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purpose that the Holy Spirit so often, even ad opinions nevertheless are most true, and are fastidium sets forth in this book the judgment written for our instruction.-WOHLFARTI (on

| verg. 5-21): By what tokens can we determine which befalls the ungodly; it is to admonish us,

So that any one truly reveres God? Not by his lest we should be disturbed by the prosperity scrupulous attention to the external observances of the ungodly, knowing that the judgment of religion, not by the external events which hangs over their head, and will be executed befall him, not by the individual good works niost speedily, as you have most impressively set which he does, but by the faith which he conforth in regard to this matter in Ps. Ixxiii. For fesses, by the whole direction of his life toward although the application of these judgments to that which is Godlike, by the composure with Job by the friends is altogether forced, their / which be dies: Ps. lxxiii. 17, 19, etc.

B.-Job: Eis misery is well-deserving of sympathy; it will, however, all the more certainly end in his conspicuous vindication by God, although not

perchance till the life beyond.

CHAPTER XIX. 1-29. (Introduction: Reproachful censure of the friends for maliciously suspecting his innocence:)

Vers, 1-6. 1 Then Job answered, and said: 2 How long will ye vex my soul,

and break me in pieces with words ? 3 These ten times have ye reproached me;

ye are not ashamed that ye make yourselves strange to me. 4 And be it indeed that I have erred,

mine error remaineth with myself. 5 If indeed ye will magnify yourselves against me,

and plead against me my reproach :

1. Sorrowful complaint because of the suffering inflicted on him by God and men :

VERSES 6–20. 6 Know now that God hath overthrown me,

and hath compassed me with His net. 7 Behold, I cry out of wrong, but I am not heard ;

I cry aloud, but there is no judgment. 8 He hath fenced up my way, that I cannot pass,

and He hath set darkness in my paths. 9 He hath stripped me of my glory,

and taken the crown from my head. 10 He hath destroyed me on every side, and I am gone;

and mine hope hath he removed like a tree. 11 He hath also kindled His wrath against me,

and He counteth me unto Him as one of His enemies. 12 His troops come together,

and raise up their way against me,

and encamp round about my tabernacle. 13 He hath put my brethren far from me,

and mine acquaintance are verily estranged from me. 14 My kinsfolk have failed,

and my familiar friends have forgotten me. 15 They that dwell in mine house, and my maids, count me for a stranger;

I am alien in their sight.

16 I called my servant, and he gave me no answer ;

I entreated him with my mouth. 17 My breath is strange to my wife,

though I entreated for the children's sake of mine own body. 18 Yea, young children despised me;

I arose, and they spake against me. 19 All my inward friends abhorred me;

and they whom I loved are turned against me. 20 My bone cleaveth to my skin and my flesh,

and I am escaped with the skin of my teeth.

2. A lofty flight to a blessed hope in God, his future Redeemer and Avenger:

VERSES 21-27. 21 Have pity upon me, have pity upon me, O ye my friends!

for the hand of God hath touched me. 22 Why do ye persecute me as God,

and are not satisfied with my flesh ? 23 O that my words were now written !

O that they were printed in a book! 24 —that they were graven with an iron pen

and lead in the rock for ever 25 For I know that my Redeemer liveth,

and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth: 26 and though after my skin worms destroy this body,

yet in my flesh shall I see God; 27 whom I shall see for myself,

and mine eyes shall behold, and not another, though my reins be consumed within me.

8. Earnest warning to the friends against the further continuance of their attacks:

Verses 28, 29. 28 But ye should say, Why persecute we him,

seeing the root of the matter is found in me? 29 Be ye afraid of the sword;

for wrath bringeth the punishments of the sword, that ye may know there is a judgment.

vie

is in like manner followed by a short but forci. EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

ble and impressive warning to the friends in

view of their sinning against him (vers. 28-29). 1. Deeply grieved by the warnings and threat

The wbole discourse, accordingly, which is chá. enings of Bildad's discourse, which in these re

racterized by vivid emotion and decided contraspects was but an echo of that of Eliphaz, Job,

rieties of feeling, contains four principal parts, on the one side, advances his complaint even to which embrace five strophes of unequal length. the point of imploring pity from his opponents in The three longest of these strophes, each being

of bis inexpressible misery; on the other of 7-8 verses, fall into the second and third hand, for the very reason that he, being inno-parts, of which the former contains two strocent, finds himself deprived of all human help 1 phes, the latter one. The short introductory and sympathy, he lifts himself up to a more cou- 1 and concluding strophes are identical with the rageous confidence in God's assistance than he first and fourth parts. has ever yet exhibited. He expresses the well

2. Introduction: Reproachful censure of the defined hope of a vindication awaiting him—if friends for their malicious suspicion of his innonot on this side of the grave, then at least beyond

cence (vers. 2-5). itthrougb the personal intervention of God, Ver. 2. The 'discourse begins—like that of appearing to bim in visible form. That an- Bildad, with a Quousque tandem (1728-7), which, guished complaint concerning his unspeakably |

however, is incomparably more emphatic and severe suffering (vers. 6-20) is preceded by a

significant than that of his accuser, because it sharp word, addressed by way of introduction to the friends, as having maliciously suspected his

has more to justify it How long will ye innocence (verg. 2-5). That inspired declara

vex my soul and crush me with words? tion of his hope in the divine vindication which IMIM is fut. energicum of 70177, with the third ra. was to take place in the Hereafter (vers. 21–27) | dical retained (GESEN. 875 [274], Rem. 16). In regard to the form 'JAXSIN (with suffix ap- , responds with y?n 'AX: my transgression repended to the 11 of the fui. energ. and with the mains with me, without being communicated to union-vowel a), see GESEN. 860 18597. Rem. 3 another, i. e., without having any influence over [GREEN, 2105 c].

you or others to lead you astray, or involve you

in participation of the guilt." DEL.]. So in sub. Ver. 3 gives the reason for the 173X w. Now

stance-and correctly-Hirzel, Schlottmann, already ten times is it that ye reproach | Hahn, Delitzsch, Dillmann [Renan, Carey, Rodme, viz., by assailing my innocence—17! here in well], wbile Ewald and Olshausen, failing to the sense of "already, now already, comp. perceive the relation of the first member as a EWALD, 2183 a [GESEN. & 122, 2, Rem.; Lex. 3. hypothetical antecedent to the second member as It may, however, be equally well regarded as a its consequent and opposite, translate: “I have pronoun, in its usual demonstrative sense, in the erred, I am fully conscious of my error." [If singular with 700y, with perhaps an interjec- this be understood as a confession by Job of motional force_“Lol these ten times do ye re.

ral guilt, it is premature and out of place. Acproach me." So Repan: Voilà la dixième fois que

cording to Ewald, it is a confession of intellec. vous m'insultez. Comp. Gen. xxvii. 36.-E.]

tual error (to wit, that he had vainly put his “ Ten times" stands naturally for a round num

confidence in the justice of God), uttered with ber, or ideal perfection; Gen. xxxi. 7; Lev. xxvi.

the view of softening the hostility of the friends,

| by the indirect admission, on the one hand, that 26; Num. xiv. 22, etc. ["Ten, from being the number of the fingers on the human hand, is the

their charges had some justification in the nonnumber of human possibility, and from its posi

appearance of God; by the reminder, on the tion at the end of the row of numbers (in the de

other hand, that his complaint was against God cimal system), is the number of that which is

rather tban them. But such a thought would be perfected; as not only the Sanskrit dagan is

too obscurely expressed, and would imply too

sudden a change from the tone of bitter reproach traceable to the radical notion to seize, embrace,' but also the Semitic Oy is traceable to

which pervades this opening strophe.-E.] the radical notion, 'to bind, gather together'

Ver. 5. Will ye really boast yourselves (cogn. 10p). They have already exhausted against me, and prove against me my rewhat is possible in reproaches--they have done

| proach?_Ox is to be taken, with Schultens, their utmost.” Del.).Comp. my Theologia Na- | Ewald, Hirzel, Dillmann [Renan: “By what turalis, p. 713 seq.; also LEYRER'S Art. “Zahlen right do you dare to speak insolently to me, and bei den Hebräern”i in Herzog's Real- Encyclop. do you pretend to convince me of disgrace?''], as XVIII. p. 378 seq.). Are not ashamed to an interrogative particle (=an), and the whole

verse as a question, with the chief emphasis stun me.—The syntax of 172nA wdan-("ye stun [me) without shame, shamelessly'), as in

resting on the verbs 157JA (“will you [magchap. vi. 28; x. 16. Comp. GESEN. 8142 181397, nify] boast yourselves," exhibit yourselves 86 (GREEN, 8269].-730A is a shortened im against me as great rhetoricians and advocates, perf. Hiph. for 192779 (Gegen. 853 1852). Rem. I by your elaborate accusations?) and 'N'317 4,5 (see also GREEN, % 94 c]), of a verb 707,

| (“will you judicially prove, demonstrate" my which does not appear elsewhere, which, ac- disgrace [5y, against me]? comp. chap. xiii. 3, cording to the Arabic, signifies “to stun," ob. 15, and often). This is the only construction stupefacere. The rendering “to maltreat, to

which properly completes ver. 4. There is no abuse grossly," which rests on the authority of

such completing of the sense obtained, if we the ancient versions (LXX.: ÉTTiKELOVÉ uol, Vulg. I take DX as a conditional particle-"if," whether opprimentes), and which is adopted by Ewald, Hirzel, Dillmann, etc., gives essentially the same

we take the whole of the fifth verse as a hyposense. [The rendering of E. V.: “ye are not

thetical protasis, and ver. 6 as apodosis (so Cleashamed that ye make yourselves strange to me"

ricus, Olshausen, Delitzsch) [E. V., Lee, Carey, seems to have been suggested by the use of 9)

Rodwell, Merx), or regard ver. 5 a as protasis, in the sense of “not to know." The Hiph. form

and b as apodosis (so Umbreit, Stickel, Schlottof the verb, however, is not found in that sense,

mann [Noyes, Wemyss, Conant], etc. [Schlottwhich is, moreover, less suitable to the context

mann ēxbibits the connection as follows: “In than the renderings given above.-E.]

ver. 4 Job sayg— Granted tbat I have erred, you

need give yourselves no concern about the matVer. 4. And verily even if I have erred

ter.' In ver. 5 he adde—'If, nevertheless, you (comp. chap. vi. 24) (DION-78, double intensive, will concern yourselves about it, and in pride “yea, verily, comp. chap. xxxiv. 12), my error

look down on me, it is at least incumbent on you remains (then) with me, i.e., it is then known

not to assume without further proof that I have only to me (AX, “with me=in my conscious

brought disgrace on myself by such an error, but ness," comp. chap. xii. 3; xiv. 5), and so does not

to prove it against me with good arguments.' fall under your jurisdiction, does not call for

The repetition of DI?x seems to cor-relate vers. your carping, unfriendly criticism; for such a 4 and 5, so that if, as all agree, the first and sewrong, being known to myself alone (and for cond members of ver. 4 are related to each other that reason being of the lighter sort), I have to as protasis and apodosis, the same would seem answer only to God. ["I shall have to expiate | to be true of ver. 5.-E.] it, without your having on this account any right First Division: First Strophe. Vers. 6–12. Lato take upon yourselves the office of God, and to mentation over his sufferings as proceeding from treat me uncharitably; or what still better cor- God.

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Ver. 6. Know then (ox as in chap. ix. 24)| Ver. 11. (He makes Eisanger burn against forelsewhere in questions, here strengthening me, and He regards me as Eis foes), comp. the exclamation"-Schlott.) that Eloah has ch. xiii.

Eloah has cb. xiii. 24. The Imperfects alternating with wrested me. i.e., has treated me upjustly, done Imperfects consecutive are, as above in ver. 10.

and in what follows, used for the present, because me wrong, ny for 'opos nay, comp. chap.

present and continuous sufferings are described ; viii. 3; xxxiv, 12; Lam. iii. 36. And com.

comp. ch. xvi. 13, 14. [The plural in 1783, passed me round about with His net-like

either for the class, of which Job is one; or, as a hunter who bas entirely robbed a wild beast

Delitzsch suggests, “ perhaps the expression is of its liberty by the meshes of the net which en

intentionally intensified here, in contrast with velop him around, so that he can find no way of

cb. xiii. 24; he, the one, is accounted by God as escape.-Tbe expression describes the unforeseen

the host of His foes; He treats him as if all hosand inexorable character of the dispensations til

| tility to God were concentrated in him"]. which had burst on Job as the object of the Di

Ver. 12. Together all His troops advance. vine persecution; comp. Bildad's description,

-O'7971, armies, synonymous with xay, ch. x. chap. xviii. 8 seq. ["Bildad had said that the wicked would be taken in his own snares. Job

17, and denoting here, as there, the band of casays that God bad enanared him.” Elzas.)

lamities, sufferings, and pains, wbich rush upon Ver. 7. Lol I cry—“Violence!" (on as

Violence!" (Obr as him.-And cast up their way against me. an interjectional exclamation, found also Hab. i. _50', lit. “ to heap up ” their way, which is 2; comp. Jer. xx.8) and am not heard (Prov.

at the same time a rampart for carrying on the xxi. 13); I call out for help, and there is no justice-i.e., no justice shown in an impar

attack, a mound for offensive operations (77550, tial examination and decision of my cause.- comp. 2 Sam. xx. 15; 2 Kings xix, 32; Ezek. VIW, lit. "to cry aloud for help, to send forth a iv. 2) against Job, who is here represented as a cry for deliverance” (comp. Ps. xxx. 3 (2];

besieged fortress. In regard to this figure comp. lxxii. 12; lxxxviii, 14 [13]), from yiu, or yıø=

above ch. xvi. 14; also in regard to the technics

of siege operations among the ancient orientals, pu, “to be wide, to be in a prosperous situa see Keil's Bibl. Archäol. & 159. tion.”

First Division : Second Strophe: Verg. 13-20. Ver. 8. Ho has hedged up my way, that Lamentation over his sufferings as proceeding I cannot pass, and He has set darkness from man. on my paths.—Comp. cbap. iii. 23; xiii. 27; Ver. 13. My brethren He drives far away also, as regards 772,"to fence up, to hedge up," from me: to wit God, to whom here, precisely Lam. iii. 7, 9; Hog. ii. 8 6).

as in cb. xvii. 6, even the injustice proceeding Ver. 9. He has stripped me of mine ho

from men is ascribed. For this reason the readnor; i. e., of my righteousness in the eyes of ing pņ?? is perfectly in place, and it is unnemen; comp. ch. xxix. 14. The “crown of my cessary after the ánlotnoav of the LXX. to change head” in the parallel second member signifies it to pinn. To the term “ brethren" (which the same thing; comp. Lam. v. 16. The same

as in Ps. lxix. 9 [8], is to be understood literally, collocation of a “raiment of honor," and a not in the wider sense of relatives), who are de“ crown of the head,” occui's also in Is. lxi. 10 ; scribed as turning away from him, corresponds lxii. 3; and suggested by these passages we find in ver. 14 a the term bap, “kinsmen” (Ps. it often in evangelical church hymns [e.g., in the following from Watts:

xxxviii. 12 [11]). In like manner we find as

parallel to the o'y?', i, e., “knowers, confi. "Then let my sonl march boldly on,

dants,” in ver. 13 6, the D'Y?!?, i. e., those famiPrers forward to the heavenly gate, There peace and joy eternal reign,

liarly known, intimate friends, in ver. 14 b (comp. And glittering robes for conquerors wait.

in regard to it Pg. xxxi. 12 [11] ; lxxxviii. 958). There shall I wear a starry crowon, And triumph in Almighty grace,

As synonyms in the wider sense there appear in While all tbe armies of the skies

the sequel na-n, “house-associates, or soJoin in my glorious Leader's praiso").

journers” in ver. 15 (Vulg., inquilini domus mex) Ver. 10. He breaks me down on every and finally 710-in? (ver. 19), those who belong side: like a building doomed to destruction, for

to the circle of closest intimacy, bosom-friends, such is the representation here given of Job's

(comp. ch. xxix. 4; Ps. lv. 16 (14]), so that the outward man together with his state of prog

notion of friendship is here presented in six difperity; comp. ch. xvi. 14; so that I pass

ferent phases and gradations, comp. on ch. xviii. away), and uproots, like a tree, my hope: i. e., he takes entirely away from me the pros

8-10.-As for the rest 171 N ver. 13 6 is lit., pect of a restoration of my prosperity, leaves it

“are become only [or, nothing but] strange to no foundation or bottom, like a plant which is me,” i. e., entirely and aliogether strange; and uprooted, and which for that reason inevitably 1579), ver. 14 a, means “they cease,” i. e., to be withers (comp. ch. xiv. 19; xvii. 15). As to friends, they leave off, fail (comp. ch. xiv. 7). Y'on?, lit. "to tear out, to pluck up wholly out

withdraw from me. of the ground," comp. ch. iv. 21, where the ob Ver. 15. My house associates [="they ject spoken of is the tent-stake.

that dwell in mine house,” E. V.), and my

maids (this doubled expression denoting all the The above extract from Watts will supply for the English

domestics, including hired servants and the like; reader the place of the extract given by our author from P. GERHARD's hymn: "Ein Lümmlein geht und trägt die Schuld." | comp. above) are become strange to me [properly, “count me for a stranger," E. V.). I logue, has already been shown in the Introd., The verb uns is governed as to gender by 28, 3. We need not therefore follow the critics the subject next preceding: comp. Gesen. 8 60;

preceding: comp. Gegen. 8 60. who are there refuted in deciding that the proEwald, & 339 c [Green, & 276, 1].

logue is not genuine; nor assume (with EichVer. 16. I call to my servant, and he an-horn and Olsh.) that the poet has here for once swers not. - Whether this disobedient servant

forgotten himself, and lost sight of his scheme as is to be viewed as the overseer, or house-stew

set forth in ch. i. 18, 19. We are rather to supard, like Eliezer in the house of Abrabam, Gen. pose (with Ewald, 1st Ed., Hirz., Heiligst., Hahn, xxiv. (Del.), is in view of the simplicity of tbe

Dillmann, etc.), that the reference is to grandlanguage at least doubtful.-With my mouth

children, the offspring left behind by the unformust I entreat him.-For the Imperf. in the

tunate sons-in favor of which may be cited the

similar use of O'll in a wider sense in Gen. sense of must, comp. ch. xv. 30; xvii. 2. 'Did

xxix. 5; xxxi. 28, etc.: or else (with the LXX., (comp. Ps. lxxxix. 2 [1]; cix. 30), expresses

Symmachus, J. D. Michaelis, Schär., Rosenm., here not, as in ch. xvi. 5, & contrast with that

Datbe, Ewald, 2d Ed.) to his children by concuwhich proceeds out of the heart, but with a mere

bines (vious talharidwv pov, LXX.) a supposition wink, or any dumb intimation of what might be

De however with which ch. xxxi. 1 seems scarcely desired of him.

to agree, however true it may be that in the paVer. 17. My breath is offensive to my triarchal age, to which our poet assigns Job, wife.-77, from 747, to be strange, to be es- rigid monogamistic views did not prevail. The tranged, expresses simply by viriue of this sig-lexplanation of Stuhlm., Gesen., Umbr., Schlott., nification the idea of " being repugnant, repul- Del., Noyes, Conant, Elzas, Merx] is also linsive," so that we need not derive it from a guistically possible, that '303 stands for 103 particular verb 71, “to be loathsome;" and in

"OX (after ch. iii. 10), so that '902 'jwould 'nin assuredly signifies here the breath (stinking

mean accordingly Job's natural brothers. This according to b), having the same meaning as

o meaning as theory however is inconsistent with the circumwas in the partly parallel passage ch. vii. 15; stance that Job has already made mention above, hence not “my discontent" (Hirzel) ["my spi- ver. 13, of his brothers; and that immediately rit, as agitated, querulous" Gesen.; "depres- following the mention of his wife, the mention sion,” Fürst); nor “my sexual impulse" Arnb.; of his descendants would be more suitable than nor “my spirit” (Starke, [Carey) and ancient that of his brothers. [To which add this from commentators); nor “ my person” (Pesh., Um- Bernard, that above, in ch. iii. 10, no ambiguity breit, Haho) [Renan).–Jerome already cor-whatever could arise from the employment of rectly : halitum meum exhorruit uxor mea, and in 202 in the sense of “mother's womb," whereas the same sense most of the moderns (so E. V.)," here, by using it in this sense, Job would bave and my ill savor to the sons of my body. run such risk of having his meaning misunder-visni, can neither signify: “my prayers, my stood, as 299 might fairly be considered synoentreaties” (Gesen., with a reference to his nymous with 'yon, my loins, or 'ye, my bor. Gram., & 91, 3—against which however compare els, that we find it quite impossible to believe Ewald, 2 259) [Noyes, Lee, Words., Elzas); nor that if he had really wished to speak here of bis “ my caresses (Arnh.) [Bernard, Rodw., Green, brethren, he would have applied to them such a Chrestom., and Gram. & 139, 2–Kal Inf, of jin very ambiguous epithet.” It has also been sug(with fem. termination ni.) to be gracious): gested as a relief of the difficulty that children nor “my lamentations, my groanings" (Hirzel, had been born to Job in the interval between the Vaih.) [Fürst]; nor yet finally—“and I pray to first series of calamities, and the infliction of the the sons of my body(LXX., Vulg., Luth., etc.) disease, but such a conjecture is too precarious. [E. V., with different construction of the ?

Others regard the expression as general. So

Wordsworth: “ He is speaking of the greatest " though I entreated for the children's sake of wretchedness in general terms"]. my own body'']; for all these constructions are Ver. 18. Even youngsters act contempalike opposed to the language and to the context. The word is rather (with Schär., Rosen., tuously towards me.

tuously towards me.—O?. plur. of Sury,

!.9. Prur. O Ew., Habn, Schlott., Del., Dillm.), to be derived puer (root Say, comp. ch. xxi. 11) are little cbil. from the root pin, “to stink,” which does not dren, such namely as are rude and impudent appear elsewhere indeed in Heb., but which is mockers, like those children of Bethel, 2 Kings quite common in Arab. and Syr., and is to be ii. 23 seq., which may be expressed by the word construed either as first pers. sing. Perf. Kal“ youngsters" [Germ. Buben: Bernard(“' and I smell offensively to the sons of my“ wicked-little-children"], here as also above in body”), or, which is better suited to the paral. ch. xvi. 11.-It will also guard in particular lelism, as Infinitive substantive, 779 in a being against the mistake of supposing that Job's still the predicate. This stench suggests in par-grandchildren are intended by these D ry, ticular the fetid matter which issues from the (Hahn).-If I rise up (conditional clause, as in festering and partially rotting limbs of the vic-ch. xi.'17 [not as E. V., “I arose "]), they tim of elephantiasis. Comp. on ch. ii. 7 ; vii. speak about me, make me the butt of jeering 14.—That by “the sons of my body" (30) "13) talk (2 727, as in Ps. 1. 20; Numb. xii. 1; we are not of necessity to understand the legiti. xxi, 5). mate soos of Job, and hence that there is no con- Ver. 19. My bosom friends abhor me:tradiction between this passage and the pro- (comp. above on ver. 13 seq.), and those whom

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