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Ver. 7 seq.: Cocceius: He addresses Job here when he becomes better known to himself, tremalmost in the same terms as God in ch. Xxxviii. bles, carries with him bis own torments, and but with another scope and purpose. Wisdom never hopes for good. Moses has finely illus. says in Prov. viii. 25, that it was begotten i trated this in Cain, Gen. iv.--CRAMER: The before the hills, i. e. that it is the eternal Son ungodly and hypocrites live in continual restof God. This Wisdom alone was acquainted lessness of heart; but blessed are they whose with all the mysteries of God the Father, to this sins are forgiven : they attain rest and peace Wisdom alone are owing the purification and of conscience.-Comp. Prov. xxvii. 1: “The

justification of men, the full declaration of the wicked fee when no man pursueth, but the gracious will of God, and the gift of the spirit righteous are bold as a lion." of joy.

Ver, 29 seq.: Brentius: Eliphaz proceeds Vers. 14–16: Brentius: These words are with his recital of the catalogue of curses on most true: no one in himself is clean, pure and the wicked. . . . "His seed will burn up,” i. e. just ; but in God, through faith in Christ, we the blessing of the wicked will be turned into a come into possession of all cleanness, purity and curse; and as the branches of trees are burned justification (John xv. 3; Rom. xv. 1, etc.).— by fire, and scattered by the wind, which is MERCIEB: Eliphaz finds fault with man's nature called the Spirit (breath] of God, so do all the which nevertheless by faith is made pure.- blessings of the wicked perish by the judgment ZEY88: Although the holy angels are pure and of God, and the Spirit of His mouth.-CRAMER: holy spirits, neither their holiness nor that of The dire punishments which befall the ungodly man is to be compared with the infinitely per: give courage to the pious, and strengthen their fect holiness of God, but God only is and faith, when they see how the former are recomremains the Most Holy One; Is. vi. 3.- Eco- pensed for their ungodliness (Ps. xci. 8). ... LAMPADIUS (on ver. 16): Here is beautifully Although the ungodly have many friends and described the misery of man, who is abominable many dependents, their pame must nevertheless by reason of innate depravity, a child of wrath, rot and perish (Prov. x. 7; Esth. vi. 13).-corrupted and degenerated from his first estate, Zeiss (on vers, 31-33): As the sowing, so the and so inflamed with lust, that as one in the reaping. He who sows vanity will also reap dropsy drinks water, so does he drink sin, and vanity; calamity and destruction will happen is never satisfied.

to him for a recompense (Hos. viii. 7; Gal. vi. Ver. 20 seq.: Idem: This is what he would 8). When the ungodly think that their life is Bay, that the wicked man, having an evil con- at its very best, they are often enough quite science within himself, at every time of his life suddenly taken away (Luke xü. 17).

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B.-Job: Although oppressed by his disconsolate condition, he nevertheless wishes and hopes that God will demonstrate his innocence, against the unreasonable accusations of his friends.

CHAPTER XVI-XVII. (A brief preliminary repudiation of the discourses of the friends as aimless and unprofitable):

CHAP. XVI. 1-5. 1 Then Job answered and said : 2 I have heard many such things :

miserable comforters are ye all. 3 Shall vain words have an end ?

or what emboldeneth thee that thou answerest ? 4 I also could speak as ye do ;

if your soul were in my soul's stead, I could heap up words against you,

and shake mine head at you. 5 But I would strengthen you with my mouth,

and the moving of my lips should assuage your grief. 1. Lamentation on account of the disconsolateness of his condition, as forsaken and hated by God and men:

VERS. 6-17. 6 Though I speak, my grief is not assuaged;

and though I forbear, what am I eased ?

7 But now He hath made me weary :

Thou hast made desolate all my company. 8 And Thou hast filled me with wrinkles, which is a witness against me;

and my leanness rising up in me

beareth witness to my face. 9 He teareth me in His wrath, who hateth me;

He gnasheth upon me with His teeth;

mine enemy sharpeneth his eyes upon me. 10 They have gaped upon me with their mouth;

they have smitten me upon the cheek reproachfully;

they have gathered themselves together against me. 11 God hath delivered me to the ungodly,

and turned me over into the hands of the wicked.

12 I was at ease, but He hath broken me asunder;

He hath also taken me by my neck, and shaken me to pieces,

and set me up for His mark. 13 His archers compass me round about,

He cleaveth my reins asunder, and doth not spare ;

He poureth out my gall upon the ground. 14 He breaketh me with breach


He runneth upon me like a giant.
15 I have sowed sackcloth upon my skin,

and defiled my horn in the dust. 16 My face is foul with weeping,

and on my eyelids is the shadow of death; 17 not for any injustice in mine hands; also my prayer is pure. 2. Vivid expression of the hope of a future recognition of his innocences

CHAPTER XVI, 18—XVII. 9. 18 O earth, cover not thou my blood!

and let my cry have no place ! 19 Also now, behold, my witness is in heaven,

and my record is on high. 20 My friends scorn me:

but mine eye poureth out tears unto God. 21 O that one might plead for a man with God,

as a man pleadeth for his neighbor! 22 When a few years are come,

then I shall go the way whence I shall not return. CHAP. XVII, 1. My breath is corrupt,

my days are extinct,

the graves are ready for me. 2 Are there not mockers with me?

and doth not mine eye continue in their provocation ? 3 Lay down now, put me in a surety with Thee;

who is he that will strike hands with me? 4 For Thou hast hid their heart from understanding?

therefore shalt Thou not exalt them. 5 He that speaketh flattery to his friends,

even the eyes of his children shall fail. 6 He hath made me also a byword of the people;

and aforetime I was as a tabret. 7 Mine eye also is dim by reason of sorrow,

and all my members are as a shadow. 8 Upright men shall be astonished at this,

and the innocent shall stir up himself against the hypocrite.

9 The righteous also shall hold on his

way, and he that hath clean hands shall be stronger and stronger.

3. Sharp censure of the admonitory speeches of the friends as unreasonable, and destitute of all power to comfort:

VERs. 10–16. 10 But as for you all, do ye return, and come now;

for I cannot find one wise man among you. 11 My days are passed,

my purposes are broken off, even the thoughts of


heart. 12 They change the night into day:

the light is short because of darkness. 13 If I wait, the grave is mine house;

I have made my bed in the darkness. 14 I have said to corruption, Thou art my father ;

to the worm, Thou art my mother and my sister. 15 And where is now my hope?

as for my hope, who shall see it? 16 They shall go down to the bars of the pit,

when our rest together is in the dust.



meanwhile surround him.

miserable comforters are ye all.

spy, lit. “comforters of distress” [Gen. of 1. Heartlessly repulsed by his friends, and I attribute, Green, & 254, 6) are burdensome comleft without comfort, Job turns, more trustfully i forters (consolatores onerosi, Jer.), who, instead than in his previous apologies, to the God who of comfort, minister only trouble and distress; evidenced Himself in his good conscience, of comp. cb. xv. 11. whom he cannot believe that He will leave him

Ver. 3. Are windy words (now) at an forever without testifying to his innocence, end ? Comp. ch. xv. 2, where Eliphaz rehowever cheerless a night of despair may in the proaches Job with windy speech-a reproach

It is in the expres- which Job now pays back in the same coin.sion of his confidence, and of his inward yearning Or what vexes thee (addressed more partiand waiting for this Divine testimony to his innocence (ch. xvi. 18 to xvii. 9) ihat the significance cularly to Eliphaz] that thou answerest? of this discourse culminates, so far as it gives 1997, Hiph. of yo, “to be sick, weak” (see pleasing evidence of progress beyond Job's for- on ch. vi. 25), signifies “to make sick, to afflict” mer frame of mind. Along with this indeed it (Ewald, Schlott., Dillm.), or again "to goad, gives evidence that the spirit of hopeless and incite, vex” (Del.) (see the examples in notes bitter complaint is, if not intensified, at least on vi. 25 favoring this definition]: not "to make substantially unchanged and undiminished. sweet, to sweeten,” as the Targ. interprets, as The first principal division of the discourse (ch: though yoo were without further qualification yearning confidence in God's help contains in =p4n."? moreover is notæquum (Hirz.), but particular an expression of cheerless lamenta- as in ch. vi. 11 quod: “what vexes thee that tion over his condition, as one forsaken by God thou answerest,” or “to answer.and men; while a shorter introduction prefaced

Ver. 4. I also indeed would speak like to this division (ch. xvi. 2-5), as well as the concluding section, or third division (ch. xvii. you, i, C., would be minded to serve you with 10-16) are particularly occupied with a bitter such like discourses as your own [Dillmann, complaint on account of the misunderstanding Conant, Renan, Rodwell, etc., with good reason and heartless conduct of the friends.—The whole prefer to render the subjunctive 17797x “I discourse comprises six long strophes, the first could,” or “might,” rather than "would”).of which constitutes the introduction, extending If your soul were instead of mine; i. e. through four verses, or ten stichs (ch. xvi. 2-5), in case you had my place, your persons were while the first and second divisions contain each instead of mine. [Conant, however: two strophes (of 6, 7 verses, or 14 stichs), the soul is not to be taken as a periphrasis of the third division, however, only one strophe (of personal pronoun. Soul, the seat of intelligence, 7 verses, or 14 stichs).

mental activity and emotion, stands as the rep2. Exordium of the discourse, or introductory resentative of these faculties in man, and is spestrophe: A short preliminary repudiation of the cially appropriate here, where there is immediscourses of the friends as aimless, and desti- 1 diate reference to what is thought, felt and tute of all power to comfort: ch. xvi. 2-5.

suffered. The force of the expression is lost Ver. 2. I have heard (already) many such therefore by substituting ye and me."]-Would things (nigl, multa, as in ch. xxiii. 14), and (or could) weave words against you.

Your 6-17.

Mutt. xxvii. 39.

It should be borne in mind

0:2pa yann is not to make a league with that the friends had shown any such malignity words” (Gesen. [Rodwell], etc.), nor again : as would be thus suggested. What Job says is, “10 affect wisdom with words"" (Ewald), but that he could multiply words of cold formal symto "combine words, string them together like pathy, that he could string out such words upon pearls.” Instead of the simple accus. of the them, or towards them; and again that he could object o??, the more choice construction with make with his head the customary oriental ges

ture of condolence (2 here like 71), see above, ? instrum. is used ; comp. the following member, also ver. 10; Jer. xviii. 16; Lam. i. 17 ch. ii. 11 and comp. Gesen. sub. v.), this being (Gesen, & 138 [135] 1, Rem. 3). [“When he by implication all the sympathy he had received

from them.-E.] says: I would range together, etc., he gives them

3. First Division. A lamentation concerning to understand that their speeches are more artificial than natural, more declamations than the the cheerlessness of his condition, as one for:

Vers. outgushings of the heart.” Del.]–And shake saken and persecuted by God and men. my head at you; viz., as a gesture of scorn and malicious pleasure; comp. Ps. xxii. : [?]; the “miserable comforters,” who leave him in

First Strophe : vers. 6-11. From the friends, 18. xxxvii. 22; Jer. xviii. 16; Sir. sii. 18; his helplessness, he turns to himself, who is so that what is hateful in such conduct is not to be greatly in need of sympathy, because God has charged upon Job (who indeed only states what delivered him over to the scorn and the cruelty he could do if he had before him the friends,

of the unrighteous. weak and miserable as he is now, and should will continue the colloquy further. Already in

Ver. 6. ["He bethinks himself whether he then follow the promptings of the natural man), the lamentation of ch. iii. Job had given vent to but on the friends, before whom Job bere holds his grief, and solicited comfort. The colloquy up as in a mirror the hatefulness of their own

thus far had shown that from them he had no conduct. [In regard to the rendering of by comfort to expect. Should he then speak furby “against," and the explanation of 22??? as a ther, in order to procure at least some alleviagesture of scorn, see below on ver. 5 ]

tion of his grief? but he cannot anticipate even Ver. 5. Would [could] strengthen you this as the result of his speaking. He must with my mouth : i. e. with mere words, in accordingly be silent; yet even then he is no stead of with deeds of a love that wins the heart. | better off.” Dillm.]-If I speak (voluntative [On the form DƏYPAX with Tsere shortened to after on, see Ew. 355, b) my grief is not Hhirik, see Green,' 104, h.]-And the sym- assuaged; if I forbear (voluntative without pathy of my lips (7'?, commisseration, sympa- Dx, as in ch. xi. 17; Ps. lxxiii. 16, etc.), what thy, only here; comp. the phrase, similar in departs from me, viz. of my pain? how much sound, binalot ?", "fruit of the lips,” Is. Ivii. of my pain goes away from me, do I lose? The

unexpressed answer would naturally be: Nought! 19) should assuage, scil. your grief. gun, “to soothe, restrain, check,” here without an

On :7577, comp. ch. xiv. 20. obj. as in Is. lviii. 1. The following verse easily hausted me, viz. God, not the pain (?X?, ver.

Ver. 7. Nevertheless-now He hath exenables us to supply 3x?, as the object. [The E. V., Wem., Bar., Elz., etc., render this as a

6), which the Vulg., Aben-Ezra, etc., regard as contrast with ver. 4, as though Job, after there

the subj. The particle 7%, which belongs to the describing what he might do if they were in his whole sentence, signifies neither: “of a truth, yea place, describes here what, on the other hand, verily!" (Ew.) nor "only'' [=entirely), as though he really would do. But there is nothing to it belonged only to '2x577 (Hirz., Hahn, etc. ), indicate such a contrast. Ver. 5 is most simply but it has here an adversative meaning, and and naturally the continuation of ver. 4.—The states, in opposition to the two previously menirony of the passage is most keen and cutting. tioned possibilities of speaking and being silent, If you were in my place, says Job, if your soul what is actually the case with Job; hence it were tried as mine is, I could speak windy words should be rendered “still, nevertheless,'' verum in abundance as you have done, I could string tamen : [Renan: Mais quoi ! “ He is absolutely them out one after another, and nod my head to incapable of offering any resistance to his pain, comfort: oh, yes! all such comfort-sympathy and care has also been taken that no solacing of the head, of the mouth, of the lips, I could word shall come to him from any quarter,” Del. lavish upon you—that is cheap enough, as your See the next clause].—Thou hast desolated conduct shows—but as for the heart

, that is all my circle. 177. here not “rabble, as in quite another matter! It will be seen from ch. xv. 34, but sensu bono-circle of friends and this paraphrase of Job's language that a some family dependents (Carey: all my clan). [“ This what different view is taken of one or two mention of the family is altogether in place, seeexpressions, particularly in ver. 4, from that ing that the loss of the same must be doubly felt given above by Zöckler.

It seems unnecessary by him now that his friends are hostile to him." and unnatural to suppose that Job would in ver. Schlott.]. The Pesh. reads “ all my testimony 4 describe himself as framing words against anty), 1. e., all that witness in my behalf, all mockery, and then in ver. 5 as strengthening and my prosperity (so also Hahn among the mo80othing them with words—but nothing more. derns), to which however Dien is not particuMoreover the expressions of ver. 4 would thus larly suitable. Note moreover the transition, lose their point, there being no reason to suppose bearing witness as it does to the vivid excite



ment of the speaker's feelings, from the declara- | me (a gesture of insolent mockery, as in Pe. tions concerning God in the third person (which xxii. 8. [7); Jer. lvii. 4); with abuse (i. e.. we find in the first member, and which appear with abusive speech) they strike me on the again ver. 9 seq.), and the mournful plaintive cheeks (comp. Mic. iv. 14 [v. 1]; Lam. iii. 30; address to Him here and in ver. 8, in which the John xviii. 22; xix. 3); together they description before us is directly continued. strengthen themselves against me,

Ver. 8. And hast seized me (not “Thou again: they complete; fill themselves up (=fill makest me wrinkled,” Vulg., Luther (E. V., Lee, up their ranks] against me, for xon? means Rodwell] or “shrivelest me together," Del.-for oop signifies " to press together, to fasten firmly " to gather themselves together to a sp (Isa. together;" comp. ch. xxii. 16. [Wordsworth xxxi. 4), a heap;" not “to equip themselves attempts somewhat peculiarly to combine the two with a full suit of armor,” as Hirzel would exdefinitions: “ Thou hast bound me fast with wrin: plain, supplying 973. –The whole of this lamenness, viz., the fact that thou hast seized me; tation, which reminds us of Ps. xxii., is general the circumstance that God makes him suffer so

in its form; it contemplates nevertheless the severely is—so at least it seems—a witness of hostile attacks made by the friends on Job, as his guilt. [This clause, taken in connection es- in particular the word "' together" in the third pecially with the following parallelism, seems

member shows-in hearing which the friends certainly to favor the rendering of the Vulg., could not help feeling that they were personally E. V., etc. “ thou hast filled me with wrinkles.”

aimed at in the strong expressions of the speaker, The witness against Job is naturally something bilities hurt by such expressions as those of

even as he on his part must have had his sensiwhich like his “ leanness" is visible. The corrugation of the skin was a feature of elephantia- Eliphaz in ch. xv. 16 (see on the passage). Bis more marked even than the emaciation of the

Ver. 11. God delivers me (comp. Deut. body, and would hardly be omitted in so vivid a

xxiii. 16 [15]) to the unrighteous, and description of his condition as Job here gives. casts me headlong into the hand of the The primary signification of " seizing," wicked. 79.7, Imperf. Kal. of "7' (con"compressing” should not however be lost sight tracted from ?", Ges., 270 [268], Rem. 3). of; indeed it adds much to the terrible force of [" The preformative Jod has Metheg in correct the representation to retain it, and, with Words- iexts, so that we need not suppose, with Ralbag, worth, to combine the two definitions, only in a a 707 similar in meaning to 07." Del.], presomewhat different way from his; the true con- cipitem me dat; comp. LXX. Eppuye and Symmaception being that God—who in ver. 12 is repre-chus évé 3a2€.-5.v. in the first member, "the sented as seizing Job and dashing him in pieces, -is here represented as seizing, compressing perverted one, the reprobate, the unrighteous," him, until his body is shriveled, crumpled up or again—"the boy" (der Bube, “or the boyish, into wrinkles.-E.). In opposition to Ewald, childish, knavish one'] as Del. explains it, (rewho changes 777 into 719 (= 1777, see ch. vi. ferring to cb. xix. 18; xxii. 11), is used collec2; xxx. 13), and translates accordingly: “and tively for the plur., as the parallel term D'zu? calamity seized me as a witness ’-comp. Del. | in b shows. and Dillm, on the passage: [who object that it

Second Strophe: Vers. 12–17. Continuation of would leave y? without much of its force and the description of the cruel and hostile treat

ment he had received from God, notwithstanding emphasis, and that the construction would be too his innocence. condensed and artificial].–And my leanness Ver. 12. I was at ease, and He then shathas appeared against me, accusing me to the face (speaking out against me, comp. ch. tered me. 1, secure, unharmed, suspecting xv. 6b). On üns consumption, emaciation, no evil; comp. ch. xxi. 23; iii. 26.—29,79, Pilp. comp. Ps. cix. 24. The signification rests on a

of 779 with strong intensive signification-"to metaphor similar to that by virtue of which a

shatter, to crush in pieces;" so also the followdried-up brook is called a “liar” (ch. vi. 15 ing royo, from y35, “ to beat in pieces, to dash seq.).

to pieces.” [“ He compares himself to a man Ver. 9. His anger has torn and made war who is seized by the hair of his head, and thrown upon me; He has gnashed against me down a precipice, where his limbs are broken. with His teeth; as mine enemy He has He probably alludes to some ancient mode of whetted His eyes against me. God, who is punishing criminals.” Wemyss]. Observe the now again spoken of in the third person, is ima- onomatopoetic element of these intensive forms, gined as a ferocious beast of prey, who is en

which furthermore are to be understood not litraged against Job. 8o above in ch. x. 16.—As erally or physically, but in a figurative sense of to the “tearing,” comp. Hos. vi. 1; the “making the sudden shattering of prosperity, and peace war,” ch. xxx. 21; the “whetting” or “sharp- of soul.-And set me for a mark. 103 ening” of the eyes, Ps. vii. 13 (127: also the (from 195, tnpeīv, like OKOTÓS from ckéTTEGJA! }, acies oculorum of the Romans, and the modern target, mark, as in 1 Sam. xx. 20; Lam. iii. 12; expression, “to shoot a murderous look at any comp. yan? above in ch. vil. 20. Ver. 10. Men also, like God, fall upon Job, as

Ver. 13 expands the figure in ch. xii. c.-His his enemies, resembling beasts of prey.-They arrows whirred about me. 93., not “his have opened wide their mouth against troops, his archers” (Rabb. [E. V., Noy., Con.,


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