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is near the darkness," and similarly the LXX.; | nation so far as the syntax is concerned; but of Schlottmann_"light, to which the darkness there will then be weighty thoughts wbich are already draws near;" of Repan—"Ah! but your also expressed in the form of fresh thoughts, for light resembles the darkness!" etc.-Note still which independent clauses seem more approprifurther that here in vers. 11-12, where the tone ate, under the government of DX as if they were of lamentation is resumed, those short, sob-like / pre-suppositions.” And see below.1 ejaculations appear again, which we have already | Ver. 13. If I hope for the underworld as met with above in vers. 1-2. [The explanation my house for abode), have spread in the here given does not seem to harmonize perfectly darkness my couch.-[Delitzsch agrees with with the context. With ver. 10 Job seems to the E. V. in the construction: “If I wait, it is dismiss the friends from his present discourse. for Sheol as my house.” Gesenius, Fürst and He Aings that verse at them as a parting con.
Conant take Dx=in?, “Lo!" as in Hos. xii. 12; temptuous challenge, and so takes bis leave of Jer. sevi, 20.1. them. With ver. 11 he enters on the pathetic
| Ver. 14. If I have cried out to the grave: elegiac strain with which he closes each one of his discourses thus far (see chap. vii. 22; x. 20 seq.;
Thou art my father!-ond, grave (comp. xiv. 18 seq.). Vers. 11, 12 are characterized, ch. ix. 31) in Heb. is strictly speaking feminine, as Zöckler justly remarks, by “brief, sob-like here, however, it is construed ad sensum as a ejaculations" (as in vers. 1, 2), which are more masculine (as is the case elsewhere with such befitting the elegy of a crushed heart than the feminines as nup, nonid, nyol, etc., comp. Ges., sarcasm of a bitter spirit. Job makes himself
Thes., p. 1378).' . It is unnecessary with the
The the theme of the whole passage from ver. 11 to Lxx.' Vulg.. Pesh., to take no here in the ver. 16. He is pre-occupied exclusively with
sense of “death,” or with Nachman, Rosenm., his own lamentable condition and prospects, not
| Schlottm., Del. [E. V., Con., Car.], etc., to with the course of his friends, any reference to
assign to it the meaning: “corruption, rottenwhich after ver. 10 would interrupt the selfabsorption of his sorrow. Supposing Job then
ness” as though it were derived from no, not to be occupied with himself solely, it follows | from peo, fodere: moreover the existence of that 70' is to be taken impersonally, and the such a second substant. Mv=corruption is verse may be explained either-a. With Noyes: susceptible of certain proof from no other pas“ Night hath become day to me (i. e. I have sleep
sage. In regard to the bold poetic expression less nights; I am as much awake by night as by
here given to the inward familiarity of Job with day), the light bordereth on darkness (i. e. the day
the state of death which lay before him, comp. seems very short; the daylight seems to go as
Ps. lxxxviii. 19 ; Prov. vii. 4; also below soon as it is come)." Or b. We may translate: | ch. XXX. 29. “Night will (soon) take the place of day, light (in
Ver. 15. Apodosis: Where then (as to ox, which I am tarrying for a brief season, awaiting which, notwithstanding the accents, is to be my abode in Sheol, ver. 13) is not far from dark
drawn into union with the preceding 77X, ness (09 Jinp, prope abest ab; LXX. Oūc éyyù where? comp. on ch. ix. 24) is (now) my ånd TPOOGTOV OKórovc=ovuakpáv ok'., according
hope? Yea, my hope, who sees it? i.e.,
orang who exhibits it to me as really well founded? who to Olympiodorus. — The use of 2 with 1?, discloses it to me? In both clauses one and the which Delitzsch objects to this rendering, is same hope is intended, that viz. of tbe restora. finely poetic. The darkness faces bim, stares | tion of his prosperity in this life, even before upon him, close at hand, just on the other side death [this hope, Diilmann remarks, being the of this narrow term of light which is left to him). hope which, according to the friends, he should In favor of b may be urged: (1) The use of the have, not the hope which, according to ver. 13, fut. App, following the preterites in ver. 11. he really has].
Ver. 16. To the bars of the grave it sinks (2) The analogy of Is. v. 20, where? by means
down, when at the same time there is to put for, exchange, substitute. (3) It pre- rest in the dust.-The subject here also is serves the continuity of Job's reflections on his MIPA, ver. 15, this hope being regarded as sinown condition, and his immediate prospects.
gle, although the expression there was doubled. (4) The thought is in admirable harmony with tbe description which immediately followe, in which he represents himself as lingering on the
12 191, Gesen., & 47, Rem. 3), not third pers. verge of Sheol, awaiting his speedy departure
plur., as the old translators (and E. V.) renthither, preparing his couch in that darkness
dered the form, and as among moderns [Green, which is so near, etc.-E.]
% 88, Schlottm.), Böttcher and Dillmann take it, Ver. 13 seq. show how far Job was right in
the latter supposing that the hope which Job geeing before his eyes nothing but night and
really bad, mentioned in ver. 13, and the hope darkness, and in giving up the hope of a state
attributed to him by the friends in ver. 15, are of greater prosperity which was held up before him by the friends. Vers. 13, 14 form the con- bars of the underworld, of the realm of the ditional protasis, introduced by Dx on which dead," not its “clefts" (Böttcher), nor its all the verbs in both verses depend, ver. 15 being bounds” (Hahn); for again in Ex. xxv. 13 seq.; the apodosis, introduced by ! consec. [Of which xxvii. 6 seq.; Hos. xi. 6, O'? signifies “ carry. view of the construction, however, Delitzsch ing poles,” or “cross-beams" (vectes). And remarks: “There is no objection to this expla- | whereas, according to many other passages,
,.Evw) הוד is a poetic alternate form for הִידנה |
are בּרֵי שׁאֹל-.the two subjects of the verb |
Sheol is represented as provided with doors or er-God of the future, becomes apparent in gates (ch. xxxviii. 17; Is. Xxxviii. 10; Ps. ix. the earnest entreaty which is further on ad. 14 ; cvii. 18), its “cross-beams” or “bars” dressed to God, that He “would become a signify essentially the same with its gates (comp. bondsman with Himself” for Job, seeing that Lam. ii. 9). In in', “at the same time! (not He is the only possible guarantor of his inno
together" SE. V.), as Hahn renders it, under-cence (ch. xvii. 3). Not less does this duality standing it to be affirmed of the descending between a God of truth, who knows and attests hope, and of Job at his death), Job expresses his righteous conduct, and a God of absolute a thought similar to that in 'ch. xiv. 22. the power and fury, lie also at the foundation of the thought. namely, that the rest of his body in the confident declaration which concludes this whole dust coincides in time with the descent of the section, according to which the righteous man, soul to Hades. nay, pausal form for nnid,
usal form for untroubled by the suspicions and attacks of his “rest," signifies here the rest of the lifeless
enemies, “holds fast on his way,” and in respect
of his innocence and purity only “increases in body in the grave: comp. Is. xxvi. 19; Ps. xxii.
strength” (ver. 9). "That to which Job here 30 .
gives expression, primarily indeed in the form
of entreaty, of yearning desire, or as an infeDOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL.
rence from religious and ethical postulates, ac1. The central point of this new reply of Job's quires, when considered in its historical connec-and it is that which principally shows pro- tion with his deliverance, the significance of an gress on the part of the sorely afflicted sufferer indirect prophecy, referring not only to the actual out of his spiritual darkness to a clearer percep- historical issue of his own suffering (which in tion and a brighter frame of mind-lies in the fact ends with just such a vindication as he here expression of a yearning hope in his future justifi- wishes for himself), but also in general to the cation by God, which is found in the last section completed reconciliation of God with sinful hubut one of the discourse, and which constitutes manity in Christ.-For this work of reconciliathe real kernel of the argument. Inasmuch as tion was accomplished, according to 2 Cor. v. the friends, instead of ministering to him loving 19, precisely as Job here wishes for it. God sympathy and true comfort were become his was in Christ, and reconciled the world to Him"mockers" (ch. xvi. 20), he finds himself all self. He officiated as Judge, acquitting, and as the more urgently driven to God alone as his Advocate, vindicating, in one person. He behelper, and the guardian of his innocence. came in Christ His own Mediator with humanity Hence it is that he now suddenly turns to the (Gal. iii. 20), and caused that "guretyship with same God, whom he had just before described in Himself” to come to pass, which Job here wishes the strongest language as his ferocious, deadly and longs for, in that He sent His own Son to be enemy and persecutor, as well as the author of the “ Mediator " (uscirns, 1 Tim. ii. 5; Heb. xii. the suffering inflicted on him even by his human 24), or a "surety" (Eyyvos, Heb. vii. 22) of the enemies, and, full of confidence, calls Him his New Covenant, and so established for fallen hu“ witness in heaven,” and his “attestor on manity, subject to sin and to death, its penalty, high" (ver. 19), who is already near to him, an eternal redemption, which is ever renewed and who will not permit the earth to drink up in each individual. The older expositors have his blood, which cries out to heaven, and thus for the most part failed to recognize this proto silence his self-vindication (ver. 18). Nay, founder typical and prophetic sense of the pasmore: he lifts up his tearful eye with coura- sage, obscured as it is by the erroneous translageous supplication to God, praying Him that tions of the verses in question given by the LXX. He would “do justice” to him before Himself, and the Vulgate. Comp. however the remarks that He would represent him before His own of Cocceius below on ch. xvi, 19 seq. judicial tribunal, interceding in his behalf, 2. Although however Job seems by the proacquitting him, and thus vindicating his inno- found truth and the striking power of these bold cence against his human accusers (ver. 21). prophetic anticipations of his future vindication "We see distinctly here how Job's idea of God io be making most significant advances in the becomes brighter in that it becomes dualized direction of more correct knowledge, and to be (in that he prays to God Himself, the author at any rate far above the limited and elementary of his sufferings, as his deliverer and helper). conceptions of his friends, there is nevertheless The God who delivers Job to death as guilty, in the midst of all this soaring of his purer and and the God who cannot leave him unvindicated better consciousness to God one thing percepti-even though it should be only after death—bly wanting. It is the penitent confession of his come forth distinct and separate as darkness sing. He not only calls himself a “ righteous" from light out of the chaos of temptation. ....man, and “pure of hands," (ch. xvii. 9), but Thus Job becomes here the prophet of the issue with all earnestness be regards himself as such of his own course of suffering; and over his (comp. ch. xvi. 17). He will by no means admit relation to Eloah and to the friends, of whom that his suffering is in any sense, or in any dethe former abandons him to the sinner's death, I gree whatever, the punishment of his sins. In and the latter declare him to be guilty, hovers ihis particular he falls short of that which he the form of the God of the future, which now himself has before this expressly conceded (ch. breaks through the darkness, from whom Job xiv. 4). As the friends, in consequence of their believingly awaits and implores wbat the God superficial judgment, greatly exaggerated his of the present with holds from him” (Del. i. 310- guilt, so he, by no means free as yet from Pela311).- The same duality between the God of gian self-righteousness, exaggerates his innothe present as a God of terror, and the Redeem-cence. The justification which he wishes and
hopes for, is not the New Testament dikaiwors,, words: “I am made a byword to the world," that Divine act of grace declaring the repentant ch. xvii. 6, with Ps. xliv. 15 (14], and lxis. 12 sinner righteous. It is only the Divine attesta- [); also the servant of Jehovah in the se. tion of an innocence and freedom from sin, which cond division of Isaiah ; comp. ch. xvii. 8, “the he deems himself to possess in perfection. It righteous are astonished thereat," with Isa. lii. thus stands very nearly related to that lawyer's 14; also ch. xvi. 16, 17—“My face is burning “ willing to justify himself” which is mentioned red with weeping, etc., ... although no wrong in Luke x. 29; and is altogether different from cleaves to my bands," etc., with Isa. liii. 9— that disposition which at last the actual justifi-"although he hath done no violence, neither is cation and restoration of Job to favor produced any deceit found in his mouth:"'_ likewise ch. (ch. xlii. 6). Again-- what he says in ch. xvi. xvi. 19—“Even now behold in heaven my wit15 seq. of thrusting his horn into the dust, of ness," with Is. I. 8 seq. (" He is near that justicontinuous weeping, of wearing sackcloth, has fieth me, who will condemn me?" etc.). Notno reference to signs of actual repentance (a view withstanding these and the like correspondences often met with in the ancient commentators) ; with the lamentations and prayers of other these things are simply indications of physical righteous sufferers, Seinecke ( Der Grundgedanke pain, referring to a humiliation which proceeded des B. Hiob, 1863, p. 34 seq.) goes too far when, less out of a complete and profound acquaintance on the ground of such correspondences in this with sin, than out of the sense of severe painful and in other discourses of Job, he regards Job suffering (comp. above on this passage). With as being in general an allegorical figure of esthis defective knowledge of self, and partial self- sentially the same significance with the servant righteousness, in which Job shows himself to be of God in Isaiah, and hence as a poetic personias yet entangled, is closely connected the gross fication of the suffering people of Israel. Scarcely barshness of the judgment concerning the friends, I can it be definitely said that the poet “by the with which he requites their inconsiderate words relation to the passion. psalms stamped on the against himself; characterizing them as windy picture of the affliction of Job, kas marked Job, phrase-mongers (ch. xvi. 3), as unwise (ch. xvii. whether consciously or unconsciously, as a typi: 4, 10), as impudent mockers (ch. xvi. 20; xvii. cal person; that by taking up, and not uninten. 2), as hard-hearted extortioners and distrainers tionally either, many national traits, he has (ch. xvii. 5), yea, as belonging to the category made it natural to interpret Job as a Mashal of of " children of the world” (ch. xvii. 6), of the Israel” (Delitzsch I. 313). There is too evident unrighteous and wicked (ch. xvi. 10, 11), of the a lack of distinct intimations of such a purpose profligate (ch. xvii. 8). Closely connected with on the part of the poet to justify us in assuming it in like manner is the harsh and extreme judg- anything more than the fact tbat the illustrious ment in which he indulges of that which God sufferer of Uz has a typical significance for many does against him; the description which he pious sufferers of later (post-patriarchal, and gives of Him as a mighty warrior rushing upon post-solomonic) times, and that consequently him with inexorable, nay with bloodthirsty cru- later poets, the authors of the Lamentation. elty (ch. xvi. 12-14), attributing to Him as the Psalms, or prophets (such as Isaiah, possibly alhigher cause all the ignominy and injustice which so Ezekiel and Zechariah) borrowed many parhe had suffered through the friends (ch. xvi. 11 | ticular traits from the picture of his suffering. seq.; xvii. 6 seq.). And finally here belongs the Moreover, in view of the uncertainty touching gloomy hopelessness in respect to the issue of such a relation of the matter, we can only warn his life into wbich his spirit sinks down again, against any homiletic application of this Mes(ch. xvii. 11-16) from the courage and confidence sianic-allegorical conception of Job as being esto which it had been raised in the last section sentially identical with the "servant of God.” but one. This despair is in palpable contradic- The exposition for practical edification of the tion with the better confidence which like a flash section chap. xvi. 18-xvii. 9, with its rich yield of light had illuminated the darkness of his an of thought in biblical theology and the history guished soul, although it is in unison with the of redemption, would gain little more by any at. state of the sufferer's heart in this stage of his tempts in this direction than the obscuration of education in the school of suffering, lacking as it the simple fact by useless and barren subtleties. does as yet the complete exactness and purity of moral self-knowledge, and as a consequence
HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL. the real stability and joyfulness of faith in God's power to save. So it is that the hope, which Chap. xvi. 7 seq. OECOLAMPADIUS: He makes again emerges in his next discourse, that his in- use of three motives most suitable for concilianocence will be acknowledged in a better here- ting pity, to wit: the manifest severity of his after, is by no means held by him with a firm sufferings (vers. 7–14), repentance ? ?-vers. and decided grasp, but rather appears only as a 15–16), and innocence (vers. 17-21). transient flash across the prevailing darkness of Chap. xvi. 10 seq. BRENTIUS: There is this in his soul.
God's judgment that is most grievous—that He 3. Job suffers as a righteous man, compara- seems to favor our adversaries, and to stand on tively, and for that reason the complaints of his their side, by prospering their counsels and ef. anguished heart in this discourse resemble even forts against us. Nor is there any one who can in manifold peculiarities of expression that which endure this trial, unless thoroughly fortified by other righteous sufferers of the Old Testament the word of God. Thus Christ Himself laments, say in the outgushings of their hearts, e. g., the saying: “Dogs have compassed me; the assemPsalmist in Ps. xxii. (comp. above on ch. xvi. bly of the wicked enclosed me” (Ps. xxii.).-10), Ps. xliv. and lxix. (comp. especially the CRAMER: O soul, remember here thy Saviour, 10 whom also such things happened; for He suf- / judgment of death without God the Father; next fered pain in body and soul, was persecuted by that we may know by clear testimony that God His enemies, and forsaken, afflicted, and tortured alone is good, but every man a liar. by God Himself.
Ch. xvii. 11 seq. STARKE: We see here how Chap. xvi. 19 seq.: He intimates that God's unlike are God's ways and thoughts, and those tribunal is above all tribunals; and when his of men. Job had no otber thought but that now mind and conscience, his faith and love toward | it was all over with him, he would neither conGod, cannot be recognised, appreciated or judged tinue in life, nor again attain his former prosby any judge or witness, other than the Supreme, | perity. And God had notwithstanding joined how can he do otherwise than appeal to Him? / both these things together so wondrously and so So the Apostle (1 Cor. iv. 3-4) repudiates every gloriously, as the wished-for issue of Job's sufjudgment but that of God ... (On chap. xvii. ferings sufficiently proves. DELITZSCH: Job 3.) Here he calls God, in whose power he is, his feels himself to be inevitably given up as a prey Surety; which is simply to ask that He would to death, and as from the depth of Hades into approve his appeal, and judge in accordance with which he is sinking, he stretches out his hands it, so that if his adversary should carry the day, to God, not that He would sustain him in life, He would satisfy his claims. So we find else but that He would acknowledge him before the where the pious, when wronged by an unright-world as His. If he is to die even, be desires eous judgment, appealing to the judgment of only that he may not die the death of a criminal. God, requesting Him to be their surety, as though... When then the issue of the history is that they wished God to say to the adversary: This God acknowledges Job as His servant, and after man is mine; enter thy suit, if any thing is due he is proved and refined by the temptation, preto thee, I will render satisfaction (Isa. Xxxviii. serves to him a doubly rich and prosperous life, 14; Ps. cxis. 122).
Job receives beyond his prayer and comprehenCh. xvi. 22. BRENTIUS: Death is here called sion; and after he has learned from his own exa path, by which we do not return. For take perience that God brings to Hades and out again away the Word, or Christ, and death seems to be (1 Sam. ii. 6; comp. on the other hand above, eternal annihilation; add the Word and Christ, ch. vii. 9), he has forever conquered all fear of and death will be the beginning of the resurrec- death, and the germs of the hope of a future life, tion. ... (On ch. xvii. 11 seq.). This despair which in the midst of his affliction, have broken of Job is described for our instruction, that we through his consciousness, can joyously exmay learn: first, that no one can endure the pand.
II. Bildad and Job : Ch. XVIII–XIX.
A.-Bildad: Job's passionate outbreaks are useless, for the Divine ordinance, instituted from of old, is still in force, securing that the hardened sinner's doom shall suddenly and surely overtake him.
CHAPTER XVIII. 1. Sharp rebuke of Job, the foolish and blustering boaster:
VERS. 1-4. 1 Then answered Bildad the Shubite, and said : 2 How long will it be ere ye make an end of words ?
Mark, and afterwards we will speak. 3 Wherefore are we counted as beasts,
and reputed vile in your sight?
shall the earth be forsaken for thee?
2. Description of the dreadful doom of the hardened evil-doer:
VERS. 5–21. 5 Yea, the light of the wicked shall be put out,
and the spark of his fire shall not shine. 6 Tbe light shall be dark in his tabernacle,
and his candle shall be put out with him.
7 The steps of his strength shall be straitened,
and his own counsel shall cast him down.
8 For he is cast into a net by his own feet,
and he walketh upon a snare. 9 The gin shall take him by the heel,
and the robber shall prevail against him. 10 The snare is laid for him in the ground,
and a trap for him in the way. 11 Terrors shall make him afraid on every side,
and shall drive him to his feet.
12 His strength shall be hunger-bitten,
and destruction shall be ready at his side. 13 It shall devour the strength of his skin ;
even the first-born of death shall devour his strength. 14 His confidence shall be rooted out of his tabernacle,
and it shall bring him to the king of terrors. 15 It shall dwell in his tabernacle, because it is none of his ;
brimstone shall be scattered upon his habitation. 16 His roots shall be dried up beneath,
and above shall his branch be cut off. 17 His remembrance shall perish from the earth,
and he shall have no name in the street.
18 He shall be driven from light into darkness,
and chased out of the world. 19 He shall neither have son nor nephew among his people
nor any remaining in his dwellings.
as they that went before were affrighted.
Ver. 2. How long will ge yet bant for EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL,
words?—Let it be observed that Bildad's for1. In opposition to Job's solemn appeal to God..
amer discourse began with a like impatient quesas a witness of his innocence, Bildad continues tion, ch. viii. 2 (there 18w, here 07]X-') and fixed in his former preconceived opinion, that a further, that he addresses his opponent in the secret crime must be the cause of his heavy bur- plural, for the reason that the latter had him. den of suffering. After a short, sharp, censori- self first made his cause identical with the cause ous introduction, in which he pays back Job's of all the righteous, and had thereby himself bitter and harsh reprimands in the same coin, provoked this representative association of his (vers. 2-4), he shows that, notwithstanding Job's person with all who were like-minded. ["Some passionate bluster, the old divine decree was still say that he thinks of Job as one of a number; in force, by virtue of which a sudden merited | Ewald observes that the controversy becomes punishment from God carries off the hardened more wide and general [representing two great sinner, and with him his entire household and parties or divisions of mankind); and Schlott. race (vers. 5-21). He thus presents a companion mann conjectures that Bildad fixes his eye on piece to that description of the doom of the un individuals of his hearers, on whose countegodly with which Eliphaz had closed his pre nances he believed he saw a certain inclination to ceding discourse (ch. xv, 20-35), this delineation side with Job. This conjecture we will leave to of Bildad's being new only in form, but being itself; but the remark which Schlottmann also similar to that of Eliphaz throughout as to its makes that Bildad regards Job as a type of a substance and tendency. The whole discourse whole class, is correct, only one must also add, is divided into six strophes of three to four verses this address in the plural is a reply to Job's sareach, of which the first forms the introductory casm (ch. xii. 2) by a similar one. As Job has section spoken of above, while the remaining told his friends that they act as if they were five belongs to the long main division, vers. 5-21. mankind in general, and all wisdom were con
2. Introduction and First Strophe : A short, centrated in them, so Bildad has taken it amiss sharp rebuke of Job as a foolish boaster, raving that Job connects himself with the whole of the with passion; vers. 2-4.
truly upright, righteous, and pure; and he ad