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Car., Rod., Elz., etc. )), but according to the una- 1 ii. 1, 10; Ps. lxxxix. 18 [17], 25 [24]; xcii. 11 nimous witness of the ancient versions: “his [10]; etc., Luke i. 69–into the dust:--this arrows, darts” (from 337=727, 707, jacere, being a sign of his humiliation, of his consciousGen. xlix. 23 ; comp. Gen. xxi. 10).—(He ness of the defeat, and of the deep sorrow which cleaves my reins without sparing, pours he has been called to endure. For this lowering out on the earth my gall (comp. Lam. ii. 11). of the horn into the dust of the earth is the diJob here describes more specifically the terrible rect opposite of “ lifting up the horn” (Ps. effect of God's arrows, i, e., of the ailments in- lxxxiii. 3 [2] as a symbol of the increase of flicted on him by a hostile God (comp. ch. vi. 4, power and dignity. Sy is with Saad., Roalso the well-known mythological representations of classical antiquity), representing in ac

senm., Ew., Hirz., Dillm., etc., to be derived cordance with the Hebrew conception the noblest from shy, introire, of frequent use in the Aram. and most sensitive of the inner organs of the and Arab., and thus siguifies “to stick into, to body as affected, namely the reins, and also the gall-bladder. In view of the highly poetic cha- dig into.” If it were the Pil. of 559, “ to act,” racter of the description, it is not necessary to meaning accordingly " to abuse,” or “ to defile” inquire whether he conceives of the outpour- (Targ., Pesch., Delitzsch [E. V., Schlott.] etc.), ing” of the gall as taking place inwardly, with the ļ before the object would not be wanting; out being at all perceptible externally, or whe- comp. Lam. i. 22; ii. 20; iii. 51. To be prether, with a disregard of physiological possibi. ferred to this is the translation-"I roll my horn lity or probability, he represents it as something in the dust ” (Umbr., Vaihing., Hahn), a renderthat is externally visible. It is moreover worthy ing which is etymologically admissible. of note that according to Arabic notions the

Ver. 16. My face is burning red with “rupture of the gall-bladder” may really be pro: weeping. ??on (instead of which duced by violent painful emotions. Comp. Delitzsch on the passage; also his Biblical Psycho- ouglat perhaps with the K’ri to read the plural logy [p. 317, Clark]; also my Theol. Naturalis, 19yon, unless we explain the fem., like gun

Ver. 14. He breaks through me breach in ch. xiv. 19, in accordance with Gesen., & 146, upon breach. 179, comp. ch. xxx. 14, here [? 143), 3), Pualal of wan, an intensive pas

sive form, expressing the idea of being exceedas accus. of the object, united to its cognate ingly reddened, glowing red (comp. Lam. i. 20; verb; comp. Gesen., & 138 [ 135] Rem. 1.--He ii. 11). [From the same root comes the name runs upon me like a mighty warrior. In Alhambra, applied to the building from its color. this new turn of the comparison Job, and in par-See Delitzsch).–And on mine eyelashes is ticular his body, appears as a wall, or a fortress, a death-shade, i. e., by reason of continuous which is by degrees breached by missiles and weeping, and the wenkening thereby of the battering-rams, and which God himself assaults power of sight, my eyes are encompassed by a by storm.

gloom of night: [an explanation which SchlottVer. 15. I have sewed sackcloth upon mann characterizes as flat and prosaic. The my skin, i. e. I have girded around myself, and idea is rather that in Job's despondent mood he stitched together (about the loins) a closely fitting conceived of “the shadow of death as gathermourning garment of close hair (comp. pie in ing around. He had well-nigh wept himself out Isa. iii. 24; xx. 2; xxxii. 11; 1 Kin xxi. 27;

of life]. 2 Kings vi. 30, etc.). The “sewing upon the

Ver. 17. Although no violence is in my skin" is doubtless to be understood only figura- hands (or clings to them), and my prayer is tively of the laying on of a closely fitting gar- pure.--Job emphasizes his innocence here in ment, which it is not intended to lay off imme

contrast not only with ver. 16, but with the diately. Possibly, indeed, there may be an

whole description thus far given of the persecuallusion to the cracked swollen skin of one dis- tion which he had endured, vers. 12-16.–Sy is eased with elephantiasis, in which the hair of the used here, as in Is. liii. 9, as a conjunction, in sackcloth (cilicium) must of necessity stick (see the sense of “notwithstanding that, although," my Kritische Gesch. der Ascese, p. 82 seq.). (See also Art. “Sackcloth” in Smitu's Bib. Dict. (Ewald, ? 222, b), not as a preposition, as Hir“ Job does not say of it that he put it on, or

zel explains it (“in spite of non-violence").

4. Second Division. A vivid expression of the slung it around him, but that he sewed it his naked body; and this is to be attributed to hope of a future recognition of his innocence :

ch. xvi. 18-xvii. 9. the hideous distortion of the body by elephantiasis, which will not admit of the use of the or

First Strophe : Ver. 18—ch. xvii. 2. [His condinary form of clothes.” Delitzsch]. In any fidence in God as his witness and vindicatorcase in referring to this stiff, almost dead skin, his only hope in view of the speedy approach of as a part of his fearfully distorted body, he death]. chooses the term 752, which appears in Hebrew

Ver. 18. Earth, cover not thou my blood,

i. e., drink it not up, let it lie open to view, and only here (though more common in Aram. and cry to heaven as a witness to my innocence, Arab.), and in contrast with ly, the “sound, Comp. Gen. iv. 10; Ezek. xxiv. 7 seq. ; Is. xxvi. healthy skin,” may be translated " hide;" comp. 21. [“ As according to the tradition it is said the Bipca of the LXX.-And have lowered to have been impossible to remove the stain of (lit. “stuck," see below) my horn-the symbol the blood of Zachariah, who was murdered in of power and of free manly dignity, comp. 1 Sam. the court of the temple, until it was removed by the destruction of the temple itself.” Delitzsch. me under their protection, and attesting my in“ According to the old belief no rain or dew nocence, I still direct to God a look of tearful would moisten the spot marked by the blood of entreaty that He would do justice, etc.-[“ An a person murdered when innocent, or change its equally strong emphasis lies here on subj. and blighted appearance into living green.” Ewald). predicate: My friends' stands in contrast with The second member also expresses essentially God; my mockers' in contrast with my witthe same meaning: and let my cry have no ness,' ver. 19; and finally also ‘my mockers' in resting-place, i. e., let not the cry for ven- contrast with my friends.'” Schlottm.]. Ew., geance arising from my shed blood (or the cry Dillm., etc., take the first member, less suitably, of my soul poured out in my blood, 'Gen. ix. 4, as assigning the reason for the second: “because etc.), be stilled, let it not reach a place of rest, my friends are become such as mock me, mine before it appears as my Saia (ch. xix. 25) to eye pours out tears to Eloah,” etc. deliver and avenge me. [“ Therefore in the

Ver. 21 states the object of the weeping (i. e., very God who appears to him to be a blood- the yearning) look which he lifts up to God? thirsty enemy in pursuit of bim, Job neverthe- This object is twofold: (1) That Be would less hopes to find a witness of his innocence : do justice to a man before God: lit. “that He will acknowledge his blood, like that of He would decide (nais, voluntative expressing Abel, to be the blood of an innocent man. It is the final end, as in ch. ix. 33) for the man against an inward irresistible demand made by his faith Eloah, or with Eloah (Dy as in Ps. lv. 19 [18]; which here brings together two opposite prin- xciv. 16 [15] of an opponent); i. e., that before ciples-principles which the understanding can

His own bar He would pronounce me not guilty, not unite-with bewildering boldness. Job be that he would cease to misunderstand and to lieves that God will even finally avenge the blood persecute me as an enemy, but would rather aswhich His wrath has shed, as blood that has sist me to my right, and so appear on my side. been innocently shed.” Delitzsch].

(2) (That He would do justice) to the son of Ver. 19. Even now behold in heaven

man against his friend, that He would justify my witness, and my attestor (77, LXX. me against my human friend (17? distribuovviotwp, an Aram. synonym of W., witness, tively for 18??), and set me forth as innocent comp. Gen. xxxi. 47) in the heights.-In re- which would result immediately upon his justigard to Dipin? as a synonym. of Dipy, comp. fication before God's bar. For the interchange

of " man ch. xxv. 2; xxxi. 2.

and “son of man" in poetic paralnay ba, “even now,”

lelism, comp. Ps. viii. 5. It is not necessary to (not “now however," Ewald) sets the present adopt Ewald's suggestion (Jahrb. der bibl. Wiscondition of Job, apparently quite forsaken, but senschaft, IX. 38) to read DTX 1'?, instead of in reality still supported and upheld by God as a heavenly witness of his innocence, in contrast *-12, in order to acquire a more suitable conwith a future period, when he will be again pub-struction for nisin. The construction accord. licly acknowledged and brought to honor. This ing to the common reading presents nothing that more prosperous and happy future he does not is objectionable, scarcely anything that is partiyet indeed realize so vividly as later in ch. xix. cularly harsh. The influence of the ” of the 25 seq. That of which he speaks here is only first member extends forward to 07? (as in the contrast between his apparent forsakenness, and the fact that

, as he firmly believes, God in ch. xv. 3), and the ļ before anys="in reheaven is still on his side. [“ If his blood is to spect to, against,” supplies the place of the Dy. be one day avenged, and his innocence recog- of the first member. It would be much harsher nized, he must bave a witness of the same. And reflecting upon it he remembers that even now, and Olsh. to translate the second member: “and

were we, with Schlottmann, Ewald (in Comm.), when appearances are all against him, he has judges man against his friend,” a rendering such a witness in God in heaven.” Dillm.].

Ver. 20. [“ The conduct of the friends in de- which is condemned by the usage of the lannying, nay in mocking his innocence, compels guage, for nain with accus. of person never him to cling to this God in heaven.” Dillm.]. - signifies “to judge,” but always “to punish, They who mock me (lit., “my mockers," reprove.” [“Job appeals from God to God: with strong accent on “ mockers”) are my he hopes that truth and love will finally decide friends. [“ It is worthy of remark that the against wrath. Schlottmann aptly recalls word here used, melits, signifies also an interpre- the saying of the philosophers, which applies ter, an intercessor, and is employed in that sense ; here in a different sense from that in which it is below, ch. xxxiii. 23; comp. Gen. xlii. 23; 2 meant: Nemo contra Deum, nisi Deus ipse.” Del. Chron. xxxii. 31; Is. xliii. 27; and some, as “The prayer of Job is fulfilled in ch. xlii. 7; Professors Lee and Carey, have assigned that and that too in a sense quite otherwise than that sense to the word here, My true interpreters which Job had ventured to hope for, even in are my friends;' and they suppose in this word, this life. This is again one of the passages here and in xxxiii. 23, & prophetic reference to where the poet permits his hero, in an exalted the Mediator. But the Auth. Ver. appears to be moment, to enjoy a presage of the issue.” Dillm.] correct; and the similarity of the words serves Concerning the theological significance of the to bring out the contrast between the unkind- wish here expressed by Job, that he might be ness of man, and the mercy of God.” Words.).—justified by God before God as well as before To Eloab mine eye poureth tears: i. e., men; comp. the Doctrinal and Ethical Remarks. although my friends mock me, instead of taking Ver. 22. Giving the reason why Job longs to

be vindicated, arising from the fact that his end | ration=" verily, truly.” (2) Da (or accordthere is no prospect of a return to this life. ing to another reading okna is an abstract [This, however, is not to be understood as a rea- term, formed from Son=mockery, scoffing (not son given why God should interpose speedily

“deception," as Hirzel renders it); to render to vindicate him before his death. Rather the it as a concrete term in the sense of “mockers” argument is drawn from the hopelessness of bis [E. V., Noyes, etc.], or " beguiled,” is at physical condition. Death was sure and near; variance with the laws governing the formation that recovery which the friends promised on of Hebrew words (see Ew. & 153, a; 179, a, b). condition of repentance was out of the question: hence if he is to be vindicated, it must be by – (3) oņina is Inf. Hiph. with sufix, from God, who can do it when he is gone.]-For 773, which means in Hiph. “to make refracyears that may be numbered are coming tory,” to incite to strife, to contend with one. on, and by a path without return shall i The word is written with Dagh. dirimens in 2, go' hence. The thought is substantially the comp. ix. 18; Joel i. 17, etc.—(4) P, Jussive same as in ch. vii. 7-10; and x. 20 seq.-niju or Voluntative form of joy, to lodge, to tarry 909, lit. “years of number” (Gen. xxxiv. 30; (comp. ch. xix. 4; xxix. 19; xxxi. 32), is : Ps. cv. 12), are years that may be numbered, i. e. a few years (LXX: érn åpið unrá), by which pausal form for ;?m, wbich occurs also in Judg. we are naturally to understand those which still xix. 20, the use of which in a non-pausal posiremain before his death, the remaining years tion seems to be purely arbitrary, or rests posof his life (not all the years of his life, as Hahn sibly on euphonic grounds (the liquids l and n and Del. explain). For "X? (in regard to the in juxtaposition being treated as though they form, comp. on ch. xii. 6) can only mean:

were gutturals: comp. Ewald, 141, 6, Rem. 2). “they are coming on, they stand before me,

(5) The sense of the entire verse, according to pot: “they are passing away” (transeunt, Vulg., the construction here given, is decidedly more etc.), nor: “their end is coming on" (Hahn, suitable to the context: Of a truth it is mocking Del.). That Job here announces the sad issue me ('TRY. 77, lit. “mockery is with me, befalls in which the rapid and inevitably fatal course me”) to force me, who am standing on the verge of the elephantiasis generally resulted, is shown of the grave to confess a guilt from which I by the conclusion of the discourse, ch. xvii. know myself to be free; and such hateful quar11-16.

relsome conduct it is that I must have continuCh. xvii. 1 (the chapter-division here being ally before my eyes !—Other renderings are e.g. manifestly errroneous] continues the statement -a. That of the Pesh., Vulg., and recently of of the reason given in cho xvi. 22. It consists Hirzel, which takes ozna in the sense of “deof abrupt sob-like ejaculations of which it may be truly said with Oetinger that they form “ the ception, illusion.” Thus Hirzel's rendering is: requiem, which Job chants for himself even

“ If deception is not with me, then let them conwhile yet living.”—My spirit is disturbed, tinually henceforth quarrel." 6. That of Rosen80 correctly most moderns, taking 777 in the müller: annon illusiones mecum, et in adversando

eorum pernoctat oculus meus.-C. That of Ewald sense of the spirit or power.” The transla; (in part also of Eichhorn, Umbr.): “If only I tion : “my breath is corrupt,” or destroyed”

were not mocked and mine eye were not obliged (De Wette, Del. [E. V., Rod., Elz., Con., Ber.], to dwell,” etc.—d. The rendering in part simietc.), is less suitable here to the connection, lar to the latter, of Vaih. and Heiligst.—“Oh, which requires, as the subject of Job's expres, that mockery did not surround me! then could sion, not that single symptom of a short and mine eye abide in peace with their contention !" fetid breath (which would be a much less con

-e. That of Stickel and Hahn: “Or are there clusive indication that his days were numbered not around me those who are deluded ? must than others which he might have mentioned], not mine eye dwell on their contention?". referred to also in ch. vii: 15; xix. 17; but [f. That of Renan : "May it please God that requires rather some sign of the incipient dis- traitors might be far from me, and that mine solution of the whole paychical bodily organism, eye be never more aflicted with their quarrels!"] a failure of the vital principle.—My days are

Second Strophe: vers. 3-9. Repetition of the extinct (Wi=117, ch. vi. 17, wbich some

yearning and trustful supplication to God as the MSS. exhibit here also); graves await me only remaining attestor or witness of his inno[Rodney: for me the tombs !]. Comp. the Ara- cence now remaining to him in view of the bic proverb: “to be a grave-companion (Ssâchib heartless coldness, nay the hostility of his el-kubûr);” also the familiar saying of Luther: homan friends. -Oh, lay down (now), be "to walk on the grave;" and the modern Thou bondsman for me with Thyself! expression: “to stand with one foot in the who else will furnish surety to me? The grave.”

thought is not substantially different from that Ver. 2. Verily mockery surrounds me: in ch. xvi. 21, only that the representation and on their quarreling mine eye must which there predominates of an adjudication in dwell.–So substantially Welte, Arnh., Del., favor of Job's innocence is here replaced by Dillm. (Schlott., Con., Words.], whose render- that of pledging or binding one's self as security for ing of this difficult verse is the most satisfactory; it. For all the expressions of the verse are for (1) It is best to take xs-ox, as in ch. i. 11; borrowed from the system of pledging. With xxii. 20; xxxi. 36, etc., as a formula of asseve- the Imper. nprin is to be supplied, as the following ???, shows, an accus. of the object, exposed”] (comp. chap. vi. 20). In the object "a pledge, security.” It is not necessary with O'Y? Job certainly points immediately to him. Reiske and Olsh. to change '97 to : selffor certainly he only was the victim of the

heartless conduct of the three. He purposely, arrhabonem meam. The following 7px, indica- however, expresses himself by a general propoting the person with whom the pledge is depo- sition; for his whole description is as yet only sited, again represents God, precisely as in ch. ideal, imaginative. In the second member, as xvi. 21, as being, so to speak, divided, or sepa- the sing. suffix in 112 shows, he again speaks rated into two persons. The word of entreaty only of himself as the one who was ill-treated, 27 (which appears also in Is. xxxviii. 14, and continuing the description (by means of an enalPs. cxix. 122, and which is here used with the lage of number, similar to that in chap. xviii. accus. of the person following in the sense of 5; xxiv. 5, 16; xxvii. 23), as though he had in a “representing any one mediatorially as švyvos written 1 or 1777. Hence literally: "and the or pedirns) is replaced in the second member by eyes of his children languish,” or “although the the circumstantial phrase Typn, to give eyes of his children languish” (Ewald, Stickel, surety by striking hands. For this is the Heiligst., Hahn, Dillmann, etc.). Many of the meaning of the phrase, which elsewhere reads ancients, and also De Wette, Delitzsch [Noyes,

, or 12 (Prov. vi. 1; xvii. 18; xxii. 26), Con., Renan, Barnes, Wem., Car., Wordsw., or simply up (Prov. xi. 15). Here, however, the eyes of bis children must fail" (or, opta

Rod.], etc., translate: “Whoso spoileth friends, where, instead of the person, the hand of the tively, “may the eyes of his children fail!” So person is mentioned (???, instead of the simple Rosenmüller, Vaihinger), [The E. V. adopts the

same view of the general construction, but less 15, which, according to Prov. vi

. 1, we might appropriately takes pan in the sense of "fiatbe led to expect), the reflexive Niphal is used; tery:" "He that speaketh flattery to his friends, bence literally: “who will strike himself (scil. bis hand] into my hand;" i. e. who will (by a

even the eyes of his children shall fail.”] In solemn striking of hands, as in a pledge) bind of number is avoided; but so to predict (or

this way, doubtless, the barshness of that change himself to me to vindicate publicly my innocence? What man will do this if Thou, God,

cven to wish for) the punishment of the evil-doer

seems here too little suited to the context, and doest it not? God's intervention as his security in the short-I well with the last member of the preceding Ver. 4 assigng a reason for this prayer for especially does not agree with the contents of the

[But it certainly agrees very sightedness and narrow-mindedness of the friends: for Thou hast closed [lit. hid] verse, the thought of which it both confirms and their heart to [lit. from] understanding expands. God would not, could not, favor the (to (from) a correct knowledge in respect to my thus had incurred judgment in which their pos

friends, for they had betrayed friendship, and innocence), therefore Thou wilt not let

terity would share. Ver. 5 may be, as conjecthem prevail: lit. wilt not exalt them, i.e. above me, who am unjustly injured by them, Itured by some, a proverbial saying quoted by but wilt rather at last confound them by demon- Job to emphasize ver. 46. The “pining of the strating my innocence (as actually came to pass, last construction has in its favor, therefore: (1)

eyes” is a frequent figure for suffering. This ch. xlii. 7). Dzia, Imperf. Pil. of bay with that it is suitable to the connection. (2) That plur. suffix, is a contraction of bapinn, with it avoids the harshness of the other construction, omission of Dagh. forte in on account of the with its sudden change of number, and its preceding long ô. The correction DP (sug- strained introduction of the reference to the begested by Dillm. with a reference to ch. xxxi. 15; pointless when applied to the childless Job., (3) xli. 2 K'ri) is unnecessary, as also the expla- | It takes away from ver. 4 the isolation which benation of pain as a Hith pael noun, signifying longs to it, according to the other construction, “striving upward, improvement, victory” (Ew.). and provides a much simpler transition from

Ver. 5 continues the consideration of the un- ver. 4 to ver. 5.-E.] friendly conduct of the friends. Friends are

Ver. 6 seq. Continued description of the undelivered for a spoil, while the eyes of friendly conduct of the friends, only that the their (lit. "of his”) children languish.— same is now directly charged on God. And He

(viz., God, who is manifestly to be understood , “a share of booty, spoil” (according to here as the subject of the verb) has set me for Num. xxxi. 36) denotes here in particular, as a proverb to the world.- Sivo, a substant. the word tan makes probable, mortgaged pro-infinitive (comp. chap. xii. 4), means a proverb, perty, an article in pledge, distrained from a simile, sensu objectivo, hence an object of rididebtor by a judicial execation; pany man cule [or, as in E.V., “by-word”). D'Dy, lit. (for pan nias 7, comp. 1 Kings xiv. 2; Jer. xiii. " nations,” denotes here not the races living

around Job (e.g., those "gipsy-like troglodytes 21) signifies to advertise and offer for sale such who are more fully described in chap. xxiv. 30, a pledged article in court; or, more simply and and who, Delitzsch thinks, may possibly be inbriefly, to distrain, to seize upon by means of a tended here), but the common people generally judicial execution. The subject of 7'!' is inde- (vulgus, plebs), hence equivalent to the great finite ["one exposes friends," i. e., "friends are multitude, the world; comp. Prov. xxiv, 24.

,חֵלֶק

And I must be one to be spit upon in the (189), 3 a—and not either of a physical return, face.mn (only here in the 0. T.) denotes as though, irritated by his words, they bad made

& movement to depart (Renan), or of a mental spittle, an object spit upon; d'id” is in the return from their hostility (see vi. 29).-E.]. In closest union with it (comp. Num. xii. 14; Deut. this sense it is followed by the supplementary

verb xis in the Imperf., connected with it by xxv. 9). A o non is accordingly one into . I shall nevertheless not find a wise whose face any body spits, the object of the most man among you-. e., your heart remains unqualified public detestation. Comp. ch. xix. closed agninst a right understanding of my con9 seq., from which passage it also appears that dition (see ver. 4), however often and persistJob speaks here not only of that which his ently you may attempt to justify your attacks friends did to him, but that he uses D'or in a upon me. [“ He means that they deceive them

selves concerning the actual state of the case bemore comprehensive sense.

fore them; for in reality be is meeting death Ver. 7. Then mine eye became dim with without being deceived, or allowing himself to grief (via, as in chap. vi. 2; and comp. chap: be deceived, about the matter.” DEL.] xvi. 16; Ps. vi. 8 [7]; xxxi. 10 [9]), and all

Ver. 11 seq. prove this charge of a defective my members (lit. “my frames, bodily frames, understanding on the part of the friends by set. or structures") are as shadows (better on ac- ting forth the nearness of Job's end, and the alcount of the generic , “as a shadow"], i. e., so

most complete exhaustion of his strength: this meagre and emaciated, like intangible shadows, fact is fatal to their preconceived opinion as to or phantoms; comp. chap. xix. 20.

the possibility of a joyful restoration of his prosVer. 8. The upright are astonished at perity, such as they had frequently set forth as this-because they cannot understand how depending on his sincere repentance. My things can come to such a pass with one of their days are gone (being quite near their end sort. And the innocent is roused against comp. chap. xvi. 22), my plans are broken the ungodly-lit. “stirred up” by anger-in off (nip), lit. “connections, combinations,” from an opposite sense to that of chap. xxxi. 29, de odi, “to bind together,” the same as hisi? elsescribing “the innocent man's sense of justice as being aroused on account of the prosperity of where, chap. xxi. 27; xlii. 2 ;--but not sensu the 22n, comp. Ps. xxxvii, 1; lxxiii.” Hirzel.

malo, but in the good sense of the plans of his

life which had been destroyed), the nurslings Ver. 8. Nevertheless the righteous holds fast on his way (the way of piety and recti- [Pfleglinge] of my heart.—'opio are things tude in which he has hitherto walked), and he which are coveted and earnestly sought after, that is of clean hands (lit. “and the clean-of- favorite projects, plans affectionately cherished; hands," -777??, as in Prov. xxii. 11) increaseth comp. 07x, to long after, Ps. xxi. 3 [from which in strength (goi, of inward increase, or root Dillmann suggests the present noun may be growth of strength, as in Eccles. i. 18).—The derived (opin for Wind, like hoia for nokia whole verse is of great significance as an expres- from 708), which would give at once the meansion of the cheerful confidence in his innocence ing, “desires, coveted treasures.” So appater reflections of ver. 5 seq. So far from real: rently Zöckler. If, according to the prevailing izing the reproach of Eliphaz in chap. xv. 4, that view, it be taken from 09', the meaning will be he would "destroy piety and diminish devotion peculia, cherished possessions.-E.] Not so before God," he holds fast on his godly way,

suitable is the definition “possessions” (from yea, travels it still more joyously and vigorously 7, possidere, after Obad. ver. 17 and Isa. xiv. 23), than before (comp. Doctrinal and Ethical Re- while the rendering ảpå pa (LXX.), cords or marks). [“These words of Job (if we may be bands [or, as Del. suggests, "joints, instead of allowed the figure) are like a rocket, which valves of the heart.”] (Gekat., Ewald) is entirely shoots above the tragic darkness of the book, unsupported, and decidedly opposed to the laws lighting it up suddenly, although only for á of the language. short time.” Del.]

Ver. 12. They change night into day 5. Third Division: Sixth Strophe. Severe cen

(comp. Isa. v. 20), inasmuch, to wit, as they picsure of the admonitions of the friends, as devoid Eliphaz in chap. v. 17 seq.: Bildad in chap. viii.

ture before me joyous anticipations of life (thus of understanding, and without any power to 20 seq.; Zophar in chap. xi. 13 seq.), while notcomfort, vers. 10-16,

withstanding I bave before me only the dark night Ver. 10. But as for ye all (097 for oph? as of death. Light is to be near (lit. "is near,” in 1 Kings xxii. 28, and Mic. i. 2 [corresponding i. e., according to their assertions) in the premore to the form of a vocative clause-Del.]; sence of darkness, i. e., there where the darkthe preceding D928? is here written o$x!, with therefore=coram, comp. chap. xxiii. 17 (so Um

ness is still present, or in conspectu; ???, here. sharpened tone, for the sake of assonance),

breit, Vaih., Del.). Others (Ew., Hirz., Stick., come on again, I pray.—13107, instead of the Dillm.) take up in the comparative sense: light Imper. 1310, which we might have expected, but is nearer than the face of darkness, i. e., than the which cannot stand so well at the beginning of visible darkness, which, however, is less suitable the clause (comp. Ew., & 229) [besides that, as in the parallelism. The same is true of the exDelitzsch remarks, the first verb is used adver- planation of Welte—"and they bring the light bially, iterum, denuo, according to Gesen., & 142 near to the darkness;" of Rosenmüller—"light

and deliverance which Job reaches after the bit.

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