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dresses him in the plural because he, the unit, | lowed by many moderns, including Dillmann has puffed himself up as such a collective whole.” [Ewald, Noyes, Lee, Con., Car., Rod., and so Delitzsch]. Still further Job had also begun his E. V.]) derives the word from nou=70, " to last discourse (see ch. xvi. 8) with a complaint be impure” (Lev. xi. 43), and translates accordabout the useless interminable discourse of the ingly: et sorduimus coram vobis. But this meanfriends,-a complaint which Bildad bere retali- ing would be a stronger departure from that ates, although to be sure in an altered form. of the first member than is allowed by the struc[“ Job's speeches are long, and certainly are a ture of the verses elsewhere in this discourse, trial of patience to the three, and the heaviest wbich exbibit throughout a thoroughly rigid trial to Bildad, whose turn now comes on, be- parallelism. Moreover it would obscure too cause he is at pains throughout to be brief. much the antithetic reference to ch. xvii. 8, 9. Hence the reproach of endless babbling with Ver. 4. O thou, who tearest thyself in which he begins here, as at ch. viii. 2." Del.]. thy rage.-- This exclamation, which is prefixed !? D'p is not "to put an end to words, third person ([so apud Arabes ubique fere,

to the address proper to Job, and put in the to make an end of speaking” (so the ancient Schult.], comp. ch. xvii. 10 a), is in direct conversions, Rabbis, Rosenm., Gesen. [E. V. Um- tradiction to the saying of 'Job in ch. xvi. 9, breit, Lee, Carey, Renan]), etc.; for a plural which represents him as torn by God, whereas d'p. (with a resolved Daghesh for O'YP., [see he proves that the cause of the tearing is bis Green, & 54 3]), for Y.. cannot be shown else- own furious passion.—For thee (LXX. probawhere. Moreover in that case we should ra- bly reading Japan, which Merx adopts into ther look for the singular construction IP. Doing the test, render là arodávns] should the (see ch. xxviii. 3). [Merx introduces the sing. Ziy in 1s. vii. 16; vi. 12) (on the form aty,

earth be depopulated [lit. forsaken] (comp. into the text. Rodwell renders 728-7y as an

with Pattach in the ultimate, see Green, & 91, exclamation, and the following Imperf

. (like that 6), and a rock remove out of its place of b) as an Imperative,—“ How long? Make an end' of words.” So substantially Bernard, ex- would come to pass if thé moral order of the

(comp. ch. xiv. 18; ix, 5). Both these things cept that he supplies the clause following in ch. world, established by God as an unchangeable viii. 2. This construction however still leaves law, more especially as reveals itself in the plural 'X?P. unaccounted for. According to rewarding the good and punishing the wicked, the usual construction the clause should have were to depart from its fixed course; or in other mes after 72x-7y, to render which with E. V., words, should God cease to be a righteous

rewarder. For that, as Bildad thinks, is what etc. “How long will it be ere,” etc., is forced and Job really desires in denying his guilt ; his pasgratuitous.-E.]. We are to take ???? (with sionate incessant assertion of his innocence Castell., Schult., J. D. Michaelis, Ewald, Hirzel, points to a dissolution of the whole sacred fabrio Del. [Dillm., Schlottm., Con., Words. ], etc.), as of universal order as established by God (comp. plur. constr. of 1???, laqueus (a hunter's noose, Rom. iii. 5, 6). [A fine and most effective & spare), so that the phrase under congi- stroke of sarcasm. On the one side, the puny, deration signifies, “making a hunt for, hunt- impotent storming of Job's wrath; on the other, ing after words” (laqueus verbis tenderé, verba the calm, unalterable movement of Divine Law. venando capere). By this however is intended How foolish the former when confronting the not contradiction and opposition perpetually latter! And by what right could he expect the renewed, but only uninterrupted, yet use- Divine Order to be overthrown for his sake ? less speaking.. [Fürst, while agreeing with the For thee (emphatic) is everything to be plunged above derivation of '!!P, explains it here as into desolation and chaos ?--E.}

3. The terrible doom of hardened sinners, defig. for perversion, contortion: "how long will ye make a perversion of words ?" But this scribed as a salutary warning and instruction explanation of the figure is less natural and appropriate. Bildad's charge against Job and

Second Strophe : vers. 5-7. [The destruction

of the wicked declared.] his party is that they were hunting after words,

Ver. 5. Notwithstanding, the light of straining after something to say, when there was really nothing to be said. —E.]-Onder- the wicked shall go out.-D. adding to that stand, and afterwards we will speak. - which has already been said something new and Van, “will you understand,” voluntative for unexpected, like õuws, equivalent to “notwiththe Imperative 133; comp. on ch. xvii. 10 a.

standing ;" comp. Ps. cxxix. 2; Ezek. xvi. 28.

The “light going out” is a figure of prosperity Ver. 3. Why are we accounted as the destroyed (comp. ch. xxx. 26); so also in the brute ?-a harsh allusion to ch. xvii. 4, 10; second member: and the flames of his fire comp. also Ps. lxxiii. 22.–Are regarded as shine not. As to go, "flame,” comp. Dan. stupid in your eyes ?—3?, from 0D9= iii. 22; vii. 9. Also as to the transition from Dux, DOM, "to stop up,” hence lit. "are (are the plural in a (“wicked ones ") to the sing. in treated as) stopped up in your eyes,” i. e. are in 6 (his fire), see on ch. xvii. 5; Ewald, & 319, a. your opinion stupid, blockheads (comp. the Ver. 6. The light darkens (lit. " has darksimilar phrase in Is. lix, 1). The LXX. ex- ened,” guņ, Perf. of certainty, as in ch. v. 20) change the word, which does not appear else- in his tent (comp. ch. xxi. 17; xxix. 3; Ps. where, for 1)???), GEOLWTH KALEV ; the Targ. gives xviii. 29 [28]; Prov. xiii. 9), and his lamp XPDO, “are sunk.” The Vulg. finally (fol- above him (i.e., the lamp hanging down above

for Job: vers, 5-21.

xxi. 16.

him from the covering of his tent, comp. Eccles. perity of the evil-doer from the beginning tends xii. 6) goes out. —This figure of the extinction towards ruin.” Del.] of the light of prosperity which is repeated Ver. 11 unites the figures by way of explanaagain and again, is alike familiar to the Hebrew tion in a more general expression.-On every and to the Arabian; the latter also says: “Fate side terrors affright him.-ninga signifies has put out my light.”

Ver. 7. His mighty steps [lit. the steps of two things at once-terrible thoughts and terrihis strength) are straitened: another figure ble circumstances, here naturally such as are which is “just as Arabic as it is Biblical” sent by God upon the wicked to disturb him.(Del.). Comp. in regard to it Prov. iv. 12 ; Ps. And scare bim at his footsteps; i. e. purxviii. 37 [36]. Also as regards the form 123suing him: 1997? menning "step for step, (not from 78, as Gesen. [Fürst), and Hirzel close behind;" comp. Gen. XIX. 30; 1 Sam. IX. say, but Imperf. form 773, see Ewald, % 138, 6. 42; Is. xli. 2; Hab. iii. 5.—[E. V. “shall drive [The meaning is clearly: his movements are him to his feet” is ambiguous.] pon?, lit. ħampered, his powers are contracted by the diffundere, dissipare, hence requiring a collective pent-up limits which shut him in).-And his for its object (as e. g. "host” in Hab. iii. 14), own counsel casts him down: comp. ch. or a word representing a mass (as e. 9. “cloud, v. 12 seq., and as regards 1733. in the bad sense smoke,” comp. Job xxxvii. 11; xl. 11, etc.); of the counsel of the wicked, see ch. x. 3; here, however, exceptionally connected with a

single individual as its object, and hence synoThird Strophe : vers. 8-11. [Everything con- nymous with 777, to chase, scare (comp. ch. spires to destroy the sinner.]

xxx. 15). ["It would probably not be used Ver. 8. For his feet drive him into a net: here, but for the idea that the spectres of terror lit. “he is driven, sent forth” (nyp, precisely pursue him at every step, and are now here, as in Judg. v. 15) [by or with his own feet. A now there, and his person is multiplied.” Del.] vivid paradoxical expression, conveying also a

Fourth Strophe : vers. 11-14. Description of profound truth. The sinner is driven, and yet the final overthrow of the wicked in its three rushes on to his ruin. He is divided against stages: outward adversity, mutilation of the himself. He pursues his course at once with body by disease, and death-bence manifestly and against his will.-E.]-And he walks pointing at Job.

Ver. 12. His calamity shows itself hun. over pitfalls.—7220, net-like, cross-barred

gry.-The voluntat. "?? used for the finite: work, or lattice-work, applied here specially to comp. ver. 9, also below ch. xxiv. 14.-JK, a snare (as in Arabic schabacah, snare), hence a defective for jis, is more correctly derived cross-barred covering, laid over a deep pit. from ix in the sense of calamity, misfortune, but he is grievously mistaken; it is but a deli: than from pix, "strength.” The latter rendercate net-work, spread over an unfathomable ing, which is adopted by the Vulgate, Rosenm., abyss, into which, therefore, he every moment Ewald, Stickel, Schlottm., Dillm. [E. V., Unrisks to be precipitated.” Bernard.]

breit, Good, Lee, Wem., Noyes, Con., Car., Rod., Vers. 9, 10 continue still further the same Elz.), yields & sense which is in itself entirely figures derived from hunting, snare, cord and appropriate: "then does his strength become

In vers. 8–10 there are six different im- hungry." ["But this rendering is unsatisfacplements mentioned as being in readiness to tory, for it is in itself no misfortune to be huncapture the evil-doer; a vivid variety of expres- gry, and Sy? does not in itself signify reso sion which reminds us of the five names given hausted with hunger. It is also an odd metato the lion by Eliphaz, ch. iv. 10 seq.; comp.phor that strength becomes hungry.” Delitzsch.] also on ch. xix. 13 seq.

But the rendering favored_by the Peshito, Ver. 9. A trap holds his heel fast, and a Hirzel, Habn, Del. [Renan, Words. ], etc.--"his snare takes fast hold upon him.- To the calamity shows itself hungry (towards him); it simple inx, to hold, corresponds in 6 the signi- seems greedy, eager to devour him” agrees better ficantly stronger pin, which, however, is used both with the second member of the parallelism, with Sy_ [instead of ?), thus giving expression and with the actual course of Job's adversity, to the idea of a mighty, overpowering seizure. suddenly bursting upon him, to which Bildad ma

which began with a series of external calamities [The jussive form pi? is used simply by poetic nifestly refers. The explanation of the Targ. license.] On D'?, snare (which is not plur., [and Bernard] -" the son of bis manhood's but sing., after the form p'rs, from 098], strength (comp. pir in Gen. xlix. 3) becomes comp: on ch. v. 5. [The rendering of E. V.: hungry“ destroys the connection (and “sounds “robbers” is to be rejected here, as well as in comical rather than tragic,” Del.] ; and Reiske's ch. v. 5.]

translation," he is hungry in the midst of his Ver. 10. Hidden in the ground is his strength"-assumes the correctness of the concord, and his gin upon the pathway.

, [The suffixes here undoubtedly refer to the sin- without support.-And destruction (TX, lit. ner, and not, according to Conant's rendering “a heavy burden, load of suffering," hence " its cord-its noose "—to the spare of ver. 9. stronger than 1?$, comp. ch. sxi. 17; Obad. fowler affirms that that issue of his life, ver. 9, 18) is ready for his fall.—12?x? might of has been preparing long beforehand; the pros- itself signify “at his side” (lit. « rib"), being


thus equivalent to i72, ch. xv. 23 (Gesen., Ew., mented for a while with temporary minba, and Schlottm., Dillm.), [E. V., Good, Lee, Bernard, made tender and reduced to ripeness for death Wem., Words., Nog., Ren., Con., Car., Rod, by the first-born of death, he falls into the posElz.]; but a more forcible meaning is obtained, session of the king of ninsa himself ; slowly if in accordance with Psalm xxxv. 15; xxxviii. and solemnly, but surely and inevitably. (as 18, we take why to mean “limping, fall,” and Tygn implies, with which is combined the idea so find destruction represented as in readiness cution), he is led to this king by an unseen arm.”

of the march of a criminal to the place of exeto cast down the wicked. Ver. 13. There devours the parts of his himself, who is here, as in Ps. xlix. 15 [14]; Is.

Delitzsch). The “king of terrors” is death skin (O'?9 elsewhere “cross-bars,” or “ branch- xxviii. 15 personified as a ruler of the underes of a tree," comp. ch. xvii. 16; used here of world. He is not however to be identified with the members of the body : Vy here for the body; the king of the under-world in the heathen mycomp. on ch. ii. 4), there devours his parts thologies (e. g., with the Yama of the Hindus, or the first-born of death (or with a smoother the Pluto of the Romans, with whom Schärer English construction, by ir verting the order of and Ewald here institute a comparison), nor clauses, as Rod well: The first-born of death with Satan. For although the latter is in Heb. shall devour-devour the limbs of his body"]. ii. 14 designated as o to kpáros & YWV TOū Javárov, According to this rendering, which is already in our book according to ch. i. 6 seq., he apjustified by the ancient versions, and whicb has pears in quite another character than that of a of late been quite generally adopted, no niza prince of death. Neither can the Angel of the is the subject of the whole verse, and is placed abyss, Abaddon (Rev. ix. 11) be brought into for emphasis at the end. By this "first-born of the comparison here, since the king of terrors is death, we are to understand not the "angel of unmistakably the personification of death itself. death” as the Targum explains it, nor again

We produce an unsuitable enfeebling of the sense death” itself, as Hahn thinks, but a peculiarly if, with the Pesh., Vulg., Böttcher, Stickel, dangerous and terrible disease, [" in which the [Parkhurst, Noyes, Good, Wemyss, Carey] diswhole destroying power of death is contained, as regarding the accentuation we separate nina in the first born the whole strengt of his pa from 199, and render it as subj. of 177*3n: rent." Del.). Comp. the Arabic designation of fatal fevers as benât el-menijeh, “ daughter

of " and destruction makes him march onward to fate or death.” The whole verse thus points itself, as to a king” [or: “ Terror pursues him with indubitable clearness to Job's disease, the like a king,” Noyes]—a rendering which is made elephantiasis, which devours the limbs and mu- untenable by the disconnected and obscure posi

:-an allusion which is altogether tion which, in the absence of a clause more prelost, if, with Úmbreit

and Ewald, we make the cisely qualifying it, it assigns to 7? (instead wicked himself the subject of the verse, understanding him to be designated in b by way of ap- of which we might rather look for 7593). position as “the first-born of death, i. e., as surely doomed to death, and to be compared in influence of the calamity as extending beyond

Fifth Strophe: Vers. 15–17. Description of the the rest of the verse to one in hunger devouring the death of the wicked man, destroying his race, his own limbs, as in Is. ix. 19 [20]. Ver. 14. He is torn out of his tent,

his posterity, and his memory.

Ver. 15. There dwells in his tent that wherein he trusted: ing?? as in ch. viii. 14. which does not belong to bim: or again : lingop is taken as the subject of the sentence of that which is not his.” For i5-7997 by E. V., Rosenm., Umbr., Ewald. Noyes, Ber- be rendered in both ways, either partitively nard, Good, Lee, Wemyss, Carey, Barnes, Rod., (Hirzel), or, which is to be preferred, as a Merx, Delitzsch; the meaning being as explained strengthened negation = i5-73? nos, " that by the latter: “ Everything that makes the ungodly man happy as head of a household, and which is not his ” (comp. the adverbial rap in gives him the brightest hopes of a future, is torn Ex. xiv. 11 ; also the similar, yet more frequent away from his household, so that he, who is dy- 12?; and in general Ewald, 294, a). In any ing off, alone survives." Comm. is adopted by Dillmann, Schlottm., Co- case 019-x's in ch. xxxix. 16 may be compared nant, Renan, Hirzel, Hahn, Heiligst.--It is de- with it. The fem. jon (for neuter) is exfended by Dillmann on the ground that accord- plained on the ground that the forsaken tent is ing to the order of the description the fate of his thought of as heing inhabited not by human tent and household is not mentioned until verse beings, but by wild beasts (Is. xiii. 20 seq.; 15; and also that by its position inuan stands xxxiv. 11 seq.), or wild vegetation (Zeph. ii. 9). in apposition to Ibnx, whereas according to the ---Brimstone is scattered on his habitaother construction the order should have been tion, viz., from heaven (Gen. xix. 24) in order inverted, inpas as subject coming immediately to make it, the entire habitation of the wretched after the verb: grounds which seem satisfactory. man (47??? as in ch, v. 3) a solitude, the monu-E.].-And he must march to the king ment of an everlasting curse; comp. ch. xv, 34 : of terrors : lit., “and it makes him march” Deut. xxix. 22; Ps. xi. 6; also the remark of (1777yYn fem. used as neuter), viz., his calamity, Wetzstein in Delitzsch, founded on personal obserthe dismal something, the secret power which vation of present modes of thought and customs effects his ruin. [“ After the evil-doer is tor- among the orientals: “ The desolation of his



מלל derivation from


house is the most terrible calamity for the Sem- well as the D'ab?, might certainly, according to ite; i. e., when all belonging to his family die, the general usage of the words elsewhere, denote or are reduced to poverty, their habitation is posterity,” together with the “ancestors” (i. e., desolated, and their ruins are become the by word the fathers, now living, of the later generations), of future generations. For the Bedouin espe- hence the successors of the wicked, together cially, although his hair tent leaves no mark, the with his contemporaries. So, besides the thought of the desolation of his house, the ex. ancient versions [and E. V.), many moderns, tinction of his hospitable hearth, is terrible."

e. g. Hirzel, Schlottmann, Hahn [Lee, Bernard, Ver. 16. His roots dry up from beneath, Noyes, Conant, Wordsworth, Renan, Rodwell], and his branch (9'$; as in ch. xiv. 9) with- A more suitable meaning is obtained, howers above (not, “is Topped off,” Del. (E. V., ever, if (with Schultens, Oetinger, Umbreit, Conant, etc.) comp. above on ch. xiv. 2): ["the Ewald, Delitzsch, Dillmann), [Wemyss, Barnes,

“ to cut off,” is here alto- Carey, Elzas, Merx], we take the words in a gether untenable, for the cutting off of the local sense: the “men of the west,” the “men branches of a tree dried up in the roots is mean

of the east,” the neighbors on both sides, those ingless.” Dillm.). The same vegetable figure,

who live towards the east, and those who live in illustration of the same thing; see above, ch! towards the west [Dillmann inelegantly: "those xv. 32 seq. ; comp. Amos ii. 9; 1s. . 24, also the well-known designation of the Mediterranean

to the rear, and those to the front"]. Comp. the inscription on the sarcophagus of Eschmu. "Let there not be to him a root below

as Jinx D'7 (the western sea), and of the or a branch above!".

Dead Sea as '313 7p7 (the eastern sea). [Del. Ver. 17. His memory perishes out of the objects to the former rendering: “The return land, and he has no (longer a) name on the from the posterity to those then living is strange, (wide) plain. -As 1.? in the first member de- and the usage of the language is opposed to it; notes the “land with a settled population,” so for D'97p is elsewhere always what belongs to pan denotes the region outside of this inhabited the previous age in relation to the speaker; e. g. land, the wide plain, steppe, wilderness. Comp. | 1 Sam. xxiv. 14; comp. Eccles. iv. 16.” Schlotton ch. v. 10, also the parallel phrase nisan! Y..poral sense is much better suited to the entire

mann, on the other hand, argues that the temin Prov. viii. 26 (see on the passage).

connection than the local.] Sixth Strophe (together with a closing verse): Vers. 18-21. [After his destruction the wicked lies outside of the strophe-structure of the dis

Ver. 21. A concluding verse, which properly lives in the memory of posterity only as a warning example)

course, similar to ch. v. 27; viii. 19.-Only Ver. 18. He is driven out of the light into thus does it befall the dwellings of the the darkness (i. l., out of the light of life and unrighteous, and thus the place of him happiness into the darkness of calamity and who (VT)*'without non, comp. ch. xxix. death), and chased out of the habitable 16; Gesen., & 116 [8 121], 3), knew not God: world. 177??, from the Hiph. 7??? of the verb i. é. did not recognize and honor God, did not 97); son used of the inhabited globe, the oikov- concern himself about Him (ch. xxiv. 1). Hahn, uévn. The third plural of both verbs expresses

Dillmann, etc., correctly render 78 at the beginthe subject indefinitely, as in ch. iv, 19; vii. 3; ning of this verse not affirmatively,="yes, xix. 26. It would be legitimate to take as the surely,” but restrictively—“only so, not otherobject referred to by the suffixes, not the wicked wise does it happen to the dwellings of the

unrighteous," etc. man himself, but his ow and 13? (Seb. Schmidt,

For it is only by this ren

dering that Bildad's whole description receives Ewald). The following verse however makes the emphatic conclusion which was to be es. this interpretation less probable.

pected after its solemn and pathetic opening, Ver. 19. No sprout, no shoot (remains) tover. 5 seq. him among his people.The phrase “sprout and shoot” will most nearly and strikingly reproduce the short and forcible alliteration of 1?? ?), which is found also in Gen. xxi. 23; Is.

1. Bildad appears here again, as in bis former xiv: 24.–And there is no escaped one Eliphaz, without being able to present much that

discourse, ch. viii., as essentially an imitator of (Foniy, as in Deut. ii. 34, etc.), in his dwell- is new in comparison with hi older associate ings. 7419, “lodging, dwelling,” elsewhere and predecessor. So far as bis picture of the only in Ps. lv. 16. The whole verse expresses, restless condition and irretrievable destruction only still more directly and impressively, what of the wicked (ver. 4 seq.) is in all essentials a was first of all said figuratively above in ver. 16. copy of that of Eliphaz in ch. xv. 20 seq., while

Ver. 20. They of the West are astonished at the same time this, instead of being the subon account of his day (i. e., the day of doom, ject of a particular section, runs through his of destruction; comp. Di in Ps. xxxvii. 13 ; entire argument as its all-controlling theme, he cxxxvii. 7; Obad. 12, etc.), and they of the appears poorer in original ideas than his model. East are seized with terror (lit., they take. At the same time he rivals, and indeed surpasses, fright," seize upon terror, in accordance with a

his associate now again, as before, in wealth of mode of expression employed also in ch. xxi. imagery and in the variety of his illustrations

derived from the life of nature and humanity, 6; Isa. xiii. 8; Hos. X. 6.

as | for the vivid and skilful handling of which the


אֲחֵרוֹנִים The


speaker is pre-eminently distinguished among ment, far below his opponent. The practical the three friends. He uses the peculiar phrase- commentator, especially when engaged in the ology of the Chokmah with consummate art; continuous exposition of the whole poem, cannot and this aptness and elegance of style compen- help keeping in view these considerations, which sates in a measure for its lack of originality. impair the religious and ethical value of this Especially does his terrible portraiture of the discourse. In its characteristic traits and mowicked man encountering his doom, like that tives, it yields comparatively little that is of Eliphaz in ch. xv., or even in a higher degree directly profitable and edifying. than that in some particulars, acquire by virtue of these qualities a peculiar significance as HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL. regards its æsthetic beauty, its relation to scriptural theology, and its parenetic value.


Ver. 3 seq. OECOLAMPADIUS: Truly the undescription is terribly brilliant, solemn and godly are pile in the eyes of the godly, and are pathetic, as becomes the stern preacher of recognized as being more stupid than brutes; repentance with haughty mien and pharisaic but this is in accordance with a healthy judgself-confidence; it is none the less beautiful, ment, and free from contempt. For the world and, considered in itself, also true-master

was even crucified to Paul, yet what did he not piece of the poet's skill in poetic idealizing, and do that he might benefit those who were in the in apportioning out the truth ia dramatic form." world? The godly therefore seem vile to the (Delitzsch i. 332). Especially are the gradual ungodly in quite a different sense from that in steps in the destruction of the wicked (ver. 12 which the ungodly seem vile to the godly; for seq.), and the participation of all that he leaves to the one class belongs charity, which the other behind him, of his posterity, his property, and class in every way neglect; the former act withhis memory, in his own sudden downfall and out pride, the latter with the utmost pride.total ruin (ver. 15 seq.), described with masterly BRENTIUS (on ver. 4): It is no common trial of power. All this is presented with such internal faith, that we must think of ourselves as not truth, and in such harmony with the experiences being of such consequence with God that He for of all mankind, that the description, considered our sakes should change common events, and in itself, and detached from its connections, is His own pre-established order. We seem to well adapted to exert a salutary influence think that God rather will change His usual for all time in the way of warning and ex

on our account. - WOHLFARTH: God's hortation, and edification even for the Christian plan is indeed unchangeable and without excepworld.

tions, alike in the realm of nature, and in that 2. It is true nevertheless that the malignant of spirit. But we must beware of erring by application to the person of Job of the sharp arguing from that which is external to that points and venomous stings of this portraiture, which is internal. In that which pertains to wonderful as it is in itself, destroys the pure the spiritual, the higher, that which is to decide enjoyment of the study of it, and warns the is, not external indications, but reason, Scrip. thoughtful reader at every step to exercise cau- ture, and conscience. tion in the acceptance of these maxims of wis. Ver. 5 seq. BRENTIUS: These ourses on the dom, which, while sounding beautifully, are

wicked are that his light may be put out, and applied solely and altogether in the service of that the spark of his fire may not shine. For an illiberal legal pharisaic and narrow view of the Lord and His Word are true light and splenlife. ["Bildad knows nothing of the worth and dor, as David says (Ps. xxxvi. 10 [9]; cxix. power which a man attains by a righteous heart. 105). The wicked have neither, for they say By faith he is removed from the domain of God's in their heart: There is no God.-V. GERLACH: justice, which recompenses according to the law The light is here in general the symbol of a of works, and before the power of faith even clear knowledge of man's destiny, of serene rocks remove from their place” (see ver. 4). consciousness in the whole life (Matt. vi. 22 Delitzsch.] The unmistakable directness of the seq.); the light of the tent carries the symbol allusions to Job's former calamities (in vers. 12-14 further, and points to this clearness, even in a which point to the frightful disease which afflicted man's daily household affairs, as something bim; in ver. 15, where the shower of brimstone which ceases to be for the ungodly. is a reminder of ch. i. 16 seq., and in ver. 16, Ver. 17 seq. LANGE: The memory which a where the “withering of the branch” points to man leaves behind him is of little consequence; the death of the children) takes away from the it is enough if we are known to God in respect description, although true in itself, that which of that which is good. Many righteous souls alone could constitute it a universal truth, and are hidden from the world, because they have lowers it to the doubtful rank of a representation wrought their works in the most quiet way having a partisan purpose. It compels us to in God (John iii. 21); while, on the conregard its author, moreover, as a preacher of trary, many an ungodly man makes noise morality entangled in a carnal, external, legal and disturbance enough, so that he is talked dogmatism, destitute of all earnest, deep and about after his death.

But to the pure experience of the nature of human sin, as believing child of God it is still granted as his well as of the divine righteousness, and for that special beatitude that he shall see God, who will very reason misunderstanding the real signifi- make his life an example, bringing it forth into cance of Job's sufferings, and doing gross injus- the light, and causing it even after his death to tice to his person. We are thus constrained to shed a sweet savor to the praise of God (Prov. put Bilda as a practical representative and x. 7). teacher of the Divine wisdom of the Old Testa- Ver. 21. BRENTIUS: Truly it is not without

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