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place beholds him no more.-pipa, which / retains it in bis palate.-The tenacity with is doubtless the subject of b, is here construed as which the evil-doer persists in the lustful enjoya feminine, as in Gen. xviii. 24: 2 Sam. xvii. 12. ment of his wickedness, is set forth by five paVer. 10. Eis children must seek to please rallel and essentially synonymous expressions

ccumulat the poor.—137, 3d plur. Piel from 7787 = to

Ver. 14. (Nevertheless) his food is changed propitiate, appease, synonymous with 777 in his bowels-into what is explained in the (9-???, an expression which is to be understood second member. The poison of asps is in a sense altogether general, and not specifi

within him.-77? (=17?, chap. xvi. 13), cally of asking alms [Barnes: “ they would be lit, “gall,” is used here for i. poison," - because beggars of beggars”) nor of appeasing by the the ancients used interchangeably terms repreuse of money, although the second member ap- senting the bitter and the poisonous; comp. proximates the latter meaning quite closely. *n=a bitter, poisonous plant and the poison The ancient versions read 189, or 1337' (from of serpents, in ver. 16; Deut. xxxii. 33. The

| word is naturally chosen here as antithetic to pyn), and thus obtained the meaning, which is

1 pinan, verse 12. (On D'IND see below, ver. far less suitable, “ His song (object) the lowly l! smite down.” [Ewald, adopting this definition for the verb, and amending 13 to 197 trans

Ver. 15. He hath swallowed down riches. lates: "his fists smote down the weak”).

1 1 - n, “possessions, riches, property,” without And his hands (must) give back his the accompanying notion of forcible acquisition wealth: to wit, by the hands of his children, which rather first makes its appearance in who will have to appease the creditors of their ha. God will cast them forth again out father. [" The suffix in 1'9' might refer back,

of his belly-i.e., his riches, or that which he in the way of individualization, to the plural in O'J2 (so Noyes); but against this is the fact that

has swallowed. The greedy devourer of wealth also in the following verse the wicked man is the

will be made to vomit it forth, as by pains of subject of the discourse." Schlott.]. The mean

welcolic. The LXX., from motives of decorum,

an | substituted ayyeros here for gɛós; in Zophar's ing would be much less simple if (with Carey, Dillmann) [Bernard, Renan, Lee], « his hands"

$; mouth, however, the latter word need not surwere understood literally, and after the pre

prise us. ceding mention of his death we were carried

Ver. 16 returns back to the figure of ver. 145

in order to describe more minutely the effect of back here to the period of his life. Ver. 11. His bones were full of youthful

the poison which he bad been enjoying. He

sucked in the poison of asps), the tongue vigor (so correctly the LXX., Targ., Pesh.

of adders slays him—the tongue being rewhile the Vulg., Rosenm., Vaih., etc., understand it of “secret sins," and comp. Ps. xc. 8),

garded as the seat or container of the poison

| (Ps. exl. 4 [3]), the original figure being at the Jerome, however, followed, by E. V., Lee, and

same time changed, and the fatal bite taking the Barnes, combining the two ideas of sin and youth, while Renan, Good, Wemyss, Carey, ren

place of the deadly draught; comp. Prov. xxiii. der “secret sins." Our other authorities, Ew.,

32. [ing, LXX. ảonis; according to some, e.g., Dillmann, Schlott., Rodwell, Words., Con., Ber.,

Kitto, Pictorial Bible, the boeten of the Arabs, Elz., with Ges. and Fürst agree with the LXX.,

about a foot long, spotted black and white, the etc.].—and it lies down with him in the bite instantly fatal; according to others, the el. dust; or “it is laid down," viz., his youthful Haje of the Arabs, from three to five feet long,

dark green, with oblique bands of brown, resemvigor; for the use of Un referring back to bling the cobra di capello in its power of swell1pany, comp. ch. xiv. 19; Ps. ciii. 56. For ing the neck and rising on its tail in striking its "dust,” meaning the “grave," comp. ch. xix. prey. The non cannot be determined. See 25; xvii. 16.

the Dictionaries and Cyclopædias, "Asp," "ViSecond Strophe: Vers. 12–16. A description per,” “Serpent,” etc.] of the perishableness of the ungodly man's prog- Third Strophe: Vers. 17-22. [The evil-doer perity by a comparison with poison, sweet to cannot enjoy his prosperity-for he must restore the taste, but deadly in its results.

his ill-gotten gains.] Vers. 12, 13 are the protasis dependent on DX Ver. 17. He may not delight in the sight ver. 14 seq., the apodosis.-Ver. 12. Though of (3 0787 as in chap. iii. 9) brooks, streams, evil tastes sweet in his mouth (P'ADN lit., rivers of honey and cream.-[The negative " makes sweet," Ewald, & 122, c [Green, & 79,198 and the apocopated xr express the concur2]); he hides it under his tongue, i. e., he vonca o

herence of the speaker's moral judgment and feeldoes not swallow it down, in order to enjoy the i sweet taste of it so much the longer [“ the evil

|ing with the affirmation of the fact. They are doer likened to an epicure,” Delitzsch.-Renan:

a mental Amen to the prediction.-F.] After Comme un bonbon qu'on laisse fondre dans la nice in the absol, state there follow in apposibouche].

tion two nouns in the construet state, so '17), Ver. 13. He is sparing of It (700 to in- ' which form an assonance, and are co-ordinate. dulge, to spare, here with y, the preposition [Dillmann: “It is a more poetic artistic exprescommonly used with verbs of covering, protect-sion than the simple 780N 177731 WIT '17)." ing, guarding) and does not let it go, and Hupfeld conjectures that '177) may be a gloss. -Im ימלט ,Perfect ידע :of teases in the verse

See Gesen. 2255, 3 a.) “Honey and milk” (or of '?, are (a) That of the E. V.: "Because he here, by way of gradation, “cream," comp. Isa. I hath oppressed and hoth

hath oppressed and hath forsaken the poor: be. vii. 15, 22) are a familiar figurative expression

cause he hath violently taken away a house which denoting luxurious prosperity, as in Ex. iii. 8, he builded not; surely he shall not," etc.; which 17, and often; found also in the ancient classical

cannot be justified in rendering 's differently in poets, in their descriptions of the golden age;

ver. 19 and in ver. 20. e.g., Theocritus, Idyll. V. 124 seq.; Ovid, Metam.

(6) That of Noyes and I. 111 seq.: Flumina jam lactis, jam flumina necta.

Rodwell, who introduce the apodosis in 20b. ris ibant; comp. Virgil, Ecl. IV. 30; Horace,

(c) That of Good, Lee, Wemyss, Carey,—which Epod. 16, 47.

assumes the apodosis to be introduced by 12-5y Ver. 18. Giving back that which he has in ver. 21 6.-E.). labored for wf, subst. synonymous with yo?) | Ver. 20. For.('? co-ordinate to that at the beSthe participial clause y JW coming first, and ginning of the preceding verse) he knew no assigning the reason for what follows] he en- rest in his belly: the seat of his gluttony or joys it not-lit, he swallows it not, he will not

avarice. 150 here & substantive (differently be happy. According to the property of his exchange (07740m as in chap. xv. 31) he re

from chap. xvi. 12, where it is an adjective), sy. joices not-i. e., in accordance with the fact nonymous with 07190, Prov. xvii. 1. For the that he employed sinful, unjust means of ex-sentiment comp. Isa. lix. 8. (E. V.; "he shall change, in order to gain temporal possessions not feel quietness,' etc., overlooks the distinction and enjoyments, he has no pleasure in the latter, he must lack the joy which he had promised himself in them. So correctly Ewald, Delitzsch, perf. Whether we translate ? “for” or “beDillmann, etc.; while Hirzel and others [E. V. cause," there is a relation of antecedent and Lee, Bernard, Renan, Rodwell], following the consequent between a and b. This has been the Targum, translate as though instead of bona

evil-doer's character-insatiable voracity; this

shall be his doom-to be stripped of every thing. in743, the passage read PA 170? (“as his —E.] (Therefore) he shall not escape with possessions, so his exchange,' i. e., his restitu- his dearest treasure.-05 without an obtion). Gesenius, Schlottmann (Conant, Elzas) render: “as his property that is to be exchanged, I ject=to escape, like 079, chap. xxiii. 7; or i. e., to be restored” (similarly Hupfeld: sicut I also="va) who, comp. Amos ii. 16. The in opes permutando comparatas), which, however, yields a strained sense [and is also contrary to

iyong is the 3 of accompaniment or of possesthe relative independence of the separate lines sion, as in chap. xix. 20. [Not, therefore, inof the verse which our poet almost always pre. strumental (Schlottmann-the object conceived serves, and is also opposed by the interposing

of as the instrument), nor partitive: “of all his

delights he shall save nothing" (Conant). The of y73' 871." Del. Carey explains: “to the rendering of Carey, Elzas, etc.: «in his appetite full amount of its value," taking Sin in the sense he let (or lets) nothing escape,” is inadmissible of "power." or "fullness"-a doubtful signifi. on account of the passive form of Tion, which cation when used in connection with property. / signifies not the act, but the object, of desire.

- E.) To be noted is sy in our Book for 17 y or Ver. 21. Nothing escaped his greediness phy].

| [or gluttony]: lit. “there is nought of a reVer. 19. For he crushed, abandoned the

a, abandoned the mainder (or of that which has escaped] to his poor-i. e., maltreated with persistent injustice food-comp. ch. xviii. 19. [15ax from 95x, not the unprotected and defenceless. He has taken houses (lit. "a house." collective

1978 (E. V. "meat”); hence, more literally still

for hi. 1 1?(. V. "meat i nence, more nterally still plunder, and builded them not-i.e., bas than above: “there is nothing that has escaped not re-builded them, has not reached the point his eating''). Therefore his wealth shall of reconstructing and fitting them up according not endure. -Sony, as in Ps. x. 5. means “to to bis own taste, because he was not allowed to

to be solid, powerful, enduring.” 10, “wealth,” retain permanent possession of them. Against

or also “prosperity," as in ch. xxi. 16. [E. V.: the rendering of the Targ., Vulg., etc., also of Hupfeld [and E.V.): “be has plundered a house

“no man shall look for his goods,” which can which he builded not,” it may be urged that in only mean (with Son7'), no one shall wait for his that case it must have read 1732 77. The

property as his heir,-a meaning both less sim.

ple and less suitable than the above.] causal relation in which the first member is Ver. 22. In the fullness of his superfluity placed to the second by Delitzsch: “because he it is strait with him-i. e., distress overtakes cast down, let the destitute lie helpless, he shall him, meaning external poverty (not internal an. not, in case he has seized a house, build it up” guish, etc.), as b shows. The Inf. constr. [Conant: “the houses he has plundered he shall not build up"] is indicated with too little clear-'* 7? (written like "* "P?: Juag. Vill. ), from ness by the 'I at the beginning of the verge, and 52, after the analogy of 1973, verbs; comp. yields a meaning entirely too artificial. Other | Gesen. 875 [374], Rems. 20 and 21 [Green, constructions, according to the causal rendering 18166, 2]. 79. with retracted tone for 73.. ["on

account of the following monosyllable." Del.); | him what can satisfy him."'-Schlottm.: “Such comp. Gen. xxxii. 8; Ewald, 2232 b.-Every a rain of fire, figuratively speaking, is to be the hand of a wretched one (comp. chap, iii. 20) food of the ungodly, instead of the former dainty comes upon him (comp. chap. xv, 21)-viz.; to morsel of wickedness (comp. vers. 12, 13)." inflict retribution on him for the violence suf. Wordsworth: “He surfeited himself with rapine, fered at his hands, or in order to demand of him and God will make him surfeit with His revenge." plundered property. [The primary reference is -Carey: “Just as in Ps. xi. 6, the wicked are doubtless to the victims of his own rapacity, als said to drink snares, fire and brimstone, so here though we may give it, with Delitzsch, a more the glutton shall have them for food."'] It is general application: “the rich uncompassionate possible also to refer the suffix to God. Much man becomes a defenceless prey of the proleta- too artificial is the rendering of the Targ., Abenries.”] So according to the reading hoy, comp.

Ezra, Gerson, Delitzsch: “He causeth it to rain

Po upon him into his flesh,”-although to be sure chap. iii. 20. If, following the LXX. and the Vulg. (with Eichhorn, De Wette, etc.), we read

ons might in accordance with Zeph. i. 17 mean

“flesh." [In Zeph., however, the parallelism: boys we obtain the meaning-in itself indeed “and their blood is poured forth as dust, and admissible, but less in harmony with verg. 1921: “the whole power of misery comes upon

their fiesh (bers) as dung,” makes the applihim.” So Rodwell. Bernard, Noģes and Renan cation clear; whereas here the whole context take to as in chap. xxxiii. 2, for wound” or points to the usual literal application.-E.] "blow;' and translate: “every blow of misfor. 113.5. poetic, full-toned form for m y as in ch. tune" (Ren.), or "every blow of the wretched," i. e., every blow which cometh upon the wretched

xxii. 2; xxvii. 23. p• The morally indignant

speech which threatens punishment, intention(Noyes), or every blow, every plague that can

ally seeks after rare solemn words, and darkrender a man miserable (Bernard).] Fourth Strophe: vers. 23-28. The end of the

some tones.” Delitzsch. The partial assonance wicked according to the divine judgment. of joinsa 13:5y may also have had some influ

Ver. 23. That it may serve to the filling ence in determining this form, which in this of his belly, He casts the glow of His instance at least can scarcely be regarded as wrath upon him. — The subject is God, plur., on account of the pointed individual although He is not expressly named ; as in ch. application to Job. The rendering of E. V., xvi. 7. The Jussive '7', at the head of the Good, Lee, Wem., Rod., Elz.: “and sball rain verse, is rendered by most as a simple future:

it upon him while he is eating," is at variance “ it shall come to pass,” viz. that which follows.

| with the form, and misses the striking force of But to express this we should rather expect

bei the figure as given above.-E.) nin?! (as frequently with the prophets), or any

Vers. 24 seq. describe how the divine decree

of wrath is historically realized by the intro(as frequently in prose). For this reason the

| duction of several illustrations. the first being construction of the Jussive as dependent on that of a warlike pursuit and wounding & 7750" is to be preferred to any other (so Stickel, highly picturesque description." Ewald). If Hahn [Ewald), Dillmann, etc.). [It is certainly

he flee from the iron armor (comp, ch. xxxix. simpler, and in the spirit and style of Zophar in

21), a bow of brass (Ps. xviii, 35) pierces this discourse to take ?! as an independent

him through (comp. Judg. v. 26). [If he

escapes one danger, it is only to fall into anoverb, forming the first of the series of jussives

ther, and from the same source]. The two in this verse, each of which expresses the strong members of the verse. which are put together sympathy of his feelings with the result which

asyndetically, are related to each other as antehe predicts. See above on 7-58, ver. 17; cedent and consequent, as in ch. xix. 4. and Dillmann's remark below.-E.]—The Jug

Ver. 25. He draws it out (viz. the arrow, in

order to save his life, comp. Judg. iii. 22). sives 070and ?!, however, are to be The Targ, reads nun: he (the enemy, or God) explained on the ground that the passage is on

18 draws, and it (the sword) comes out of its intended to set forth the necessity for God's

sheath; against which Delitzsch objects that 1.1 punitive agency as established in the divine order of the world ["and at the same time to

cannot signify vagina. Carey also translates indicate his own agreement therewith.” Dillm.]. 1990, “it is drawn," i, e. the sword of the purIn regard to the descent of the divine wrath in

suing enemy, who plunges it into him, and then the form of a rain of fire, comp. above on ch.

draws it out again; but this is much less natuxviii. 15.-Ag to the phrase: “to fill the belly

ral, and mars the terrible vividness of the of any one,” comp. above ver, 20; Luke xv. 16. |

description given of his unavailing struggle with -And causes to rain upon him with his

his doom.-E.]-Then it comes forth out food.-( ? serving to introduce the object;

of the body; or also “out of the back,in comp. chi xvi. 4, 10). The subject here again case 312, after the analogy of 77773, ch. iii. 4, is God. The food which He causes to rain upon should be identified with 2. But the difficulty the wicked, to wit, his just punishment (comp. ch. | ix. 18; Jer. ix. 14 [15]) is called his food”.

of accomplishing such a manipulation of the

weapon scarcely permits this assumption (adopted (inny), viz. that of the wicked, that which he is

among the moderns by Dillmann), ("The evil. appointed to feed upon. [Ewald: "rain upon | doer is imagined as hit in the back, the arrow

which, mo

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consequently as passing out at the front.” Del.], | usage of W* Ps. civ. 4; Jerem. xlviii. 45. Ols

hausen's emendation to ym (Jussive Niph.= member: and the gleaming steel (comes)

“it shall be devoured”) is unnecessary. [E. V., out of his gall (comp. ch. xvi. 13; and above

Bernard, Barnes, Carey, etc., render: “It shall on ver. 14 of this ch.). In regard to P22, lit.

| fare ill with him that is left,etc., or “That "lightning," here "gleaming steel, metal head”

which is left, etc., shall perish, or be destroyed” (not & “stream of blood," as Hahn explains it), (Lee, Wemyss, Elzas, etc.), some deriving the comp. Deut. xxxii. 41; Nah. iii. 3; Hab. iii. 11. I form fri

form from 917, “to fare ill,” others from yn -Upon him (come) the terrors of death.

in the same sense (Mercier, Carey), others from The plur. D'PX (from 12'x, ch. ix. 34; xiii. yun, either Kal (Fürst) or Niph. (Dathe, Lee). 21) could indeed be connected as subject with

The context favors the root 17).-E.]

Ver. 27. The heavens reveal his iniquity 577 construed ad sensum (Hahn, Delitzsch), labis

(also properly Jussive like the verbs in Conant); but the accents connect 7707 rather | vers. 26, 28), and the earth riseth up against with the second member of the verse, so that him (17071pno pausal form for 72pna). some such verb as “come, break upon,” must

Thus the two chief divisions of the creation, be supplied with DNR 15Equally opposed which Job had previously (ch. xvi. 18 seq.) to the accents, and altogether too difficult is the summoned as witnesses in behalf of his innorendering of Rosenmüller and Hirzel (Schultens,

cence, must rather testify the opposite, must Carey) : “he goes [departs, “he is going!”

thrust him out from themselves as one conCarey] terrors upon him," i. e., while terrors

demned by God, so that there remains for him are upon him.

as his abode only the gloomy Sheol, the third Ver. 26. Further description of the divine

division of the creation besides heaven and decree of punishment, with special reference to

earth; comp. ch. xi. 8, 9; Ps. cxxxv. 6; Sir. the wicked man's possessions.-All darkness

xxiv. 7-9. is hoarded up for his treasures, i. e., every

Ver. 28. The increase of his house must kind of calamity, by divine appointment, awaits depart, flowing forth (lit. “things that now, the treasures which he has gathered and laid

or run away,” diffluentia, in apposition to 543") up ( D403 as in Ps. xvii. 14; comp. Deut. xxxiii.

in the day of His wrath, viz. the divine wrath. 19). To the agency of the earthly-minded evildoer storing up treasures for himself corres

Ges., Olsh. [Gr., & 140, 2], etc., explain ninad as ponds the agency of God in opposition storing

Part. Niph. from 770 with an Aram. formation, up the destruction which is destined to overtake defining it to mean opes corrass, things which them. Comp. Jegavpičelv Šauto öpyiv, Rom. ii. have been scraped or gathered together; but less 5. [As Delitzsch suggests, there is somewhat satisfactorily, for the clause 10x Die, at the

end of this member of the verse, hardly permits

us to look for a second subject, synonymous with fire which is not blown consumes him, lit. “which was not blown" (na-85, a rela

1522!. Moreover we must have found that thought tive clause, Gesenius, 8143, 1 [8 121, 3), hence

expressed rather hy 117=opes ab eo corrasae.

As it would seem that after ver. 27 a return to a “fire of God” burning down from hea

the wicked man's possessions and treasures could ven (comp. ch. i. 16; xviii. 15; 18. xxxiii. 11

not properly be looked for, some commentatorg seq.). 17792xn is most simply explained (with have indulged in attempted emendations of the Ewald, Hupfeld, Dillmann) [Fürst, Conant], as passage, all of which touch upon Sp' in the first an alternate form of the Jussive Kal, instead of

member (Jussive Kal from 772, “to depart, to the more common 1770 , comp. Ewald, 253, wander forth, comp. Prov. xxvii. 25). Thus a. [Gesenius takes it as Piel for 1759xn, with Dathe, Stickel, etc., read hi_“the flood rolls lengthened vowel in place of Daghesh-forte; 1. Delitzsch as Poel with Hholem shortened to Ka

away his house, etc.:Ewald, 7—“the revemets-Khatuph ; Hirzel, Olsh., Green ( 93, a; nue of his house must roll itself away (like a

torrent;" comp. Amos v. 27): Dillmann finally & 111, 2, e) as Pual for 177598A, with the rendering: "a fire not blown shall be made to con

12, Jussive Niphal of 7751—“the produce of his gume them.” In nay the gender of Up is dis- away in the day of His wrath.”

house must become apparent as that which flows regarded, the adoption of the maso. in both the Ver. 29. Closing verse, lying outside of the verbs nod and ' making the personification strophic arrangement, like ch. v. 27, etc.—This of the supernatural fire more vivid. See on is the portion of the wicked man from nin ch. i. 19.-E.]-It must devour that which survives (that which has escaped for- Elohim; the lot or “portion" (psn, comp. ch. mer judgments; 79 as in ver. 21) in his

in per 1 in his xxvii. 13 ; xxxi. 2) assigned to him by Elohim, tent.-y1 is Jussive Kal [to be explained like

(yu? D7X, “a rare application of Oyx, comp. the preceding Jussives, vers. 17, 23] from nyn, |

Prov. vi. 12 instead of which o'xis more “to graze, to feed upon," the subject here being usual," Delib:--And

cusual,” Del.].-And the heritage appointed ØR used in the masc.; comp. for this rare masc. to him by God.-inox nn), lit. “ his heri

A- [טָמוּן לִצְפוּנָיו of a play upon words in


| .[אמר or] אמר a3 genitive of the object to אמרו

tage of the word,i. e., his heritage as appointed out, it has already inflicted on him a deservedly to him hy a word, by a command, a judicial sen- mortal wound! The fire of God which has altence (908 in this sense only here; but used ready begun to consume his possessions, does similarly nevertheless in Ps. lxxvii. 9; Heb. iii. not rest until even the last remnant in his tent 9. It is possible moreover to take the suffix in is consumed. The heavens. when in his relf

delusion be seeks the defender of bis innocence, in which case the sense would be: “the bieri

reveal his guilt, and the earth which he bopes tage of the command concerning him.” In this

to have as a witness in his favor, rises up as bis case however the construction would be a much

accuser. Thus mercilessly does Zopbar seek to

stifle the new trust which Job conceives towards harsher one. popin and and taken in con- God, and to extinguish the faith which bursts nection with the 50' of the preceding verse upward from beneath the ashes of the conflict. form a striking oxymoron : that his heritage be His method is soul-destroying; be seeks to slay taken away from him, that is the heritage ad- the life which germinates from the feeling of judged to him by God.” Schlottmann].

death, instead of strengthening it.” (Delitzsch).

Comp. what Brentius says in his straigbtforward DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL.

striking way: “ Zophar to the end of the chap

ter puts forth the most correct opinions; but he This second discourse of Zophar's, which is at is at fault in that he falsely distorts them against the same time the last of the utterances directed Job, just as though Job were afflicted for impiety, by him against Job-for in the third act of the and asserted his innocence out of hypocrisy, and colloquy he does not speak-as respects the pas- not out of the faith of the Gospel.” sionate obstinacy with which it urges the one ever repeated dogma and fundamental axiom of HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL. the friends is related to the second discourse of As regards the homiletic treatment of this disEliphaz in chapter xv., as superlative to po- course, the same may be said in general as of sitive, and to the second discourse of Bildad, the discourses, related as to their contents, in as superlative to comparative. In it the nar- chapters 15 and 18. The description given of row-minded, legal, as well as unfriendly and the perishableness of the prosperity of the ununjust opposition of the friends to the misunder

godly, and of their just punishment at the last stood sufferer appears at its height, as was the through the judgment of God, bas its objective case with the former discourse of Zophar in its truth and value for the practical life ; but the relation to its two predecessors.—Neither does vehement tone of the representation, and the it present any new thoughts in opposition to Job, many unmistakable allusions to Job as the obany more than the immediately preceding dis-ject of the speaker's unfriendly suspicion, destroy courses of Eliphaz and Bildad. The terrible the pure enjoyment of the discourse, and compel picture of the judgment of wrath upon the sin- us to regard the picture, skilful as it is in itself, ner, with the delineation of which, true to the with critical caution. pattern presented by those two discourses, it is principally, and indeed almost exclusively occu

Particular Passages. pied, exhibits scarcely anything that is materi

its scarcely anything that is materi-! Ver. 8. BRENTIUS: The state of the ungodlo ally new or original. Only as regards its for- is compared to the most unsubstantial things, mal execution does this picture of horror surpass to wit, to a dream, and to visions of the night. its two predecessors. It excels in its adroit which, while they are seen, seem to be somepresentation, and in its skilful, and to some ex- thing, but when the dreamer awakens, there is tent original treatment of the familiar figures nothing remaining, as is set forth in Is. xxix. and phraseology of the Chokmah. This descrip-| Ver. 10. IDEM: From this verse we learn tive power, which in the effects produced by it whence the poverty, and whence the wealth of proves itself to be not inconsiderable, seems in-children proceeds, viz., from the piety of parents deed to be wholly subservient to the speaker's (Ps. xxxvii. 25).- WEIMAR BIBLE: The reason spirit and purpose, which are characterized by why many children suffer great misfortune, and hateful suspicion and vehement accusation. This especially poverty, lies often in their own sin, materially weakens the impression which it is but it also proceeds oftentimes from the wick: calculated to produce. “It is not possible to edness of their parents (Ex. XX. 5). He there. illustrate the principle that the covetous, unmer- fore who would see his children prosperous, let ciful rich man is torn away from his prosperity him beware of sin. by the punishment God decrees for him, more Ver. 12 seq. STARKE: Sinful pleasure is comfearfully and more graphically than Zophar does modly transformed into pain. When sin is first it; and this terrible description is not over- tasted it is sweet like sugar, but afterwards it drawn, but true and appropriate—but in oppo- bites like an adder (Prov. xx. 17; xxii. 32; Sir. sition to Job it is the extreme of uncharitable- xxi. 2 seq.). ness which outdoes itself: applied to him the Ver. 20 seq. BRENTIUS: As water can never fearful truth becomes a fearful lie. For in Zoo satisfy the dropsical, but the more it is drank, phar's mind Job is the godless man, whose re- the more it is thirsted for; so riches never sajoicing does not last long, who indeed raises tisfy the mind's lust, for the human mind can himself towards heaven, but as his own dung, be satisfied with no good, save God (Eccl. i. 8). (comp, on ver. 7) must he perish, and to whom Hence it comes to pass by God's righteous déthe sin of his unjust gain is become as the poison cree, that as the avaricious man is discontented of the viper in his belly. The arrow of God's with what he has, as well as what he has not, so wrath sticks fast in him; and though he draw it the ungodly man never has enough, however

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