, which shows that the “injuring, da- they break out all the more violently against

בֿסְר or

him, with the purpose not of instructing him of the prosperity of the penitent and righteous more thoroughly, but of more sharply blaming man with which the first discourse of Eliphaz and chastising him. The consequence is that closes (chap. v. 17-27). The contrast between these later discourses of the friends become more the two descriptions, which are related to each and more meagre in their doctrinal and ethical other like the serene, bright and laughing day contents, and abound more and more in contro- and the gloomy night, is in many respects sugversial sharpness and polemic bitterness. They gestive and noteworthy; but it is not to the give evidence of a temper which has been aroused speaker's advantage. In the former case, in to more aggressive vehemence towards Job, aim- painting that bright picture, he may be viewed ing at his conversion as one laboring under a as a prophet, unconsciously predicting that which delusion, and, at the same time, of increasing was at last actually to come to pass according to monotonousness and unproductiveness in the de- God's decree. But here, in painting this gloomy velopment of their peculiar views, their funda- night-scene, which is purposely designed as a mental dogma remaining substantially unchanged mirror by the contemplation of which Job might throughout.

be alarmed, this tendency to prophesy evil shows 2. Of these arraignments belonging to the se- him to be decidedly entangled in error. Indeed cond act (or stage) of the discussion, and having the point where this warning culminates, to wit, as just stated a polemic far more than a doctrinal the charge of self-deception and of hypocritical significance, the preceding discourse by Eliphaz lying, which having been first introduced in ver. is the first, and, at the same time, the fullest in 5 seq., is repeated in the criminating wordmatter, and the most original. Its fundamental n???—at the close (ver. 35), involves in itself proposition (vers. 14, 15) is indeed nothing else gross injustice, and is an abortive attack which ihan a repetition of that which the same speaker recoils on the accuser himself with destructive had previously propounded to Job as truth re-effect, besides depriving the whole description ceived by him through a divine revelation (chap. of its full moral value, and even detracting from iv. 12 seq.). Here, however, by the parallel jux: l its poetic beauty. ta position of the heavens” with “the angels," 3. None the less, however, does the Sage of there is introduced into the description an ele- Teman, even when in error, remain a teacher of ment which is, in part at least, new, and not un-real wisdom, who has at his disposal genuine interesting_(comp. the exegetical remarks on Chokmah material, however he may pervert its ver. 15). The application of the thesis to Job's application in detail. This same gloomy case is thereby made much more direct, wound picture with which the discourse before us ing him much more sharply and relentlessly than closes, although it fails as to its special occasion before, as ver. 16 shows, where the harsh, "hi- and tendency, contains much that is worth pondeous'' (Oetinger) description which El. gives dering. It is brilliantly distinguished by rare of the corruption of the natural man, is unmig

truth of nature and conformity to experience in takably aimed at Job himself, as the genuine exits descriptions, whether it treats of the inward ample of a hardened sinner. It will be seen from

torment and distress of conscience of the wicked the extract from Seb. Schmidt in the homiletical (ver. 20 seq.), or of the cheerless and desperate remarks (see on ver. 2 seq.) how the harsbness

issue of his life (ver. 29 seq.),—the latter deof the charges preferred against Job in the first

scription being particularly remarkable for the division (especially in vers. 2–13) reaches the profound truth and the beauty of the figures inextreme point of merciless severity, and how, troduced with such effective variety from the along with some censures which are certainly vegetable kingdom (see on ver. 33). But even merited (as, e.g., that he braves God, speaks in the first division there is not a little that is proud words, despises mild words of comfort and interesting and stimulating to profound reflecadmonition, etc.) there is much thrown in that is tion. This is especially true of ver. 7 seq., with unjust and untrue, especially the charge that he its censure of Job's conceit of superiority on the "chose the speech of the crafty,” and hence that ground of his wisdom-a passage the significance be dealt in the deceitful subtleties and falsehoods

of which is attested both by the recurrence of of an advocate. The discourse, however, pre- one of its characteristic turns of expression sents much that is better, that is objectively more (ver. 2) in the Solomonic Book of Proverbs, and true and valuable, and more creditable to the of another in Jehovah's address to Job (chap. speaker. Here we must reckon the whole of the

xxxviii. 3 seq.). second division (vers. 20–35). Here we have a picture indisputably rich in poetic beauties, and

HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL. in powerful and impressive passages, harmoniously complete in itself withal, and easily de- Ver. 2 seq.: Seb. Schmidt: He brings against tached from its surroundings,—the picture of a Job the grave accusation of swelling up, as it wicked man, inwardly tormented by the pangs were with the conceit of too great wisdom, and of an evil conscience, who after that he has for hence of sinning in more ways than one; thus a long time enjoyed his apparent prosperity, at he would convict him: (1) of vanity; (2) of last succumbs to the combined power of the tor- causing scandal, and of encouraging men to ments within, and of God's sentence without, and neglect the fear of God—nay more, to fall into so comes to a horrible end. This passage-which atheism; (3) of presumption, or of the conceit reminds us of similar striking descriptions else- of too great wisdom; (4) of contempt for the wbere of the foolish conduct of the ungodly and word of God; (5) of proud anger against God. its merited retribution (as, e.g., Ps. i.; xxxv.; lii.; -WOHLFARTH : The reproaches which we bring Prov. i. 18 seq.; iv. 14 seq.; v. 1 seq.)—forms an against others are often only witnesses to our interesting counterpart to the magnificent picture own guilt!

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