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purpose that the Holy Spirit so often, even ad opinions nevertheless are most true, and are fastidium sets forth in this book the judgment written for our instruction.-WOHLFARTA (on which befalls the ungodly; it is to admonish us, that any one iruly reveres God? Not by his

vers. 5–21): By what tokens can we determine lest we should be disturbed by the prosperity scrupulous attention to the external observances of the ungodly, knowing that the judgment of religion, not by the external events which bangs over their head, and will be executed befall him, not by the individual good works nost speedily, as you have most impressively set which he does, but by the faith which he conforth in regard to this matter in Ps. Ixxiii. For fesses, by the whole direction of his life toward although the application of these judgments to that which is Godlike, by the composure with Job by the friends is altogether forced, their which he dies: Ps. lxxiii. 17, 19, etc.

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B.-Job: His misery is well-deserving of sympathy; it will, however, all the more certainly end in his conspicuous vindication by God, although not

perchance till the life beyond.

CHAPTER XIX. 1-29. (Introduction: Reproachful censure of the friends for maliciously suspecting his innocence:)

VERS, 1-5. 1 Then Job answered, and said:

2 How long will ye vex my soul,

and break me in pieces with words? 3 These ten times have ye reproached me;

ye are not ashamed that ye make yourselves strange to me. 4 And be it indeed that I have erred,

mine error remaineth with myself. 5 If indeed ye will magnify yourselves against me,

and plead against me my reproach :

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1. Sorrowful complaint because of the suffering inflicted on him by God and men :

VERSES 6-20. 6 Know now that God hath overthrown me,

and hath compassed me with His net. 7 Behold, I cry out of wrong, but I am not heard ;

I cry aloud, but there is no judgment. 8 He hath fenced up my way, that I cannot pass,

and He hath set darkness in my paths. 9 He hath stripped me of my glory,

and taken the crown from my head. 10 He hath destroyed me on every side, and I am gone;

and mine hope hath he removed like a tree. 11 He hath also kindled His wrath against me,

and He counteth me unto Him as one of His enemies. 12 His troops come together, and raise


their way against me, and encamp round about my tabernacle. 13 He hath put my brethren far from me,

and mine acquaintance are verily estranged from me. 14 My kinsfolk have failed,

and my familiar friends have forgotten me. 15 They that dwell in mine house, and my maids, count me for a stranger;

I am alien in their sight.



16 I called my servant, and he gave me no answer ;

I entreated him with my mouth. 17 My breath is strange to my wife,

though I entreated for the children's sake of mine own body. 18 Yea, young children despised me;

I arose, and they spake against me. 19 All my inward friends abhorred me;

and they whom I loved are turned against me. 20 My bone cleaveth to my skin and my flesh,

and I am escaped with the skin of my teeth.

2. A lofty flight to a blessed hope in God, his future Redeemer and Avenger:

VERSES 21-27. 21 Have pity upon me, have pity upon me, O ye my friends!

for the hand of God hath touched me. 22 Why do ye persecute me as God,

and are not satisfied with my flesh ? 23 O that my words were now written !

O that they were printed in a book! 24 —that they were graven with an iron pen

and lead in the rock for ever! 25 For I know that my Redeemer liveth,

and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth: 26 and though after my skin worms destroy this body,

yet in my flesh shall I see God; 27 whom I shall see for myself,

and mine eyes shall behold, and not another, though my reins be consumed within me.

3. Earnest warning to the friends against the further continuance of their attacks:

VERSES 28, 29. 28 But ye should say, Why persecute we him,

seeing the root of the matter is found in me? 29 Be ye afraid of the sword;

for wrath bringeth the punishments of the sword, that ye may know there is a judgment.

is in like manner followed by a short but forci. EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

ble and impressive warning to the friends in

view of their sinning against him (vers. 28-29). 1. Deeply grieved by the warnings and threat. The wbole discourse, accordingly, which is chaenings of Bildad's discourse, which in these re-racterized by vivid emotion and decided contraspects was but an echo of that of Eliphaz, Job, rieties of feeling, contains four principal parts, on the one side, advances his complaint even to which embrace five strophes of unequal length. the point of imploring pity from his opponents in the three longest of these strophes, each being view of his inexpressible misery; on the other of 7-8 verses, fall into the second and third hand, for the very reason that he, being inno- parts, of which the former contains two strocent, finds himself deprived of all human help phes, the latter one. The short introductory and sympatby, he lifts himself up to a more cou- and concluding strophes are identical with the rageous confidence in God's assistance than he first and fourth parts. has ever yet exhibited. He expresses the well- 2. Introduction: Reproachful censure of the defined hope of a vindication awaiting him-if friends for their malicious suspicion of bis innonot on this side of the grave, then at least beyond cence (vers. 2–5). it-through the personal intervention of God, Ver. 2. The discourse begins—like that of appearing to him in visible form. That an- Bildad, with a Quousque tandem (1733-W), which, guished complaint concerning, his unspeakably however, is incomparably more emphatic and severe suffering (vers, 6-20) is preceded by a sharp word, addressed by way of introduction to significant than that of his accuser, because it

has more to justify it How long will ye the friends, as having maliciously suspected his innocence (verg. 2-5).

vex my soul and crush me with words ?That inspired declaration of his hope in the divine vindication which lon is fut. energicum of ngin, with the third ra. was to take place in the Hereafter (vers. 21-27) | dical retained (GESEN. 875 [874], Rem. 16). In

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regard to the form "38977 (with suffix ap-, responds with razmera: my transgression repended to the 7 of the fui. energ. and with the mains with me, without being communicated to union-vowel a), see Gesen. Ở 60 [859], Rem. 3 another, i. e., without having any influence over [GREEN, & 105 c).

you or others to lead you astray, or involve you Ver. 8 gives the reason for the 1128-w. Now in participation of the guilt.” DEL.]. So in sub

stance-and correctly-Hirzel, Schlottmann, already ten times is it that ye reproach Hahn, Delitzsch, Dillmann (Renan, Carey, Rodme, viz., by assailing my innocence—,7! here in well], wbile Ewald and Olshausen, failing to the sense of “already, now already,'' comp. perceive the relation of the first member as a Ewald, 2183 a [Gesen. & 122, 2, Rem.; Lex. 3. hypothetical antecedent to the second member as It may, however, be equally well regarded as a its consequent and opposite, translate: “I have pronoun, in its usual demonstrative sense, in the erred, I am fully conscious of my error." [If singular with nwy, with perhaps an interjec- this be understood as a confession by Job of motional force_"Lol these ten times do ye re

ral guilt, it is premature and out of place. Acproach me.” So Renan: Voilà la dixième fois que tual error (to wit, that he had vainly put his

cording to Ewald, it is a confession of intellec. vous m'insultez. Comp. Gen. xxvii. 36.-E.] “Ten times” stands naturally for a round num

confidence in the justice of God), uttered with ber, or ideal perfection; Gen. xxxi. 7; Lev. xxvi. the view of softening the hostility of the friends, 26; Num. xiv. 22, etc. ["Ten, from being the by the indirect admission, on the one hand, that number of the fingers on the human hand, is the their charges had some justification in the nonnumber of human possibility, and from its posi- appearance of God; by the reminder, on the tion at the end of the row of numbers (in the de- rather than them. But such a thought would be

other hand, that his complaint was against God cimal system), is the number of that which is perfected; as not only the Sanskrit dagan is too obscurely expressed, and would imply too traceable to the radical notion to seize, em

sudden a change from the tone of bitter reproach brace,' but also the Semitic voy is traceable to

which pervades this opening strophe.-E.] the radical notion, 'to bind, gather together?

Ver. 5. Will ye really boast yourselves (cogn. 10p). They have already exhausted against me, and prove against me my rewhat is possible in reproaches--they have done proach?—ox is to be taken, with Schultens, their utmost.” Del.]. Comp. my Theologia Na- Ewald, Hirzel, Dillmann (Renan: “By what turalis

, p. 713 seq.; also LEYRER': Art. "Zahlen right do you dare to speak insolently to me, and bei den Hebräern" in Herzoa's Real-Encyclop. do you pretend to convince me of disgrace?"], as XVIII. p. 378 seq.). Are not ashamed to an interrogative particle (=an), and the whole stun me.—The syntax of 172nn van-(“ye

verse as a question, with the chief emphasis stun [me] without shame, shamelessly”), as in resting on the verbs 59 (“will you [magchap. vi. 28; x. 16. Comp. Gesen. § 142 [139], nify] boast yourselves,' exhibit yourselves 36 (GREEN, 8269].-720A is a shortened im against me as great rhetoricians and advocates, perf. Hiph. for 17?pA (Gesen. 853 [852], Rem. by your elaborate accusations?) and n'ain 4,5 (see also Green, 2 94 c]), of a verb 227, (“will you judicially prove, demonstrate" my which does not appear elsewhere, which, ac- disgrace [ins, against me]? comp. chap. xiii. 3, cording to the Arabic, signifies “to stun,” 06- | 15, and often). This is the only construction stupefacere. The rendering “to maltreat, to abuse grossly,” which rests on the authority of such completing of the sense obtained, if we

which properly completes ver. 4. There is no the ancient versions (LXX.: ÉTÉKELOVÉ uoi, Vulg. take ox as a conditional particle—"if," whether opprimentes), and which is adopted by Ewald, Hirzel, Dillmann, etc., gives essentially the same

we take the whole of the fifth verse as a hyposense. [The rendering of E. V.: "ye are not thetical protasis, and ver. 6 as apodosis (s0 Cleashamed that ye make yourselves strange to me

ricus, Olshausen, Delitzsch) [E. V., Lee, Carey, seems to have been suggested by the use of 733 Rodwell, Merx), or regard ver. 5 a as protasis, in the sense of “not to know." The Hiph. form

and b as apodosis (so Umbreit, Stickel, Schlottof the verb, however, is not found in that sense,

mann [Noyes, Wemyss, Conant], etc. [Schlottwhich is, moreover, less suitable to the context

mann exhibits the connection as follows: "la than the renderings given above.-E.]

ver. 4 Job says—Granted that I have erred, you Ver. 4. And verily even if I have erred ter.' In ver. 5 he adds—If, nevertheless, you

need give yourselves no concern about the mat(comp. chap. vi. 24) [O??78, double intensive, will concern yourselves about it, and in pride "yea, verily, comp. chap. xxxiv. 12], my error look down on me, it is at least incumbent on you remains (then) with me, i.e., it is then known not to assume without further proof that I have

(, “with me=in my conscious- brought disgrace on myself by such an error, but ness," comp. chap. xii. 3; xiv. 5), and so does not The repetition of Dipx seems to cor-relate vers.

to prove it against me with good arguments.' fall under your jurisdiction, does not call for your carping, unfriendly criticism; for such a 4 and 6, so that if, as all agree, the first and sewrong, being known to myself alone (and for cond members of ver. 4 are related to each other that reason being of the lighter sort), I have to as protasis and apodosis, the same would seem answer only to God. ["I shall have to expiate to be true of ver. 5.—E.] it, without your having on this account any right First Division: First Strophe. Vers. 6–12. Lato take upon yourselves the office of God, and to mentation over his sufferings as proceeding from treat me uncharitably; or what still better cor- | God.

,אתִּי ) only to me

,כצריו The plural in]


=שׁוּע or

Ver. 6. Know then (DX as in chap. ix. 24) Ver. 11. (He makes Eis anger burn against ["elsewhere in questions, here strengthening me, and Ěe regards me as His foes), comp. the exclamation"--Schlott.] that Eloah has ch. xiii. 24. The Imperfects alternating with wrested me, i.e., has treated me unjustly, done Imperfects consecutive are, as above in ver. 10, me wrong, pay for oppp nay, comp. chap. and in what follows, used for the present, because

present and continuous sufferings are described ; viii. 3; xxxiv. 12; Lam. iii. 36. And com

comp. ch. xvi. 13, 14.

, passed me round about with His net-like either for the class, of which Job is one; or, as a bunter who has entirely robbed a wild beast Delitzsch suggests, perhaps the expression is of its liberty by the meshes of the net which envelop him

around, so that he can find no way of intentionally intensified here, in contrast with escape. The expression describes the unforeseen the host of'His foes; He treats him as if all hos

ch. xiii. 24; he, the one, is accounted by God as and inexorable character of the dispensations which had burst on Job as the object of the Di- tility to God were concentrated in him"].

Ver. 12. Together all His troops advance. vine persecution; comp. Bildad's description, chap. xviii. & seq. ["Bildad had said that the -O'T!?, armies, synonymous with xay, ch. x. wicked would be taken in his own snares.

Job 17, and denoting here, as there, the band of casays that God had ensnared him.” Elzas.]

latities, sufferings, and pains, which rush upon Ver. 7. Lo! I cry—“Violence!" (0297 as him. And cast up their way against me. an interjectional exclamation, found also Hab. i. –50;, lit. “ to heap up " their way, which is 2; comp. Jer. xx.8) and am not heard (Prov. at the same time a rampart for carrying on the xxi. 13); I call out for help, and there is no justice-i. e., do justice shown in an impar- attack, a mound for offensive operations (7550, tial examination and decision of my cause. - comp. 2 Sam. xx. 15; 2 Kings xix. 32; Ezek. pid, lit. "to cry aloud for help, to send forth a iv. 2) against Job, who is here represented as a cry for deliverance” (comp. Ps. xxx. 3 (2]; besieged fortress. In regard to this figure comp. lxxii. 12; lxxxviii. 14 [13]), from yıp, =

above ch. xvi. 14; also in regard to the technics

of siege operations among the ancient orientals, yon, “to be wide, to be in a prosperous situa- see Keil's Bibl. Archäol. & 159. tion."

First Division: Second Strophe : Vers. 18–20. Ver. 8. He has hedged up my way, that Lamentation over his sufferings as proceeding I cannot pass, and He has set darkness from man. on my paths.--Comp. chap. iii. 23; xiii. 27; Ver. 13. My brethren He drives far away also, as regards 771, "to fence up, to hedge up," from me: to wit God, to whom here, precisely Lam. iii. 7, 9; Hos. ii. 8 (6].

as in ch. xvii. 6, even the injustice proceeding Ver. 9. He has stripped me of mine ho- from men is ascribed. For this reason the read nor; i. e., of my righteousness in the eyes of ing pin??? is perfectly in place, and it is unnemen; comp. ch. xxix. 14. The “crown of my cessary after the árbotnoav of the LXX. to change head” in the parallel second member signifies it to ipiņ??. To the term “ brethren” (which the same thing; comp. Lam. v. 16. The same as in Ps. Ixix. 9 [8], is to be understood literally, collocation of a “ raiment of honor,” and a not in the wider sense of relatives), who are de“ crown of the head,” occurs also in Is. lxi. 10 ; scribed as turning away from him, corresponds lxii. 3 ; and suggested by these passages we find in ver. 14 a the term ???? "kinsmen” (Ps. it often in evangelical church bymns [e.g., in xxxviii. 12 [11]). In like manner we find as the following from Watts:

parallel to the o'y?', i. e., “knowers, conf“Then let my soul march boldly on, Press forward to the heavenly gate,

dants,” in ver. 13 b, the Dyna?, i. e., those famiThere peace and joy eternal reign,

liarly known, intimate friends, in ver. 14 b (comp. And glittering robes for conquerors wait. There shall I wear a starry crown,

in regard to it Ps. xxxi. 12 [11]; lxxxviii. 9 [8]. And triumph in Almighty grace,

As synonyms in the wider sense there appear in While all the armies of the skies

the sequel na, “house-associates, or soJoin in my glorious Leader's praise ").*

journers” in ver. 15 (Vulg., inquilini domus meæe) Ver. 10. Be breaks me down on every and finally 710-n? (ver. 19), those who belong side: like a building doomed to destruction, for

to the circle of closest intimacy, bosom-friends, such is the representation here given of Job's (comp. ch. xxix. 4; Ps. lv. 15 (14]), so that the outward man together with his state of prog- notion of friendship is here presented in six difperity; comp. ch. xvi. 14; (so that I pass ferent phases and gradations, comp. on ch. xviii. away), and uproots. like a tree, my hope : 8-10.—As for the rest 171. HN ver. 13 b is lit., i. e., he takes entirely away from me the prospect of a restoration of my prosperity, leaves it

“are become only (or, nothing but] strange to no foundation or bottom, like a plant which is me," i. e., entirely and altogether strange; and uprooted, and which for that reason inevitably a57, ver. 14 a, means “ they cease,” i, e., to be withers (comp. ch. xiv. 19; xvii. 15); As to friends, they leave off, fail (comp. ch. xiv. 7), Y'D?, lit. "to tear out, to pluck up wholly out withdraw from me. of the ground," comp. ch. iv. 21, where the ob- Ver. 15. My house associates [ = "they ject spoken of is the tent-stake.

that dwell in mine house,

," E. V.), and my

maids (this doubled expression denoting all the * The above extract from Watts will supply for the English domestics, including hired servants and the like; reader the place of the extract given by our author from P. GERHARD's hymn: "Ein Lümmlein geht und trägt die Schuld." comp. above) are become strange to me

desired of him.

(properly, “count me for a stranger,” E. V.]. | logue, has already been shown in the Introd., The verb unA is governed as to gender by 88, 3. We need not therefore follow the critics the subject next preceding: comp. Gesen. 8 60; who are there refuted in deciding that the proEwald, & 339 c [Green, & 276, 1].

logue is not genuine; nor assume (with EichVer. 16. I call to my servant, and he an- horn and Olsh.) that the poel has here for once swers not.-Whether this disobedient servant forgotten himself, and lost sight of his scheme as

We are rather to supis to be viewed as the overseer, or house-stew- set forth in ch. i. 18, 19. ard, like Eliezer in the house of Abraham, Gen. pose (with Ewald, 1st Ed., Hirz., Heiligst., Habi, xxiv. (Del.), is in view of the simplicity of the Dillmann, etc.), that the reference is to grandlanguage at least doubtful. With my mouth children, the offspring left behind by the unformust I entreat him.-For the Imperf. in the tunate sons—in favor of which may be cited the sense of must, comp. ch. xv. 30; xvii. 2. 'Ding similar use of D' in a wider sense in Gen.

xxix. 5; xxxi. 28, etc.: or else (with the LXX., (comp. Ps. lxxxix. 2. [1]; cix. 30), expresses Symmachus, J. D. Michaelis, Schär., Rosenm., here not, as in ch. xvi. 5, a contrast with that Dathe, Ewald, 20 Ed.) to his children by concuwhich proceeds out of the heart, but with a mere bines (vious mažmaridov you, LXX.) a supposition wink, or any dumb intimation of what might be however with which ch. xxxi. 1 seems scarcely

to agree, however true it may be that in the paVer. 17. My breath is offensive to my triarchal age, to which our poet assigns Job, wife.-771, from 77, to be strange, to be es- rigid monogamistic views did not prevail. The tranged, expresses simply by virtue of this sig- explanation of Stuhlm., Gesen., Umbr., Schlott., nification the idea of being repugnant, repul- vel., [Noyes, Conant, Elzas, Merx] is also linsive," so that we need not derive it from a guistically possible, that '33 stands for 102 particular verb 7'1, "to be loathsome;" and D:7 assuredly signifies here the breath (stinking ?? (after ch. iii. 10), so that "902 'would

mean accordingly Job's natural brothers. This according to b), having the same meaning as

theory however is inconsistent with the circumwas in the partly parallel passage ch. vii. 15; stance that Job has already made mention above, hence not “my discontent” (Hirzel) (“my spi- ver. 13, of his brothers; and that immediately rit, as agitated, querulous" Gesen. ; " depres- following the mention of his wife, the mention sion,” Fürst) ; nor “my sexual impulse” Arnb.; of his descendants would be more suitable than nor“ my spirit” (Starke, [Carey) and ancient that of his brothers.. [To which add this from commentators); nor“my person” (Pesh., Um- Bernard, that above, in ch. iii. 10, no ambiguity breit, Iaho) [Renan]. —Jerome already cor- whatever could arise from the employment of rectly : halitum meum exhorruit uzor mea, and in 202 in the sense of “mother's womb," whereas the same sense most of the moderns (so E. V.], "here, by using it in this sense, Job would have and my ill savor to the sons of my body run such risk of having his meaning misunder

- nin!, can neither signify: “my prayers, my stood, as ?? might fairly be considered synoentreaties” (Gesen., with a reference to his nymous with zen, my loins, or 'yo, my bowGram., 91, 3-—-against which however compare els, that we find it quite impossible to believe Ewald, ở 259) (Noyes, Lee, Words., Elzas]; nor that if he had really wished to speak here of bis “my caresses (Arnh.) [Bernard, Rodw., Green, brethren, he would have applied to them such a Chrestom., and Gram. ( 139, 2–Kal Inf, of punt very ambiguous epithet.” It has also been sug(with fem. termination 51-) to be gracious]; gested as a relief of the difficulty that children nor“my lamentations, my groanings” (Hirzel, had been born to Job in the interval between the Vaih.) [Fürst]; nor yet finally—" and I pray to first series of calamities, and the infliction of the the sons of my body” (LXX., Vulg., Luth., etc.) disease, but such a conjecture is too precarious.

Others regard the expression as general. So [E. V., with different construction of the I

Wordsworth: “ He is speaking of the greatest though I entreated for the children's sake of wretchedness in general terms"]. my own body”]; for all these constructions are Ver. 18. Even youngsters act contempalike opposed to the language and to the con

The word is rather (with Schär., Rosen., tuously towards me.—D??!!y, plur. of surg; Ew., Habn, Schlott., Del., Dillm.), to be derived puer (root say, comp. ch. xxi. 11) are little chilfrom the root jin, “to stink,” which does not dren, such namely as are rude and impudent appear elsewhere indeed in Heb., but which is mockers, like those children of Bethel, 2 Kings quite common in Arab. and Syr., and is to be ii. 23 seq., which may be expressed by the word construed either as first pers. sing. Perf. Kal“ youngsters" [Germ. Buben: Bernard("* and I smell offensively to the song of my “ wicked-little-children ”], here as also above in body”), or, which is better suited to the paral- ch. xvi. 11.-It will also guard in particular lelism, as Infinitive substantive, 777; in a being against the mistake of supposing that Job's still the predicate. This stench suggests in par- grandchildren are intended by these dikowy, ticular the fetid matter which issues from the (Hahn).-If I rise up (conditional clause, as in festering and partially rotting limbs of the vic- ch. xi. 17 [not as E. V., “I arose "]), they tim of elephantiasis. Comp. on ch. ii. 7 ; vii. speak about me, make me the butt of jeering 14.- That by “ the song of my body” (????) talk (???, as in Ps. 1. 20; Numb. xii. 1; we are not of necessity to understand the legiti- xxi. 5). mate soos of Job, and hence that there is no con- Ver. 19. My bosom friends abhor me :tradiction between this passage and the pro-|(comp. above on ver. 13 seq.), and those whom


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