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for wrath, i. e. something to be dreaded, are prevails more and more, until at last it remains the punishments of the sword,” for nisly can supreme and alone." Ewald.] scarcely be taken in the sense of punishments, chastisements; even in Ps. xxxi. 11; xxxviii.

DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL. 5 : Lam. iv. 6. ny signifies not so much pun-' 1. The history of the interpretation of vers. ishment, as rather evil-doing, sin together with

25-27, the passage of greatest theological imporits mischievous consequences. The above inter

tance in this chapter, exhibits three principal pretation is not, it is true, altogether satisfac

views of the meaning. Of these the two oldest tory; nevertheless, if we should attempt to

rest on the texts of the ancient versions, and amend the passage, it would be better to intro

particularly of the LXX. and Vulg., which are

more or less erroneous, and yield results which duce a before nijiy, than either to change are one-sided and partially perverted. It is

on to 1977 (Gesenius: “ for such, i. e. such only the latest of these which, resting on the transgressions as yours, are crimes of the sword)

original text, avoids these one-sided results, and or to introduce the constr. state na

sets forth the poet's thought with unprejudiced

petore obiectivity nijiy, which is the construction given by the a. A rigidly orthodox, or if the phrase be prePesh, and Vulg., the latter of which reads : ferred, an ultra-orthodox (ultra-eschatological) quoniam ultor iniquitatum gladius est. A difficulty view, which can be traced back into the earliest is also presented in the word '70 (K'thibh) or

periods of the church, assumes that the passage

predicts a resuscitation of the body by Christ on the j970 (K'ri) at the end of the last member, occa

last day. This assumption rests on the rendersioned by the fact that W=0X does not else-ing of ver. 25 6, and ver. 26 a by the LXX.. where occur in the Book of Job, as also by the partly indeed also on the Targum, but more fact that the rendering of the LXX.-TOŪ ŠOTIV especially on the rendering of the passage in the autāv ij 02.n (or according to the Cod. Alex. Öte Vulgate-a rendering which flows out of the oúdauoù avrov of io rús éotiv) probably points to older version, and which pushes still further its anotber text in the original. The above ren- misinterpretation. The LXX. presents a verdering, however: “that ye may know that there sion of the words which for the most part indeed is a judgment," is in general accord with the is opposed, rather than otherwise, to the eschacontext, and corresponds well to the meaning tological view, which limits Job's expectations of these closing verses. It is not necessary with to the present earthly life, which in fact almost Heiligst., Dillmann, Ewald (2d Ed.), to read wholly precludes the reference to the future. '70: “that ye may know the Almighty;" nor But the words beginning with Dip', ver. 25 6, (which is moreover linguistically inadmissible) (instead of which it read D'P), and ending with to regard 170 as a variation of '90 (Eichhorn, | ngi, ver. 26 a, which it combines together so as Hahn, Ewald, 1st Ed.), which would yield the

to form one sentence, it renders thus: ávaoti, OEL same meaning. 1997 has everywhere else the jov Obua avaut how pol tavra (Cod. Alex.: signification judicium, e. g. by Elihu, ch. xxxvi. I

. | αναστήσαι μου το δέρμα μου το αναντλούν ταύτα). 17; and also often in the Book of Proverbs, e.g.!

According to this rendering a future resuscitach. xx. 8 (comp. in the Arabizing supplement,

tion after death of the sorely afflicted body of Job

is as distinctly as possible expressed. The Tarch. xxxi. 8). The final judgment is in Aramaic | XIT NI'?; the last day in Heb. and Arabic,

gumist expresses essentially the same meaning:

I know that my Redeemer lives," and here19707 Di', jaum ed-din. To give to 190, “that after my redemption will arise (i. e. be made, (there is) a judgment," this dogmatically defi-actual, become a reality) over the dust, and nite meaning, is indeed, from its connection after that my skin is again made whole (or with the historical recognition of the plan of -according to another reading—“is swollen redemption, inadmissible; but there is nothing up") this will happen, and out of my flesh shall against understanding the conclusion of Job's I behold God. On the basis of these interpretaspeech according to the conclusion of the Book tions, which were rooted in the hopes of a resurof Ecclesiastes, which belongs to the same age rection cherished by the Jews after the exile, and of literature." Delitzsch.)

especially on the basis of the former [that of the [• Thus does this lofty tragical discourse LXX.], Clemens Romanus (1 Cor. 26), Origen combine in itself the deepest humiliation and (Comm. in Matth. xxii. 23 seq.), Cyril of Jerussdepression with the highest Divine elevation, lem (Catech. XVIII.), Ephraem, Epiphanius the most utter despair with the most animated (Orat. Ancorat), and other fathers before Jeoverflowing hope and the most blissful certainty. rome, found in the passages a proof of the Not only does it occupy the lofty centre of the church doctrine of the aváoraous TİS Capkós. Still human controversy and of the whole action, but more definitely and completely did the passage it also causes the first real and decisive revolu- acquire the character of a Scriptural proof of tion in Job's favor, because in it Job's two ruling this doctrine from Jerome, as the author of the thoughts and tendencies, the unbelief springing authorized Latin translation, which was adopted from superstition, and the higher genuine faith by the Western Church during the Middle Ages, just forming itself come into such sharp and as well as by the Catholic Church of recent happy contact that the latter rushes forth out times. While the predecessor of his work, the of its insignificance with irresistible might, and Itala, had somewhat indefinitely expressed a although the discord is not as yet harmonized, meaning approximating that of the LXX. (“stfrom this time on it maintains itself, gradually per terram resurget cutis mea," e'c.), the Vulgate

set aside the last remnant of a possibility that and quite recently the Catholic Welte, think that the passage should be understood of a restitution notwithstanding the various amendments which or a restoration of Job in this life. This it did following the original text they make to the verby introducing into the text of vers. 25 and 26 sion of the Vulg., or in a measure to that of Luthree inaccuracies of the most glaring sort. For ther, the passage must still be held to teach, at DIP: (or D'P) it substituted without more ado least in general, the Church doctrine of the reDIDX, surreciurus sum ; panx it rendered, in no-surrection, in that they favor the inadmissible vissimo die! and rendering 19p! as Niphal of rendering of 71-885! as = neque ego alius (“and

p = p, “to surround, to circle,” it gave to truly I not as another, I as unchanged"), or unit no less arbitrarily the meaning of circumdabor,

derstand “the appearing of the Redeemer on tbe 80 that the whole passage is made to read thus:

dust” as having for its object the quickening of ver. 25: “scio enim, quod redemptor meus vivit et in

the dead, and hence as referring to the Second novissimo die de terra surrecturus sum; ver. 26: et Advent of Christ, or find denoted in 'the rursum circumdabor pelle mea et in carne mea videbo glorified flesh of the resurrection body, or adopt Deum meum; ver. 27: quem visurus sum ego ipse other explanations of a like character (against et oculi mei conspecturi sunt et non alius ; reposita which see above in the Exegetical and Critical est hæc spes mea in sinu meo.—This interpreta- Remarks). tion, which was emphatically approved and re-l 6. A one-sided anti-eschatological view which commended by Augustine (De Civ. Dei XXII., limits the object of Job's hope and longing wholly 29), held its ground through the Middle Ages to this life, which may also be called the skeptical aniong all Christian expositors, and all the more or hypercritical rationalistic view has for its prenecessarily that a revision of the same after the cursors in the Ancient Church Chrysostom, John Hebrew could not be undertaken by any one of of Damascus, and other fathers of the Oriental them. Neither does Luther's translation—“But Church. By an allegorizing interpretation of I know that my Redeemer liveth, and He will the language of the Lxx. åvaothoel pou to hereafter raise (or quicken] me out of the earth, and ovua avavrhoūv pol taūra, these writers refine I shall thereupon be surrounded with this my skin, away the eschatological meaning which undoubtand shall see God in my flesh-break through edly belongs to the passage as pointing to the the spell of this doctrinally prejudiced interpre- hereafter, and refer it to the removal of his tation; and just as little as Luther do the dis- disease which Job hoped for, and the rehabilitinguished Reformed translators of the Bible, e. tation of his disfigured body; and they saw 9., Leo Juda, Joh. Piscator, the authors of the that the phraseology of the Septuagint in the Eoglish Version, etc., exbibit any substantial de remaining verses of tbe passage favored this parture from the meaning or phraseology of the interpretation. Most of the Jewish Exegetes Vulgate. Thus the rendering under considera- during the Middle Ages adhered to their view tion succeeded in acquiring the most important so far as the principle was concerned, the prininfluence even in the evangelical theological tra- ciple, to wit, of excluding from the passage any dition. It came to be cited in Church symbols messianic and eschatological application while (e. g., Form. Conc. Epit., p. 375 R.) [Westmin. in respect to many of the details they hit upon ster Conf. of Faith XXXII. 2], catechisms and novel expedients, which were in part of a most doctrinal manuals as a cardinal proof-text for wonderful and arbitrary character. The more the doctrine of the resurrection of the body, and freely inclined theologians of the Reformed occasionally even for the divinity of Christ (on Churches also, such as Mercier, Grotius, Le account of the ning of ver. 26). It became a Clerc, substantially adopted this view. After leading theme of sacred poets (e. g., of Louisa

the time of Eichhorn (Allg. Biblioth der Bibl. Henrietta v. Brandenburg, who wrote “Jesus,

Literatur I. 3, 1787) it acquired even & tempomeine Zuversicht" [Jesus, my Trust), of P.

rary ascendency over the opposite opinions, and Gerhard, the author of “ Ich weiss dass mein

that not only with commentators of rationalistic Erlöser lebt" [of Charles Wesley: “I know

tendencies, such as Justi, v. Cölln, Knobel, Hirthat my Redeemer lives"]), and in general it

zel, Stickel, etc., but even with supra-naturalists, has received the most manifold application alike

such as Dathe, Döderlein, Baumgarten-Crusius, in the domain of speculative theology, and in

Knapp, Augusti, Umbreit, and even with Haha, that of practical and ascetio piety. Even such

strictly orthodox as he is elsewhere (De spe imthorough exegetes as Cocceius, Seb. Schmidt,

mortalitatis sub V. T. gradatim exculta, 1845, and Starke, while in subordinate details occasionally

his Comm. on the passage), with v. Hofmann departing from the traditional ecclesiastical ver

(concerning whose peculiar rendering of 19P?? sion, advocate strenuously the direct christolo- see above on ver. 26), with the English theological and eschatological reference of the passage | gians Wemyss, Stuart, Barnes Warburton, (comp. also Jablonsky, De Redemptore stante su- Divine Legation, Book

Divine Legation, Book VI., Sec. 2; Patrick, per pulverem, Francöf. ad V. 1772: Gude and | Kennicott, Noyes, Rodwell; to whom may be Rambach: De Jobo Christi incarnationis vate,

added Elzas and Bernard), and others. Almost Halæ 1730, etc.). A number even of able Ori

all the advocates of this view agree in holding entalists, and independent Hebrew scholars since

wbo interpret the passage of Christ and the final resurrec. the last century, such as Schultens, J. H. and J. tion, may be ment oned Owen, Vol. XII., Stand, Lib. of Brit. D. Michaelis, Velthusen, Rosenmüller. Rosen

Divines, p. 608 seq.; Bp. Andrews' Sermons, Vol II., p. 251 garten, the English writers Mason, Good, Hales,

seg. in Lib. of Ang.-Cath. Theol.; Bp. Sherlock, Works 1830,

Vol. II, p. 167 seq.; John Newton, Works, Vol. IV., p. 435 J. Pye Smith (Scott, Lee, Carey, Wordsworth],* | seq.; Bp. Pearson on the Creed, Art. XI.; Dr. W. H. Mill,

Lent Sermone, Cambridge, 1845; Dr. W. L. Alexander, Con* [Among other prominent English theological writers noc. and Harm, of V. and N. Tosts., p. 153 seq.-E.)

that in ver. 25 seq. Job, having just before | are by no means wanting in preparatory intimaexpressed the wish that he might see his pro- tions of a clear and well-defined hope in future testation of innocence perpetuated, utters his retribution and a blessed immortality: see especonviction that such a perpetuation for posterity cially ch. xiv. 18–15, and ch. xvi. 18-21. would not be necessary, that he himself would c. Nor finally can the fact that neither by yet live to see the restoration of his honor and Job's friends, nor in the historical issue of the of his health, and that even though he should colloquy in the Epilogue is there any direct waste away to a most pitiful skeleton, he would reference made to this expression of Job's hope be made to rejoice by the appearance of God to of immortality, be urged against our interprebenefit him and none others.

tation; for “it is a general characteristic of all 6. An intermediate view, or one exhibiting a the discourses of the friends, that they-spellmoderate eschatology, which resting on the most bound as they are within the circle of their exact philological and impartial treatment of external, legal views—scarcely enter at all in the original text, avoids the one-sided conclu- detail upon the contents of Job's discourses; sions of the two older interpretations, has been and in ch. xxxviii. seq. God does not undertake advanced and defended by Ewald (Die Dichter the task of a critic, who passes judgment, one des Alten Bundes, 1st Ed., Vol. III., 1836), and by one, on all the propositions of the contending substantially adopted by Vaihinger, Schlottman, parties. That the poet, however, should have v. Gerlach, Hupfeld (Deutsche Zeitschrift, 1850, framed for the drama a different issue from that No. 35 seq.), Oehler (Grundzüge der alt-tesla- which it has, is not to be desired, for the theme mentlichen Weisheit, 1854), König (Die Unster- of the poem is not the question touching the blichkeitsidee im B. Job, 1855, Hoelemann (Sächs. immortality of inan's spirit, but the question: Kirchen , und Schulbl. 1853, No. 48 seq.), Del. how is the suffering of the righteous to be har(Art. Job in Herzog's Real-Encycl., and in his monized with the Divine justice” (Dillmann)? Commentary), Dillmann, Davidson (Introduction Such a change of the issue, moreover, would be II. 224 seq.) [Conant, Canon Cook in Smith's undesirable for the reason that the very contrast Bib. Dict. Art. “Job;" MacClintock & Strong's between the deliverance and exaltation which Job Cyclop. Art. "Job"], and even by the Jewish here hopes for as something which lies after death, expositors Arnheim and Löwenthal. According and the favor which God visits upon him even in to the unanimous opinion of these investigators, this life, a favor infinitely surpassing all that he Job here expresses the hope, not indeed of a hopes and waits for, prays for or understandsthis bodily resuscitation from death, but neverthe is one of the most striking beauties of the poem, con. less of a future beholding of God in a spiritual stitutes indeed the real focus of its splendor and its glorified state. It is not the hope of a resurrec crowning close (comp. v. Gerlach in the Homiletion; it is, however, the hope of immortality, to tical Remarks on ver. 25 seq.). Such a sudden which he is here lifted up, and that too with unexpected blazing up of the bright light of the great clearness and the most vivid definiteness, hope of immortality, without frequent references above the ordinary popular conception of the to it afterwards, and without other preparations ancient Israelites, as it has been previously or antecedent steps leading to it than a wish (in declared even by himself,

ch. xiv. 13 seq.), and a demand of similar mean2. We have, in our Exegetical Remarks above, ing (ch. xvi. 18 seq.)—corresponds perfectly to expressed our concurrence in this modified the style of our poet, who, having assigned his eschatological or futuristic exposition of the hero to the patriarchal age, does not escribe to passage, because, on the one side, the unmodi- him his own settled certainty of faith, reprefied doctrinal orthodox rendering presents too senting him as possessing such a certainty in many linguistic errors and arbitrary construc- the same clear, complete measure as himself; tions to have any scientific value whatever he aims rather to represent him as striving after attached to it, and because on the other side the such a possession. To this it may be added that view which excludes every reference to the Hirzel's view, which places the object of the hereafter can be established only by allegori- sufferer's hope altogether in this life is contracally or rationalistically refining away the dicted by the fact that Job in what he has obvious phraseology of the passage. The latter already said has repeatedly described his end interpretation, which Hirzel in particular has as near, his strength as completely broken, his attempted to support with great argumentative disease as wholly incurable, his hope of an acuteness, cannot be successfully maintained. earthly restoration of his prosperity as having

a. The connection with vers. 23, 21 cannot altogether disappeared (ch. vi. 8-14; vii. 6; xiii. be urged in its favor, for Job by no means 13-15; xiv. 17-22; xvii. 11-16). With such contradicts the wish here expressed that extreme hopelessness, how would it be possible the protestation of his innocence might to reconcile the expression in ver. 25 seq. of the be preserved for posterity, when in ver. 25 seq. very opposite, as is assumed to be the case by he declares the assurance of his triumphant the interpretation which refers that passage to justification by God hereafter; rather in pro- this life? And why again hereafter, in ch. XXX. claiming this assurance he but takes a new step 23, does the gloomy outlook of a near and cerupward in the inspired conviction that God will tain death find renewed expression in a way at last interpose as the Avenger of his inno- which cuts off all possibility of cherishing eny oence.

hopes in regard to this life (see on the passage)? b. Job's former hopelessness, as he contem- Wherefore such an ungeemly wavering between plates the mournful lot of him who goes down the solemnly emphasized certainty of the hope into Sheol, cannot be used as an argument in in an appearance of Eloah, and the not less favor of that view; for Job's former discourses emphatic expression of the certainty that he

hay

has no hope in such an appearance? What to the future state. Its relation to the perfected would the artistic plan of the poem in general eschatology of those prophets of the exile, as gain by allowing the hero in the middle of it to well as to the post-exilic literature of the Apopredict the final issue, but afterwards to assume, crypha (for example the II. Book of Maccabees) even as he had already done before, that the is like that " of the protevangelium to the per exact opposite of this is the only possible issue? fected soteriology of revelation; it presents only

3. Seeing then that every consideration favors the first lines of the picture, which is worked up most decidedly the view which interprets the in detail later on, but also an ouiline, sketched passage in accordance with a moderate escha- in such a way that all the knowledge of later tology, the question still remains: whether that times may be added to it(Delitzsch)-as from beholding of God after this earthly life, which Job of old the Church has been doing, and still is bere anticipates as taking place concurrently doing, in her epitaphs, hymns, liturgies, and with the vindication of his honor and his redemp- musical compositions, and this too with some detion, is conceived of by him as something that is to be gree of right, although largely in violation of the Tealized in the sphere of abstract spirituality, or law of exegetical sobriety. whether his conception of it is more concrete, real- 'The following additional considerations, sug. istic, in analogy with the relations of this earthly gested by the passage, and the context, may be life 2 In other words, the question is: whether urged in favor of the view here advocated. (1) his idea of immortality is abstractly spiritualistic, Job, as the context shows, is, while uttering this or one which up to a certain point approximates the sublime prediction, painfully conscious of what New Testament doctrine of a resurrection? We he is suffering in the body. Note the whole pas

e already declared above (on ver. 27 ) in sage, vers. 18-20, where the estrangement of his favor of the latter opinion; because (1) The most intimate friends and kindred is associated mention of the eyes with which he expects to with the loathsome condition into which his dissee God admits only of that pneumatico-realistic ease has brought him. Note again how in the meaning, under the influence of which the Old heart of the prophecy itself (ver. 26), he is still Testament speaks even of eyes, ears, and other unable to repress the utterance of this same painbodily organs as belonging to God, and in gene- ful consciousness of his bodily condition. If ral furnishes solid supports to the proposition now he anticipates here a Divine Intervention of Oetinger touching corporeity as the “end of which is to vindicate him, is it not natural that the ways of God.” To this it may be added that he should include in that vindication, albeit (2) the absolute incorporealness of Job's condition vaguely and remotely, some compensation for after death is in no wise expressed by the phrase the physical wrong he was suffering? If God '903?, notwithstanding the privative mean- would appear to recompense the indignity to his ing which in any case belongs to 12, that this good name, would He not appear at the same expression merely indicates the object of Job's

time to recompense the indignity from which bis

body had so grievously suffered? In a word, hope to be a release from his present miserable

would not the same experience which here blosbody of flesh, and that accordingly what Job here

soms so gloriously into the prophetic assurance anticipates is (gradually accomplished to be sure,

of a justification of his spiritual integrity, bear but not specifically different from that which

at least the bud of a resurrection-hope for the the Apostle calls riu amourpwolv TOū obuaroc

s body, although the latter would be, ex necessitate nuov (Rom. viii. 23; comp. ch. vii. 25), or what

rei, less perfectly developed than the former ? on another occasion he expresses in more nega

Surely the Day of Restitution, which he knows tive form by the proposition: ότι σάρξ και αίμα : βασιλείαν Θεού κληρονομήσαι ου δύνανται ουδε ή

is to come, wit bring with it some compensation

for this grievous bodily ill, the dark shadow of uopà thu áov apoiav winpovouet (1 Cor. xv. 50).

which fits across even this bright vision of faith! -Still further (8) the concluding verse of ch. xiv. shows that Job conceives even of man's con

This presumption is still further heightened

when we note that he himself, with his own eyes, dition in Sheol as by no means one of abstract incorporeality, but rather invests this gloomy

| is to witness that restitution. and mournful stage of his existence after death (2). The phrase 9-9 is not without sigwith two factors of being (10) and ND)), con- nificance. It certainly means something more ceiving of them as existing in conjunction, and specific than “ on the earth." The Goel is to as standing in some kind of a relation to each stand“ on dust” (or “on the dust”-article other (see above on the passage). Finally (4): poetically omitted), the place where lies the dust The perfected realistic hopes of a resurrection, I of the body gathered to the dust of the earth. found in the later Old Testament literature from This is the only exegesis of Dy that is either the time of Ezekiel and Daniel on, would be ab- etymologically admissible, or suited to the consolutely inconceivable, they would be found text. The Vindication is thus brought into local drifting in the air without attachment or sup-connection with the grave. And this can mean port, they would be without all historical prece- only one thing. It shows at least that Job could dent, if in the passage before us the hope of im- not conceive of this future restitution as taking mortality be understood in the light of an abstract place away and apart from his dust. His body, spirituality. What Job says here is certainly his physical self, was in some way-he has no nothing more than a germ of the more complete conception how to be interested in it. resurrection creed of a later time, but it must 19 indubitably be regarded as such a germ, as such

(3). The expression na! is no objection to a seminal anticipation of that which the Israel this view, even with the privative sense which of a later period believed and expected in respect our Commy. (and correctly I think) attaches to 12. It does not mean,-it is doubtful, as Zöck- | First,” of which, though the singer understands ler remarks, whether for a Hebrew it could mean, I it not, he is yet triumphantly assured, may be -an abstract unqualified spirituality. At alichanted by the Christian believer with no less events the connection shows that here, as often confidence, and with a truer and more precious elsewhere in Job (comp. ch. vii. 15; xiv. 22; (rea h ii 15.' v. 29: realization of what it means.

(4) The interpretation which refers the vindi. xxxiiii. 21, etc.), va is used specifically of them

cation of Job to this life is sufficiently refuted body as the seat of suffering and corruption, the

me above. The argument, urged by Zöckler as by TÒ QNapròv toūto of Paul. Twice indeed in this

Sothers, that such an anticipation of a vindication immediate connection it is used in this sense, to

Lo before death is inconsistent with Job's frequent wit, in ver. 19, and ver. 22 (figuratively, how

ow declarations that he bad no hope, and that he was ever). Observe particularly that in ver. 19, as

near his grave, is perhaps fairly enough an. in ver. 26 the “flesh” is associated with the

swered by Noyes: “As if a person, who is repre“gkin ” in describing his emaciated condition. When therefore he describes his physical condi

• sented as agitated by the most violent and oppo

site emotions, could be expected to be consistent tion at the time of his ultimate restitution first

in his sentiments and language. What can be by the clause " after my skin, which shall have

more natural than that Job, in a state of extreme been destroyed-even this !” and then by the clause, “and without my flesh," what he means

depression, arising from the thought of his

wrongs, the severity of his afflictions, and the evidently is, when skin and flesh are both no 1,

10 natural tendency of his disease, should express more, when the destruction, the decay, begun himself in the language of despair. and yet that by disease, and to be continued in the grave, bas

he should be animated soon after by conscious finished its course; then would he behold God. -"After my skin ”-and“ without my flesh ”

| innocence and the thought of God's justice, good

ness and power, to break forth into the language are thus parallelistio equivalents, of which still

of hope and confidence?” Job's utterances are another equivalent is found in “dust,” the last

in fact marked by striking inconsistencies, as result of bodily decay: -These elements of the lhe is swayed by this feeling or by that. The passage thus fix the place and the time of the to

following considerations are, however, decisive coming restitution; the place—the grave, the

against this view. time—the remote future, when his body should

a. It furnishes a far less adequate explanation be dust.

of the remarkable elevation and ardor of feeling It seems clear therefore that the passage can

; which Job here exhibits than the other view, not be regarded on the one hand as a distinct

which refers it to the hereafter. formal enunciation of a literal resurrection, for

16. However well it may harmonize with some the last view which he gives us of his body is as le

Sl of the expressions used, there are others with that which is no more, as dust. Just as little on which the other hand is it a mere vindication of his

in which it is altogether irreconcilable. This is memory, a declaration of the integrity of his especially true of Dipi ngy-hy and the prepocause, an abstract spiritual beholding of God, sition in '90an. It may also be said that 10x for he is conscious of physical suffering-heanticipates a complete restitution-one therefore

—which is best explained as a preposition bewhich will bring some reparation of the wrong tore 71-implies & state wherein the skin 5 which he has suffered in the body, the grave ceased to be, in like manner as i before 103. where his dust lies is to be the scene of his vin-| Both these prepositions carry us forward to an dication, and he, the 'IX now speaking, the per- indefinitely remote period after death, and are sonal I contrasted with is a stranger,” as com- thus inconsistent with the idea of a physical replete realistio a personality, therefore, as any | storation before death. It is especially incon. then living,-he is to be there, seeing with hisceivable that the poet should have used by-yo owo eyes, and exuiting in the sight. This neces. to describe the place where the God should apsarily implies a rehabilitation of the man, as well

llation of the man, as well pear, if the appearance was to be before death, as of his cause, a rehabilitation after death, as the when it is remembered how invariably elseterms and internal scope of the passage prove, as where, when mentioned in connection with Job, well as the external plan and scope of the book; ) it is associated with the grave. Comp. chap. and if not a resurrection, it at least carries us al vii. 21: viii. 19: 1. 9: xrii, 16; XX. 11; ii. long way forward in the direction of that truth. 26: sziv. 15.* It is, as Delitzsch says above, an outline of that

Lc. It would be, as Zöckler well argues, & sedoctrine which needs but a few touches to com

rious artistic fault, were Job at this point to be plete the representation. Indeed it may be said that if the passage had contained one additional

introduced predicting the actual historical so

|lution of the drama in language so definite, and thought, more definitely linking the dust of Job's body with that future 'jx, that vaguely foresha

this while the evolution of the drama is still godowed organism with the eyes of which he was

|ing on, and the logical entanglement is at its

height. According to the eschatological theory, to see God, the enunciation of a resurrection

the passage before us is a momentary gleam of would be almost complete. But that thought is wanting. It is not in the Book of Job. That

brightness from the Life Beyond, which lights which is given, however, points to the resurrec

up with preternatural beauty the lurid centre

of the dark drama before us, which, however tion; and the pæan of the Old Testament saint, this old “gong of the night," breathing forth "

forth it may modify the development which fol. faith's yearning towards the “glorious appear

Ppears! Even in chap. xli. 25 [33] it suggests, as Umbreit correctly ing" of Him who is “The Last" as He is "The observes, earth as a transitory state of activity for leviachan

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