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lows, leaves it essentially unchanged, moving on the whole discourse closes (vers. 28, 29), will fail towards its historic consummation, according to of being set forth in the proper light and in their the plan which our poet has so grandly conceived organic connection. It is fitting accordingly to and so steadfastly pursued thus far. The light show that it is one who feels himself to be forwhich here breaks through the clouds is from a saken by God and men, to be cast out by this source much further than the setting of Job's world, and even by all that he held dearest in earthly day. It is a light even which sends for- it, who here suddenly leaps up to that hope out ward its reflection to the final earthly consum- of the most painful agitation and the profoundest mation, and which rests on the latter as an in-depression of spirit, being supported in this effable halo, giving to the radiant eve of the pa- Aight by the train of thought developed in vers. triarch's life a sacred beauty such as without 21-24:-that when his contemporaries refuse to this passage could not have belonged to it. If, hear his appeals for compassion, and when the on the other hand, it were an anticipation of acknowledgment of bis innocence, which he has Job's earthly restoration, it would be a sudden, reason to expect from posterity, presents itself violent, inexplicable thrusting of the solution as something which he can by no possibility live into the heart of the conflict, leaving the conflict to see for himself, God, the Everlasting One, who nevertheless to struggle on as before, and the is above all time, still remains to him as his only solution itself to be swallowed up and forgotten, consolation, although, indeed, a consolation all until it reappears at the close, having lost, how- the more sure and powerful. Not less is it to be ever, through this premature suggestion of it, shown how Job, feeling himself to be, as it were, the majesty which attends its unexpected coming. sanctified and lifted high above this lower It is true that the poet, with that rare irony earthly sphere by the thought of this God and which he knows so well how to use, introduces the joy of future union with Him, which he waits the friends as from time to time unconsciously for with such longing, immediately after the utterprophesying Job's restoration. But those inci- ance of bis hope turns all the more sharply against dental and indirect anticipations have a very the friends, in order that-being filled as yet by the different signification from what this solemn, thought of God's agency in judicial retribution, lofty, direct, and confident utterance from the through which he hopes one day to be justified hero himself would have, if it were referred to-he may warn them still more urgently than the issue of the poem.

before against becoming, through their continued (5) Per contra—the view advocated in the harshness and injustice towards himself, the Commentary and in these Remarks has in its objects of God's retributive interposition, and favor the following considerations:

of His eternal wrath. Essentially thus, only a. It furnishes by far the most satisfactory more briefly and comprehensively, does v. Gerexplanation of the more difficult expressions of lach give the course of thought in the entire the text. See above.

discourse: “The pronounced sharpness, visible b. It is most in harmony with the represerta- in the speeches of the friends, intensifies also in tions of the future found elsewhere in the book, Job the strong and gloomy descriptions which especially chap. xiv. 13-15, of which this passage he gives of his sufferings. But the wonderful is at once the glorious counterpart and comple- notable antithesis which he presents—God Himment;—that being a prophetic yearning for the self against God !—God in His dealings with recovery of his departed personality from the him showing His anger, and inflicting punishgloom of Sheol, a recovery which is to be a ment, but at the same time irresistibly revealing change into a new life, even as this is a prophetic Himself to the inmost consciousness of faith as pæan of a Divine interposition which is not only all-gracious, bringing deliverance and blessedto vindicate his cause, but also to realize his re- ness—this gives to the sufferer the clear light stored personality as a witness of the scene. of a knowledge in which all his former faint

c. It is most in harmony with the doctrinal yearnings shape themselves into fixed certainty. development of the Old Testament. It carries God appears to bim as the holy and merciful us beyond the abstract idea of a disembodied im- manager of his cause, and even, after a painful mortality to an intermediate realistic conception end, as the Giver of a blessed eternal life. of the resuscitation of the whole personality, a To the friends, however, he declares finally with conception which is an indispensable stepping- sharp words, that although their legal security stone to the distinct recognition of the truth of and rigor has already made them sure of victory, the resurrection. The development of the doc- God's interposition in judgment will so much trine would be incomplete, if not unintelligible, the more completely put them to shame. without the Book of Job, thus understood.-E.]

Particular Passages.
Ver. 6 seq. BRENTIUS: When conscience con-

fronts the judgment, when it cries out to God in In the treatment of this chapter for practical trouble, and its prayer is not answered, it edification, the passage in vers. 25-27 will of accuses God of injustice. . . . But the thoughts course be the centre and the goal of our medi- of a heart forsaken by the Lord are in this pastations. It must not, however, be separated sage most beautifully described; for what else from its surroundings in such a way that on the can it think, when all aid is withdrawn, than one side the preparation and immediate occasion that God is unjust, if, after first taking sin away, for the upsoaring of his soul in yearning and He nevertheless pays the wages of sin, even hope to God, to be found in the sorrowful plaint death? and if again, after promising that He of pers. 6-20, and on the other side the stern will be nigh to those who are in trouble, He and earnest warning to the friends, with which seems not only not to be affected, but even to be


delighted by our calamities? When the flames substance of things hoped for, etc. (Heb. xi. 1). of hell thus rage around us, we must look to For in Job nothing is less apparent than life Christ alone, who was made in all things like to and the resurrection; rather is it hell that is His brethren, and was tempted that He might perceived. “Nevertheless," he says, “I know be able to succor those who are tempted.- that my Redeemer liveth, however He may now ZEYss: There is no trial more grievous than seem to sleep and to be angry; nevertheless I when in affliction and suffering it seems as know and by faith I behold beneath this wrath though God had become our enemy, has no com- great favor, beneath this condemner a redeemer. passion upon us, and will neither hear nor help. You will observe in this place how despair and -Idem (on ver. 13 seq.): To be forsaken and hope succeed each other by turns in the godly." despised by one's own kindred and household -STARKE (after Zeyss and Joach. Lange): As companions is hard. But herein the children surely as that Christ, our Redeemer, is risen of God must become like their Saviour, who in from death by His power, and is entered into His suffering was forsaken by all men, even by His glory, so surely will all who believe in Him His dearest disciples and nearest relations: thus rise again to eternal life by His divine power. will they learn to build on no man, but only on The Messiah is in such wise the Living the living God, who is ever true_EGARD: One, yea more, the Life itself (John xiv. 6; xi. Friends do not (usually) adhere in trial and 25), in that he proves Himself to be the Living need; with prosperity they take their departure, One, by making us alire. ... This is the best forgetful of their love and troth. Men are liars; comfort in the extremity of death, that as Christ they are inconstant as the wind, which passes rose again from the dead, therefore we shall away. But because trial and need come from arise with him (Rom. viii. 11; 1 Cor. xv.).God, the withdrawal of friends is Ascribed to V. Gerlach: It is remarkable in this passage God, for had He not caused the trial to come, that Job, after indulging in those most gloomy the friends would have remained.

descriptions of the realm of the dead, which run Ver. 23 seq. WOHLFARTH: The wish of the bere soar

up to such a joyous hope touching bis

through his discourses from ch. iii. on, should pious sufferer that his history might be pre- destiny after death. Precisely this, however, served for posterity, was fulfilled. In hundreds constitutes the very kernel of the history that of languages the truth is now proclaimed to all through his fellowship with God Job's sufferings the people of the earth-that even the godly become the means, first, of overcoming in himman is not free from suffering, but in the consciousness of his innocence, and in faith in God, self that legal stand-point, with which that Providence and Immortality, he finds consola- gloomy, cheerless outlook was most closely tion which will not permit him to sink, and his united, and thereby of gaining the victory over patient waiting for the glorious issue of God's Moreover, we must not be led astray by the fact

the friends with their legalistic tendencies.dark dispensations, is crowned without fail.

that in the end Job's victory is set even for this Ver. 25 seq. OECOLAMPADIUS: These are the life, and that he receives an earthly compensawords of Job's faith, nay, of that of the Church tion for his losses. The meaning of this turn Universal, which desires that they may be trans- of events is that God gives to His servant, who mitted to all ages: “And I know,” etc.

has shown himself to be animated by such firm conWe, taking faith for our teacher, and remem-fidence in Himself, more than he could ask or think. bering what great things Job has declared before- Ver. 28 seq. SEB. SCHMIDT: Job's friends hand he is about to set forth here, understand knew that there is a judgment, and they had it of the resurrection. We believe that we shall proceeded from this principle in their discussee Christ, our Judge, in this body which we sions thus far. Job accordingly would speak now bear about, and in no other, with these of the subject here not in the abstract, but in eyes, and no others. For as Christ rose again connection with the matter under consideration: in the same body in which He suffered and was “in order that ye may know that God will buried, so we also shall rise again in the same administer judgment in respect to all iniquities body in which we now carry on our warfare.- of the sword, which you among yourselves imaBRENTIUS: A most clear confession of faith! gine to be of no consequence, and not to be From this passage it may be seen what is the feared, and that He will punish them most method of true faith, viz., in death to believe in severely.”—CRAMER: God indeed punishes much life, in hell to believe in heaven, in wrath and even in this life; but much is reserved for the judgment to believe in God the Redeemer, as last judgment. Hence he who escapes temporal the Apostle, whoever he may bave been, truly punishment here, will not for that reason escape says in writing to the Hebrews: Faith is the all divine punishment,

III. Zophar and Job: Ch. XX.-XXI.

A.-Zophar: For a time indeed the evil-doer can be prosperous ; but so much the

more terrible and irremediable will be his destruction.


1. Introduction-censuring Job with violence, and Theme of the discourse: vers. 1-5.
1 Then answered Zophar the Naamathite, and said:
2 Therefore do my thoughts cause me to answer,

and for this I make haste.
3 I have heard the check of my reproach,

and the spirit of my understanding causeth me to answer. 4 Knowest thou not this of old,

since man was placed upon earth, 5 that the triumphing of the wicked is short,

and the joy of the hypocrite but for a moment?

2. Expansion of the theme, showing from experience that the prosperity and riches of the ungodly

must end in the deepest misery: vers. 6–29. 6 Though his excellency mount up to the heavens,

and his head reach unto the clouds; 7 yet he shall perish forever, like his own dung:

they which have seen him shall say, Where is he? 8 He shall fly away as a dream, and shall not be found;

yea, he shall be chased away as a vision of the night. 9 The eye also which saw him shall see him no more;

neither shall his place any more behold him. 10 His children shall seek to please the poor,

and his hands shall restore their goods. 11 His bones are full of the sin of his youth,

which shall lie down with him in the dust. 12 Though wickedness be sweet in his mouth,

though he hide it under his tongue; 13 though he spare, and forsake it not,

but keep it still within his mouth : 14 yet his meat in his bowels is turned,

it is the gall of asps within him. 15 He hath swallowed down riches, and he shall vomit them up again:

God shall cast them out of his belly. 16 He shall suck the poison of asps;

the viper's tongue shall slay him. 17 He shall not see the rivers,

the floods, the brooks of honey and butter. 18 That which he labored for shall he restore, and shall not swallow it down :

according to his substance shall the restitution be, and he shall not rejoice therein. 19 Because he hath oppressed, and hath forsaken the poor;

because he bath violently taken away a house which he builded not; 20 Surely he shall not feel quietness in his belly,

he shall not save of that which he desired. 21 There shall none of his meat be left;

therefore shall no man look for his goods.

22 In the fulness of his sufficiency he shall be in straits ;

every hand of the wicked shall come upon him. 23 When he is about to fill his belly,

God shall cast the fury of His wrath upon him,

and shall rain it upon him while he is eating. 24 He shall flee from the iron weapon,

and the bow of steel shall strike him through. 25 It is drawn, and cometh out of the body;

yea, the glittering sword cometh out of his gall;

terrors are upon him! 26 All darkness shall be hid in his secret places ;

a fire not blown shall consume him;

it shall go ill with him that is left in his tabernacle. 27 The heaven shall reveal his iniquity;

and the earth shall rise up against him. 28 The increase of his house shall depart,

and his goods shall flow away in the day of His wrath. 29 This is the portion of a wicked man from God, and the heritage appointed unto him by God.

count he feels called upon by his thoughts to adEXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

swer, and hence his inward impulse leaves him

no rest, because he hears from Job a contemptu1. A new variation of the favorite theme of ous wounding reproof of himself.” Ewald, Hahn, the friends—the perishableness of the prosperity Wordsworth, etc., point backward to the closing of the ungodly.--The formula by which it is this menace of Job's discourse (ch. xix. 29) as the time expressed is (ver. 5): “The triumphing of cause of Zophar's feeling]. 11372, which is eri. the wicked is of short duration, and the joy of dently separated from 'n by the accentuation the ungodly only for a moment.” In the further

is used as a preposition " on account of," development of this thought the wicked, who en

but without its complement. We must supply counters inevitable destruction, is described as a rich man, who avariciously seizes on the pos-, either 12 (from ;35 in a), or nxi; comp. the sessions of others, and whose property, unjustly similar elliptical use of Sy? in Isa. lix. 18. To acquired, becomes the prey of an exterminating fire that destroys himself, and all that belongs connect 73.9 immediately with win: “beto him. This on the one side links itself to the cause of my storming (Del. “ because of my feelformer description of Eliphaz, ch. xv. 25 seq., on ing") [“ because of my eager baste,” Ges., Con., the other side, however, it glances aside with Carey, Noyes] within me,” produces a less symmalicious suspicion at the former prosperity of metrical structure for the verse, and a flatter Job, the foundation of which the speaker would sense. indicate as presumably impure and unrighteous.

Ver. 8. A chiding to my shame must I -The discourse is divided into a short intro- hear! Comp. Isa. liii. 5 [-chastisement of our duction (vers. 2-5), and a discussion extending peace,” i. e., which tends to our peace; so bere, through four strophes of six verses each (in one

the chastisement or cbiding which tends to my instance of five), together with a closing verse, shame.—The E. V.'s rendering, “check of my which stands as an isolated epiphonema.

reproach ” is scarcely intelligible. Neither is 2. Introduction, together with the theme of the i have heard” sufficiently exact for the fut. discourse : vers. 2-5.

your, which means rather “I have to bear." Ver. 2. Therefore do my thoughts give -E.]. - Nevertheless the spirit out of my answer to me. — [125, by some rendered “ still, understanding gives me an answer; i. e.. yet,” (Umbreit, Noyes, Rodwell), or “truly," "out of the fulness of its perception it furnishes

me with information as to what is to be thought (Elzas), but incorrectly). 07 with Accus. of the person, as in ch. xiii. 22 (E. V.; “cause me viz., that he is to be warned and punished as an

of Job with his insulting attacks” (Delitzsch), to answer,” and so Fürst, and this would correspond with Zophar's eagerness to speak; but ungodly man. [E. V., '}}", as Hiph. " causeth the other signification is the more common].

me to answer;" better as Kal“ answereth," and dipyn as in ch. iv. 13. —And hence (comes; thus equivalent to 3'ün, ver. 2. This exorthe storming within me.—Lit. “my haste dium is strikingly suggestive of the prominent

traits of Zopbar's character; his mental discurin me”: un here in the sense of perturbatio ; siveness and vivacity, or perbaps volatility, inand '? in immediate connection with 'van, and dicated by D'byv, his thoughts shot forth in more precisely qualifying it, comp. ch. iv. 21.- various directions; his eager impetuosity, vin,

he could scarcely contain himself until Job had Both 12 in a, and 715ya in b, point forward to finished, and then broke out hotly; bis proud the staiement given in ver. 3 of the cause of sensitive egotism, especially prominent in ver. Job's discontent and excitement. ["* On this ac- 1 3 a, “the chiding of my shame must I hear;"



bis subjective self-sufficient dogmatism—“the 47, 1 Kings xiv. 10). This comparison, which spirit out of my understanding gives answer.” It beyond a doubt expresses a meaning which is is questionable whether nit here is to be taken unfavorable and disgraceful to the ungodly man, as Renan explains, of the universal (not as he refers to his own dung; in the same way that this terms it “impersonal”) spirit (comp. ch. xxxii. is at once swept away, on account of its ill odor, 8), speaking in man. The dogmatic character so is he speedily removed by the Divine judgof the speaker, and the prominence which he ment (comp. Ezek. I. c.). In regard to the coarse gives to his own personality, is not altogether in harshness of the expression, comp. below, ver. harmony with such a view. Moreover, Elihu is 15, as also Zophar's former discourse, ch. xi. 12. put forward by the poet as the representative [“ The word is not low, as Ezek. iv. 12; Zeph. of an internal revelation, even as Eliphaz re- i. 17 shows, and the figure, though revolting, is presents the external. Zophar on the other hand still very expressive.” Delitzsch). The followrepresents the individual reason, as Bildad re- ing explanations involve an unsuitable softening presents the collective traditional wisdom of the [and weakening) of the sense. (1) The attempt See Introduction.-E.].

of Wetzstein in Delitzsch [I. 377 seq. adopted by Vers. 4, 5 present the substance of these com- Del. and Mers] to identify issa with the cowmunications of Zophar's spirit in the form of a question addressed to Job.

dung heaped up for fuel in the dwelling of the Ver. 5. Knowest thou this indeed [either wicked. (2) The attempt of Schultens, Ewald, “the question implying that the contrary would Hirz., Heiligst., [Con.], to read 1699, “accord"sarcastically, equivalent to: thou surely know-ing to his greatness, in proportion as he was est; or in astonishment

, what! dost thou not great," from 54.2, magnificentia, majestas [Good know!” (Del.) hence it is unnecessary (with E. (followed by Wemyss) adopts this with the adV., Ges., etc.), to supply the negative, ??=xsa] ditional amendment of 3 to ?, understanding from eternity (i. e., to be true, w-ın, as the passage to teach that the wicked perishes in virtual adjective, or as a virtual predicate-ac- translation of the Syriac: “ like the whirlwind”

the midst of his greatness]. (3) The unfounded cusative, Ewald & 336, b), since man was placed upon the earth. D'W Infinit. with an who however defines it to mean “chaff.” Either


baas=5352, and so Fürst, indefinite subject, "since one placed” (or, since of these renderings, as well as Wetzstein's, makes the placing of) as in ch. xiii. 9.-078, not pre- the suffix superfluous.-E.]. (4) The equally cisely a proper name, referring to the first man, untenable rendering of some of the Rabbis (as but collective or generic; comp. Deut. iv. 32. Gekatilia, Nachamanides): “as he turns him

Ver. 5. That the triumphing of the self,” or “in turning around, as one turns the wicked is short (lit., from near, i. e., not ex- hand around." tending far; comp. Deut. xxxii. 17; Jer. xxiii.

Ver. 8. As a dream he flies away [and is 23), and the joy of the ungodly only for a moment.— ... in 12... like W in 2 Kings

no more to be found: and he is scared ix. 22 expresses the idea of duration, “during, away as a vision of the night].— For the for." The whole question is intended to convey use of “ dream” and “night-vision ” (min doubt and wonder that Job, judging by his in ch. iv. 13 (“go everywhere in the book of Job speeches, was entirely unacquainted with the instead of juin, from which it perhaps differs as familiar proposition touching the short duration of the triumphing of the wicked which is made visum from visio," Delitzsch]), as figures for that the theme of what follows. [This is Zophar's

which is fleeting, quickly perishable, comp. Isa. short and cutting rejoinder to Job's triumphant xxix. 7; Ps. lxxiii. 20; xc. 5. 17., Hiph.: "is outburst in ch. xix. 25 seq.—That jubilant ex- scared away,” to wit, by God's judicial interclamation was, as Zophar indirectly suggests, a vention; a stronger expression than the Active

, a ]. 77', “he flies.” 3. The expangion of the theme: vers. 6-29. Ver. 9. An eye has looked upon him

First Strophe: Vers. 6-11. [The wicked, how- (been sharply fixed upon him; 710 as in ch. ever prosperous, perishes utterly, together with xxviii. 7); it does it not again; comp. ch. v. his family and acquisitions; he himself in the 3; vii

. 8; viii. 18. [The verb 710 is found in prime of life].

Ver. 6. Though his height (N'll from Nies, Cant. i. 6 in the sense of scorching, or making comp. din Ps. lxxxix. 10) [i. e., his exaltation swarthy (cogn. 37adurere). Hence the sigin rank and power] mount up to Heaven, nification of a fixed scorching look is attached to and his head reach unto the clouds; comp. it by Delitzsch. It may at least be said of it Isa. xiv. 13 seq.; Obad. 4. (Van, not causative that it means as much as our “scan,” or gaze (Del.), but parallel to oby,


upon.” It is suggested perhaps by the lofty poVer. 7. Like his dung he perishes for- tude of the wicked in ver. 6. Such a height,

sition, the heaven-touching, cloud-capped attiever; they who have seen him say: Where is he?—The subj. here is the in, which the sun would (770) look on, and cause ver. 5 b, and so continues to the end of the de- glow, the eye of man would (910) gaze on inscription. 15913, "like his dung,” from 9a,

tently. The clause is thus equivalent to: There

was a time when he was the observed of all obglobulus stercoris, Zeph. i. 17; Ezek. iv. 12,15 (comp. servers, but it is so no more -E.].–And his


.[שִׁמְחַת חָנֵף 8

that exulting joy ,יִנְנַת רָשָׁע

.[שׂיא to ראשׁ as

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