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second member of the verse puts the thought of primary signification decerpere describes that the first in a still more striking light. The in- which in general forms their daily occupation as dications of retributive justice in the administra- they roam about. ... The idea of waylaying tion of the world, are such that not even God's is not to be connected with the expression." familiars, who are in His secret, can discern Del.); the steppe (1791, the wide, open, desert the days whereon they occur.-E.).

plain] is to them (lit. "to him," viz., to each Ver. 2. Landmarks they remove (or, are one of them), [or “to him as father of the comremoved; vb. impersonal] flocks, they plunder, and feed. From this point on begins the pany,” Del., or possibly the sing. is is used to specific description of the many deeds of vio avoid the concurrence of ons with an imme. lence, oppression and persecution permitted by diately following: Hirzel] bread for their God. The vers. immediately following (3, 4) children-O'?? as in ch. i. 19; xxix. 5) describe the wicked agents who commit such [“ the steppe, with its scant supply of roots and deeds, vers. 5-8 the wretched ones who suffer herbs, is to him food for the children; he from them, and thence on interchangeably, now

snatches it from it, it must furnish it to him the persecutors and now the persecuted, the (Del.) thus accounting for the use of 970). A verbs used being put in the 3d person plural striking description of the beggar, vagabond Perfect. In respect to the wickedness of removing landmarks, (42'®='', from 1:0) comp: gipsies, or South African Bushmen of to-day:

life of these troglodytes, the precursors of the Deut. xix. 14 ; xxvii. 17; Prov. xxii. 28; xxiii. for the DX, onagri (Kulans), with which 10. In regard to the plundering and carrying these are compared, Delitzsch says: “Those off of herds, comp. ch. xx. 19. [“ They steal flocks, ir?!! i. e., they are so bare-faced, that beautiful animals, which, while young, are diffi

cult to be caught; which in their love of freedom after they have stolen them, they pasture them

are an image of the Beduin, Gen. xvi. 12; in openly.” Delitzsch).

their untractableness an image of that which Ver. 3. dns, “to drive away,” as in Is. xi. 4; cannot be bound, ch. xi. 12; and from their san, “to distrain, to take as a pledge” as in roaming about in herds in waste regions, are Ex. xxii. 25; Deut. xxiv. 6; comp. below ver. here an image of a gregarious vagrant, and free9 (whereas on the other hand in ch. xxii. 6 the booter kind of life." Del.] word is used in a somewhat different sense). Ver. 6. In the field they reap (so accord. [The ass of the orphan, and the yoke-ox of the ing to the K'ri 1713p?'; the K'thibh 1793?" would widow are here referred to as the most valuable be rendered by some such expression as “they possession, and principal dependence of those make for a harvest”) the cattle-fodder unfortunate ones.-E.]. Ver. 4. The poor they thrust out of the

as in ch. vi. 5, mixed fodder for the cat

, way-i. e., out of the way, in which they have tle, farrago] ; lit. "his cattle.fodder, i. e. that of the right to walk, into roadless regions (comp. the youn mentioned in 6. [Most explain this to non in a similar sense in Amos v. 12). All mean that these miserable hirelings seek to together (in' as in ch. iii. 18) the wretched satisfy their hunger with the fodder grown for of the land must hide themselves.-So ac

the cattle. Delitzsch on the ground that “

“7372 cording to the K'ri : ?Y, while the K’thibh does not signify to sweep together, but to reap pey would, according to Ps. lxxvi. 10; Zeph. steal why did they not seize the better portion ii. 3 designate the “afflicted,” the "sufferers” of of the produce ?” supposes that the “rich evilthe land, which seems less suitable here. The doer hires them to cut the fodder for his cattle, Pags. ixņ denotes what these unfortunate ones but does not like to entrust the reaping of the are compelled to do; comp. ch. xxx. 7. better kinds of corn to them.” This view, how.

Sixth Strophe; vers. 5-8. Description of the ever, seems less natural than the former, and miserable condition into which the oppressed less in harmony with the parallelism. See beand persecuted are brought by those wicked ones low on 6.-E.]. And they glean the vine(not of another class of evil-doers apart from those previously spoken of, as ancient exegesis yard of the wicked. ops serotinos fructus for the most part assumed, and as latterly colligere (Rosenm.), to glean the late-ripe fruit, Rosenm., Umbr., Vaih. [Lee, Barnes, Carey, i. e. stealing it. The meaning can scarcely be Scott, etc.) explain). As is evident from the that this was done in the service of the rich more extended description in ch. xxx. 1-8 of the evil-doer, in which case the verb ssw racemari unsettled, vagabond life of such unfortunates, would rather have been used (against Delitzsch). the poet has here before his eyes the aborigines Ver. 7. Naked (17, adverbial accusative, of the lands east of the Jordan, who were driven from their homes into the desert, possibly the

as in ver. 10; comp. S$10, ch. xii. 17, 19) they remnant of the ancient Horites (cave-dwellers] ; pass the night without clothing, ap lit. comp. what is said more in detail below on

“ from the lack of," comp. ver. 8 b. and ver. 10. ch. xxx. Behold, wild asses in the wilder

And shelterless (from lack ness (i. e. as wild asses ; comp. ch. vi. 5; xi. of shelter) they clasp the rock.—P?, they 12; xxxix. 5 seq.), they go forth in their daily work (lit. “ work;" comp. Ps. civ. 23), crouch beneath it as their shelter. Comp. the

“ embrace" the rock, in that shivering they seeking after prey (9.7, booty, prey, a liv

phrase, “embracing the dunghill” (mezabil), ing, as in Prov. xxxi. 15) ["from 779 in the Lam. iv. 5.


Ver. 8.

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Seventh Strophe: verg. 9-12. Resuming the Prov. viii. 20). Taking it in this sense here, description of the tyrannical conduct of those the subject is naturally "the poor;" and xiv) in men of power described in vers. 2-4. They the second member is simply "to bear, not “to tear the orphan from the breast.910 here take away from.”—E.) the same as 70, as also in Is. lx. 16 ; lxvi. 11.

Ver. 11. Between their walls (hence under

their strict supervision) they must press out Correctly therefore the LXX.: από μαστούwhereas to render Tid in its customary significa

the oil (17'', Hiph. denom., only here) ; tion of "destruction, ruin” (as e. g. by Ramban, they tread the wine-vats, and suffer etc.). [="from the shattered patrimony"), thirst (while so engaged—Imperf. consec. comp. yields no satisfaotory meaning. The act of Ewald, 8342, a). A further violation of the law

that the mouth of the ox must not be muzzled. tearing away from the breast is conceived of as the violent deed of harsh creditors, who would

Ver. 12. Out of the cities the dying satisfy their claims by bringing up the orphan groan.-So according to the reading bing children as slaves. And what the miserable

(Pesh., 1 Ms. of de Rossi's, and some of the one has on they take away as a pledge.- older editions), which word indeed elsewhere A tenable meaning, and one that will agree well means “the dead," but which here, as the pawith ver. 10 is obtained only by regarding by rallel of the following osen (“wounded, as an elliptical expression for by TUNI: "and pierced to death,” comp. Ezek. xxvi. 15; Jer. li. what is on the miserable one,” i. e. What he 22) may very well be taken to mean the dying, wears, his clothing (Ralbag,' Gesen., Arnh., those who utter the groaning and rattling of the Vaih., Dillmann) [Rod., Bernard, Noyes]. With death struggle (see Green, 266, 2, a]. So corthe thougat may then be compared Mio. ii. 9;

rectly Umbreit, Ew., Hirz., Vaih., Stick., Hei

ligst., Dillmann (Schlott., Renan, Noyes. Others in respect to san see above on ver. 3. The (Carey, Elzas, etc.) in the weaker sense : “morother explanations which have been given are tals.”] The usual reading biņa, “men,” yields less suited to the connection, if not absolutely

& suitable rendering only by disregarding the impossible, such as: “they take a pledge above

masoretic accentuation, and connecting this [beyond the ability of] the sufferer", Hirzel);

they take for a pledge the suckling (% of the DA as subj. with PX?! (90 Jer., Symmachus, poor”) (Kamphausen) [Elzas];" with the poor translated not by the colorless and indefinite

Theod.). In that case, however, it should be they deal basely," or " knavishly” (Umbr.; term “people” [Leute] (Hahn, etc.), but by Del.), which latter rendering however would

“men [Männen, viri], warriors,” and undermake it seem strange that the verb son has only stood (with Del.) of the male population of a a short while before been used twice (ver. 3, and city, whom a conqueror would put to the ch. xxii. 6) in the sense of distraining. [To sword.”.

This however would remove the dis. which add Dillmann's objection that this intercourse too far out of the circle of thought in pretation seems "colorless,” out of place in the which it bas hitherto removed. [According to series of graphic, concrete touches of which the the Masor. punctuations din? ny? would be description is composed. It may also be said of the explanation of E. V. Ewald, Schlott.,

" out of an inhabited, thickly populated city,” Renan, Conant, etc., “they impose a pledge on

a thought which has no place in the connection. the sufferers," that it is less vivid than that

Gesenius, followed by Conant, takes 79 (II adopted above. It must be admitted on the Lex.) in the sense of “anguish :" "for anguish other hand that the assumption that by=do the dying groan.” But the second member :

"and the soul of the wounded cries by nor is somewhat doubtful.-E.].

out," brings up before us a scene of blood, inVers. 10-12 again bring into the foreground volving the slaying of a multitude, for which we as subject those who are maltreated by the should have been unprepared without the menproud oppressors. These are however no longer tion of the “ city” in the first member.-E.]. represented as the wretched inhabitants of Yet God regards not the folly!-5PA, steppes or caves, but as poor serfs on the estates of the rich, and are thus represented as being in lit. ["insipidity], absurdity, insulsitas (chap. i. inhabited cities and their vicinity. Naked they 22), a contemptuous expression which seems (the poor) slink about, without clothing. - very suitable here, serving as it does to describe

tersely the violence of the wicked, mocking at Comp. ver. 7, and in respect to 7207,“ to slink,” the moral order of the universe, and still remainsee ch. xxi. 28. And hungry they bearing unpunished. The punctuation 1999, “ prayer, the sheaves-i. e. for the rich, whose hired service they perform, who however allow them supplication” (Pesh., some MSS.) [Con., Noyes, to go hungry in their service, and thus become Good, Elzas), may also be properly passed by guilty of the crying sin of the merces retenta la

without consideration. In regard to the absoborum (Deut. xxv. 4; 1 Tim. v. 18, etc.). [The lute use of domes (supply 104a, comp. ch. English translators, misled probably by the Piel, xxii. 22), “he regards not,” see ch. iv. 20; Is. 1050, which they took to be transitive, have xli

. 20; "and especially Ps. 1. 23, where, premade the “oppressors” of the vers. preceding cisely as here, the expression is construed with ject of ver. 10. 72 however is always E. V.: "yet God layeth (=imputeth) not folly

[The rendering of "to walk about, to go to and fro” (so also in to them,” is not essentially different, but is less




than band has this familiarity with the darkness of אוֹר to נְתִיבוֹתָיו as well as in דְרָכָיו fix in

expressive. Oppression ravages the earth; in they have no fellowship with it, as children of the wilderness, among rocks and caves, in fields night and of darkness. The rendering of the and vineyards, in villages and cities, men suffer, Targ. and of some of the Rabbis (approximately groan, die—and all this chaotic folly, this dark also of the Vulg.) [also of E. V.]: “which anomaly, this mockery of the Divine order-God houses) they had marked for themselves in the heeds it not!-E.]

daytime,” is opposed by the fact that onn sig 4. Second Division : Second Half: vers. 13-25. nifies always obsignare, never designare; comp. Continuation of the preceding description, in ch. xiv. 17; xxxvii. 7. which special prominence is given to those evil- Ver. 17. For to them all deep darkness doers who commit their crimes in secret, and is morning; i. e. when the deepest darkness escape for a long time the divine punishment, of the night (nighs, comp. ch. iii. 5) begins, which surely awaits them. Eighth Strophe : vers. 13-17. Those (np. drawing on of the night is to them what day

then they enter upon their day's work [tbe emphatically contrasting the present objects of break is to others]-a striking characteristic of the description, as a new class of evil-doers, the ipya toù okótovs, in which these evil-doers with those previously mentioned) are rebels

Umbreit and Hirzel (and so E. V. against the light, or: " are become rebels,” etc.; for so may the clause ? ??? with 3 essen- Ber., Con.) unsuitably take not 1998, but på tial, comp. ch. xxiii. 13) be taken, unless we

as subject : “the morning is to them at once prefer to explain : “are become among apostates deep darkness.” Against this explanation it from the light," i. e. have acquired the nature may be urged that 1.7ntmeans not “at once," of such (Del., Dillm.) (in either case 17'07 is not but as in ch. ii. 11; ix. 82, etc., “all together, the merè copula, but expresses a process of all in a body.”—Because they know the becoming).

, “apostates, revolters terrors of deep darkness; i. e. are familiar from the light, enemies of the light,” are essen

with them, as other men are with the open day: tially the same, as "children of the night” comp. ver. 16 c; ch. xxxviii. 16. The sing. (Rom. xiii. 12; 1 Thess. v. 5; Eph. v. 8, etc.

again makes its appearance here ["3" '?, lit. Will not know its ways; i. e. the ways of " for he (or one) knows,” etc.], because stress is the light, for it is more natural to refer the suf- laid on the fact that every member of this wicked ?,

night. [According to the rendering of E. V., to “God.

Hirzel, etc., here rejected, the meaning would be Ver. 14. At the dawn (nyky, sub lucem, cum that morning or daylight would bring terror to diluculo, toward the break of day, before it is these evil-doers, the fear i. e. of being detected yet broad daylight) the murderer riseth up. and condemned. In the second member 73''3 nyin, one who makes a trade of murder, who would then be antecedent, either general: kills to steal, like the English garotter; for the "when one can discern” (Con.), or particular: wealthy oppressor is no longer (down to ver. 18) - if one know them ” (E. V.) and nipis ninka, the subject of the discourse.—[He slays the poor and needy: because of their defence other rendering, however, bas on the whole the

the consequent—"terrors of death-shade!” The less condition; not of course for plunder, but to gratify his bloodthirsty disposition.]-And in advantage of greater simplicity, and agreement the night he acts like a thief, or: "he with usage and the context.-Ě.] becomes as the thief,” i. e. in the depths of which will overtake the wicked who have been

Ninth Strophe : vers. 18-21. The judgment night, when there is no one to cross his path, thus far described. This judgment Job describes he plies the trade of a petty, common thief, com

here proleptically, for in vers. 22-24 a he returns mitting burglary, etc. For the Jussive ? once again to their haughty, insolent conduct instead of 77'7', comp. above ch. xviii. 12; xx. before the judgment comes, in order to bring out 23, etc. (poetic form]; and for inx, instead of the thought that a long time usually elapses

This strophe sets MINX, ch. xxiii. 9.

forth, in the first place, and this intentionally in Ver. 15. And the adulterer's eye watches strong language, which in the mouth of Job is (nap, observare, to be on the watch for, to lurk quite surprising, that a grievous punishment for) the twilight, i. e. the evening twilight, and certain destruction infallibly awaits them; before the approach of which he does not ply but that such destruction, for the most part, is his craft; comp. Prov. vii. 9. 703 here crepus- strophe, which, however, in ver. 24 again

long delayed, is maintained in the following culum; see above on chap. iii. 9-And puts a resumes the description of the destruction. The veil over the face: lit. "and lays on a cover- language does not permit us with the LXX., ing of the face,” i. e., some kind of a veil;- Vulg., Pesh., Eichh., Dathe, Umbr., Vaih, etc., hardly a mask, of which oriental antiquity had to take these verses in an optative sense, as a no knowledge; comp. Delitzsch on the passage. description of the punishment, which ought to

Ver. 16. They break in the dark into befal evil-doers: thus at the outset in ver. 18 we houses ; lit. "heor one in

. , ; following members show, an entire band of out every sign of the optative form of speech is thieves.—They, who by day keep them- wanting. possible, but the same selves shut up, know not the light, i. e. I indicated with sufficient clearness by the author,


before it overtakes them.

-and so through ;יְהִי קַל הוא not ,קל הוא is, as the plurals in the have חתר indefinite subj. cf


and for that reason is altogether too artificial, to extends its influence also to the second memtake vers. 18-21 (with Ewald, Hirzel, Schlottm., ber. As to the sentiment, comp. Ps. xlis. v. Gerlach, Heiligstedt, Dillmann) as a descrip- 13 [12] 21 [20]; also ver. 18 a; not however tion of the well-merited judgment inflicted on ch. xxi. 23, where rather the euthanasia [of the the wicked, ironically attributed by Job to his subject] is described, not his sudden end withiopponents, Job's own opinion on the opposite out deliverance. side being in that case annexed to it in ver. 22 Ver. 20. The womb forgets him, (whereas) seq. See against this opinion, as well as against the worms feed sweetly on him.-The two the related opinion of Stickel, Böttcher, Hahn, short sentences which constitute this member etc., the remarks of Delitzsch (ii. 33: “(1) There stand in blunt contrast to each other. pro here is not the slightest trace observable in vers. 18- sensu activo: to taste anything with 'pleasure, 21 that Job does not express his own view. (2) delectari aliqua re (lit. "to suck”-hence the There is no such decided contrast between vers. meaning "sweet”). so then is iniquity 18-21 and vers. 22-25, for ver. 19 and ver. 24 broken like the tree-(i. e. like a shattered, both affirm substantially the same thing con- or felled tree; comp. Eccles. xi. 3; Dan. iv. 7 cerning the end of the evil-doer. In like man- seq.; also above ch. xix. 10). Instead of tbe ner it is not to be supposed with Stickel, Low., wicked man his injurious conduct (n9yy, comp. Böttch., Welte and Hahn, that Job, outstripping the friends, as far as ver. 21, describes how the

on ch. v. 16) is here mentioned as having come evil-doer certainly often comes to a terrible end,

to an end, while ver. 21 again speaks in the and in ver. 22 seq., how the very opposite of

concrete concerning the evil-doer himself, in this, however, is often witnessed; 80 that this order to point to his heinous blood guiltiness as consequently furnishes no evidence in support mental thought of the strophe is this, that nei

the cause of his punishment. ["The fundaof the exclusive assertion of the friends. More-ther in life nor in death had be suffered the punover, ver. 24 compared with ver. 19, where there ishment of bis evil-doing. is nothing to indicate a direct contrast, is opposed

The figure of the to it; and ver. 22, wbich has no appearance of

broken tree (broken in its full vigor) also correferring to a direct contrast with what has

responds to this thought; comp. on the other been previously said, is opposed to such an

hand what Bildad says, ch. xviii. 16: “bis antithetical rendering of the two final stro-lopped off” (or: withered). The severity of

roots dry up beneath, and above his branch is phes.”] Ver. 18. Bis course is swift on the face

his oppression is not manifest till after his

death.” Delitzsch]. of the waters: i. e. lightly and swiftly is he born hence, as one who is swept away irresisti- « fed upon, devoured,” comp. ch. xx. 26 ) the

Ver. 21. He who hath plundered (lit. bly by the flood; comp. ch. ix. 26; Hos. x. 7. barren, that beareth not (who has therefore (Carey curiously conjectures that this ver. speaks of pirates!]_Accursed is their por good to the widow-but on the contrary has

no children to protect her), and hath done no tion in the land; or: “a curse befals," etc.

shown himself hard of heart towards her. On (Dillm.). [In German: Im Fluge ist er dahin the form 2'0" comp. Gesen. & 70 (2 69), 2, auf Wassers Fläche; verflucht wird ihr Grundstück im Lande; or according to Dillmann:

Rem. [Green, 150, 2]. [The Participial form Flucht trifft, etc., whereby, continues Zöckler, nya introducing the characteristics of the class, the paronomasia between SSR and Sp. is still and followed by finite verb according to Gesen. more clearly expressed. This paronomasia it is % 131, Rem. 2];

Tenth Strophe: vers. 22-25. And yet be impossible to reproduce in English without slightly paraphrasing the one term or the other. preserveth long the men of might by Elis The above attempts to combine the verbal play strength-i. e., but truly (? before you is at with fidelity to the German original: “his course

once adversative and restrictive). He (God. is swift” for “im Fluge dahin,” and “accursedcomp. ver. 23) often greatly prolongs the life of for “verflucht."'] Whether a divine curse, or a

such mighty evil-doers (O'??x, comp. Is. xlvi. curse on the part of men, is intended, seems 12) [“ the strong, who bid defiance not only to doubtful: still parallel passages, such as ch. v. every danger, (Ps. lxxvi. 6) but also to all di3 ; xviii. 20, favor the latter view. The inter- vine influences and noble impulses.” Delitzsch). change of plur. and sing. occurs here as in ver. On us as applied to the agency of God in 16.-He enters no more on the way of the prolonging life comp. Is. xiii. 22; Ps. xxxvi. vineyard; lit. "he turns no more into the way 11; lxxxv. 6 Such an one rises up to the vineyard” (comp. 1 Sam. xiii. 18); i. e. again, although despairing of life-when he there is an end of his frequent resorting to his had already despaired of continuing in life. (So favorite possession, and in general of his enjoy- far from using his power to crush the mighty ment of the same. Observe that from here on villains of earth, God uses it to bring them triwealthy evil-doers again form the prominent umphantly through those crises in which they subject of the description; in this differing from themselves had given up all hope —E.] NS vers. 13-17.

Ver. 19. Drought and heat carry off [1972 - subordinate circumstantial clause, comp. lit. “bear away as plunder”] the snow-water Ewald, & 341, a.–7:07, Aramaizing plur. like (comp. ch. vi. 16 seq.): 80 the underworlar9p, ch. iv. 2. [According to E. V. and most those who have sinned. — ison, a rela- commentators the subject of ver. 22 is still the tive clause, which is at the same time the wicked man, qon being taken to mean: "10 object of the verb in the first member, which draw, drag" as a captive; or “to hold, bind;"


or “ to destroy. He subjugates the mighty, j a way as to set forth a natural death, such as and puts all in terror for their very life.' The all die, rather than that caused by a divine interpretation given above however is more in judgment, such as often falls upon tbe wicked. accord with the proper nieaning of øs, with Ver. 25. And should it not be so (198*5-ox! ver. 23 understood as having God for its sub

as in ch. ix. 24) who will convict me of ject; and is specially favored by the consideration that it gives more distinct expression to the falsehood, and make my speech of no efthought, so important to Job's argument

here of feot ?–The phrase Spe? Diy (instead of which the lengthening out of the life and prosperity of the Symm., Vulg., Pesh. read Seesing) is precisely evil-doer, and of the long delay of his punishment. the same with eis under redévai, or our : “bring The omission of the Divine Name is so characteris

to nought," comp. Ewald, & 286, 9; 321, b. The tic of our book as to present no difficulty.-E.]. Ver. 23. He grants him safety (lit. " He the superiority which Job vividly felt himself to

whole question is a triumphant expression of (God) grants to him to be in safety; permits him possess over his opponents, especially in the to be at his ease [noah, adverbial, of the state views derived from experience which he had or condition He grants him to be in); so that just urged respecting the incomprehensible he is sustained (jo, expressing the conse- dealings of God with the destinies of men. quence of that divine grant of security), and His (God's) eyes are upon their ways-in order, namely, to keep them therein, and to bless and protect them; comp. Sy yonin, ch. x. of job lies essentially in its descriptive treatment

1. The significance of the present discourse 8. [God's eyes, says Job, follow the prosper- of ethical and anthropological themes, some ous evil-doer with watchful interest, to see that passages even describing matters of interest in he does not step out of the path of security and the history of civilization (ch. xxiv. 5 seq.), success! According to the other interpretation, whereas the speculative and theological element which continues the evil-doer as the subject, the becomes subordinate. The latter is restricted meaning is that the oppressor allows to those almost exclusively to the first and shorter Diviwho are in his power only a transient respite, sion, which is occupied with the mystery of watching for every pretence or opportunity to Job's own destiny of suffering, just as the seinjure them. See Scott. The full-toned suffix cond Division is occupied with the obverse side 177*- seems chosen for emphasis.-E.).

of this mystery, the prosperity and impunity of Ver. 24. They rise high-a little while the wicked. That which the first Division says only, and they are gone. 195, 3 Plur. Perf. touching the inexplicableness of his sufferings from on=017, to raise oneself, to mount up- is substantially only a repetition of the wish, alward” (Ew. & 114 a; comp. Gesen. 8 67 [8 66] ready several times uttered, that God by His Rem. 1 (Green, ở 139, 1], "oyo with following personal intervention might decide the controfor the consequent, forms a short sentence by versy, and confirm his innocence, combined with

a statement of the reasons why this wish could itself, as in Ps. xxxvii. 10. As to 1PX?

not be realized. On the first of these reasons, to he is no more," comp. Gen. v. 24. The inter- wit: that on account of the overwhelming machange of numbers as in ver. 16 and ver. 18. | jesty pertaining to the appearance of God, the And they are bowed down (concerning Unapproachable and Almighty One, it would be 13??? [Aramaizing] Hoph. from 33, comp. impossible for him to put in his answer before Gesen. 8 67 [? 66), Rem. 1); like all they Him (ch. xxiii. 6) he does not dwell this time as perish (i. e. like all others), and as the top on two former occasions (ch. ix. 34; xiii. 21); of the ears [of grain: i. é. the grain-bearing he merely touches it with suggestive brevity. head of the wheat-stalk] they wither.—193977: allow him to give way long to this thought;

His consciousness of innocence is too strong to lit. “they shrivel together” (Niph. Reflex. from Kal; comp. ch. v. 16) i. e., they perish. There thanks to the incessant assaults and accusations is no reference to the componere artus of the dead of the friends, it has become consolidated and [Ges. "to gather oneself up, composing the strengthened to such a degree that in ch. xix. (as body and limbs as in death,” which here would indeed had been the case before here and there, mean to die in the course of nature, not by vio- especially in ch. xvi. 17; xvii. 9) it even found lence, or suddenly), nor to the “housing," i. e. utterance in decided exaggeration, and drove the burial of the dead (comp. Ezek. xxix. 6). blamelessness and immaculateness, for which he

him to extreme assertions touching his absolute The expression is rather å figure taken from ve

must hereafter implore pardon. Among these getable life, like the following themthey wi- assertions we find the following: that he would ther like the heads of grain;" see on ch. xlii. 2. come forth out of God's trial of him like gold, [It may be claimed with reason that the connection that he would never swerve from His ways, that Here favors the definition, “to be cut off,” the ori. he had always observed the words of His mouth ental custom of reaping being to cut off the tops, more than his own law (ch. xxiii. 10-12). All leaving long stalks standing in the field.] It is not the more emphatic however is the stress' which altogether in the sense of euthanasia, therefore, he lays on the other reasons why that wish of an easy, painless death, as described in ch. seems to him incapable of realization. God, he xxi. 23, that the present passage is to be under-thinks, purposely withdraws Himself from him. stood (against Ewald, Dillmann, etc., also Del.). It is deliberately and with good reason that He It rather resumes the description in ver. 18 seq., keeps Himself at a distance and hidden from although in less forcible language, and in such him, it being now His settled purpose to make


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