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النشر الإلكتروني

-imme לחם with לָהם avoid the concurrence of |

second member of the verse puts the thought of primary signification decerpere describes that the first in a still more striking light. The in- which in general forms their daily occupation as dications of retributive justice in the administra- | they roam about. .... The idea of waylaying tion of the world, are such that not even God's is not to be connected with the expression." familiars, who are in His secret, can discern | Del.); the steppe (0727y, the wide, open, desert the days whereon they occur.-E.].

plain) is to them (lit. "to him," viz., to each Ver. 2. Landmarks they remove [or, are

one of them), (or “to him as father of the comremoved ; vb. impersonal] flocks, they plun

pany,” Del., or possibly the sing. is is used to der, and feed. From this point on begins the specific description of the many deeds of violence, oppression and persecution permitted by diately following: Hirzell bread for their God. The vers. immediately following (3, 4) children-(Only as in ch. i. 19; xxix. 5) describe the wicked agents who commit such po the steppe, with its scant supply of roots and deeds, vers. 5-8 the wretched ones who suffer | herbs, is to him food for the children; he from them, and thence on interchangeably, now snatches it from it, it must furnish it to him" the persecutors and now the persecuted, the I (Del.) thus accounting for the use of 910]. A verbs used being put in the 30 person plural.

striking description of the beggar, vagabond Perfect. In respect to the wickedness of remo

life of these troglodytes, the precursors of the ving landmarks, (=120, from 1:0) comp.

gipsies, or South-African Bushmen of to-day. Deut. xix. 14 ; xxvii. 17; Prov. xxii. 28; xxiii. 10. In regard to the plundering and carrying

| [Of the Dixo, onagri (Kulans), with which off of herds, comp. ch. xx. 19. ["They steal

these are compared, Delitzsch says: “ Those flocks, 13?!! i. e., they are so bare-faced, that

beautiful animals, which, while young, are diffi

| cult to be caught; which in their love of freedom after they have stolen them, they pasture them

are an image of the Beduin, Gen. xvi. 12; in openly." Delitzsch).

their untractableness an image of that which ver. 8. 2.-","lo drive away," as in ls. XX. 4; cannot be bound, ch. xi. 12; and from their san, “to distrain, to take as a pledge” as in roaming about in herds in waste regions, are Ex. xxii. 25 ; Deut. xxiv. 6; comp. below ver. here an image of a gregarious vagrant, and free9 (whereas on the other hand in ch. xxii. 6 the booter kind of life." Del.] word is used in a somewhat different sense). Ver. 6. In the field they reap (so accord. [The ass of the orphan, and the yoke-ox of the ing to the K'ri 1713!; the K'thibh ryp would widow are here referred to as the most valuable be rendered by some such expression as “they possession, and principal dependence of those make for & harvest") the cattle-fodder unfortunate ones.-E.]. Ver. 4. The poor they thrust out of the

05992, as in ch. vi. 5, mixed fodder for the catway-i. e., out of the way, in which they have tle, farrago] ; lit.“his cattle-fodder, i. e. that of the right to walk, into roadless regions (comp. the yw? mentioned in b. [Most explain this to non in a similar sense in Amos v. 12). All mean that these miserable hirelings seek to together (90' as in ch. iii. 18) the wretched satisfy their hunger with the fodder grown for of the land must hide themselves.--So ac

the cattle. Delitzsch on the ground that “732 cording to the K'ri: Y?-?), while the K'thibh

does not signify to sweep together, but to reap

in an orderly manner; and if they meant to 1893y would, according to Ps. lxxvi. 10; Zeph.

steal why did they not seize the better portion ii. 3 designate the “afflicted," the “gufferers" of|

of the produce ?" supposes that the “rich evilthe land, which seems less suitable here. The

doer hires them to cut the fodder for his cattle, Pass. 1R3n denotes what these unfortunate ones but does not like to entrust the reaping of the are compelled to do; comp. ch. xxx. 7.

better kinds of corn to them.” This view, how. Sixth Strophe ; vers. 5-8. Description of the ever, seems less natural than the former, and miserable condition into which the oppressed less in harmony with the parallelism. See be. and persecuted are brought by those wicked ones low on 6.-E.]. And they glean the vine(not of another class of evil-doers apart from those previously spoken of, as ancient exegesis

yard of the wicked. ups serotinos fructus for the most part assumed, and as latterly

colligere (Rosenm.), to glean the late-ripe fruit, Rosenm., Umbr., Vaih. [Lee, Barnes, Carey,

i. e. stealing it. The meaning can scarcely be Scott, etc.) explain). As is evident from the

that this was done in the service of the rich more extended description in ch. xxx. 1-8 of the evil-doer, in which case the verb si racemari unsettled, tagabond life of such unfortunates,

would rather have been used (against Delitzsch). the poet has here before his eyes the aborigines

Ver. 7. Naked (Diny, adverbial accusative, of the lands east of the Jordan, who were driven from their homes into the desert, possibly the

as in ver. 10; comp. Spie, ch. xii. 17, 19) they remnant of the ancient Horites [cave-dwellers); pass the night without clothing, 127 lit. comp. wbat is said more in detail below on « from the lack of." comp. ver. 8 6. and ver. 10. ch. xxx. Behold, wild asses in the wilder-1 Ver. 8. ... And shelterless (from lack ness (i. e. as wild asses ; comp. ch. vi. 5; xi. I of shelter) they clasp the rock.-pan, they 12; xxxix. 5 seq.), they go forth in their daily work (lit. " work;" comp. Ps. civ. 23),

“ embrace" the rock, in that shivering they seeking after prey (970, booty, prey, a liv

| crouch beneath it as their shelter. Comp. the

phrase, “embracing the dunghill ” (mezabil), ing, as in Prov. xxxi. 15) ["from 929 in the

Lam. iv. 5.

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Seventh Strophe: vers. 9-12. Resuming the Prov. viii. 20). Taking it in this sense here, description of the tyrannical conduct of those the subject is naturally “the poor;” and xii in men of power described in vers, 2-4. They the second member is simply “to bear, not “ to tear the orphan from the breast.- 7 here take away from.”—E.) the same as 70, as also in Is. lx. 16 ; lxvi. 11. L.

Se also in las 16. krvi u Ver. 11. Between their walls (hence under Correctly therefore the LXX.: από μαστού

their strict supervision) they must press out

the oil (1773), Hiph. denom., only here) ; whereas to render 7 in its customary signification of "destruction, ruin ” (as e. g. by Ramban,

they tread the wine-vats, and suffer etc.) [="from the shattered patrimony"],

| thirst (while so engaged-Imperf. consec. comp. yields no satisfaotory meaning. The act of

Ewald, 8342, a). A further violation of the law tearing away from the breast is conceived of as

that the mouth of the ox must not be muzzled. the violent deed of harsh creditors, who would

Ver. 12. Out of the cities the dying satisfy their claims by bringing up the orphan groan.-So according to the reading o'ng children as slaves. And what the miserable (Pesh., 1 Ms. of de Rossi's, and some of the one has on they take away as a pledge.- older editions), which word indeed elsewhere A tenable meaning, and one that will agree well means “the dead," but which here, as the pawith ver. 10 is obtained only by regarding Syy rallel of the following dan (“wounded, as an elliptical expression for hy UX: “and pierced to death,” comp. Ezek. xxvi. 15; Jer. li. what is on the miserable one,” i. e. What he 22) may very well be taken to mean the dying, wears, his clothing (Ralbag, Gegen., Arnh.,

those who utter the groaning and rattling of the Vaih., Dillmann) [Rod., Bernard, Noyes). With

death struggle (see Green, 8266, 2, a). So corthe thougat may then be compared Mio. ii. 9;

rectly Umbreit, Ew., Hirz., Vaih., Stick., Hei

| ligst., Dillmann (Schlott., Renan, Noyes. Others in respect to san see above on ver. 3. Thel (Carey, Elzas, etc.) in the weaker sense : “morother explanations which have been given are tals." The usual reading Dino, men,” yields less suited to the connection, if not absolutely

a suitable rendering only by disregarding the impossible, such as: “they take a pledge above

masoretic accentuation, and connecting this [beyond the ability of] the sufferer". (Hirzel); they take for a pledge the suckling (sy of the

Dina as subj. with 1px?! (s0 Jer., Symmachus, poor") (Kamphausen) [Elzas); “with the poor

Theod.). In that case, however, it should be

translated not by the colorless and indefinite they deal basely," or "knavishly” (Umbr.,

term “people" [Leute] (Hahn, etc.) but by Del.), wbich latter rendering however would

“men Männen, viri], warriors," and undermake it seem strange that the verb san has only stood (with Del.) of the male population of a a short while before been used twice (ver. 3, and city, “whom a conqueror would put to the ch. xxii. 6) in the sense of distraining. [To sword.” This however would remove the diswhich add Dillmann's objection that this inter course too far out of the circle of thought in pretation seems “colorless," out of place in the which it bas hitherto removed. [According to series of graphic, concrete touches of which the

the Mesor. punctuations bina Ty? would be description is composed. It may also be said of the explanation of E. V. Ewald, Schlott.,

"out of an inhabited, thickly populated city," Renan, Conant, etc., "they impose a pledge on

A thought which has no place in the connection. the sufferers," that it is less vivid than that Gesenius, followed by Conant, takes 79 (II adopted above. It must be admitted on the Lex.) in the sense of “anguish :" "for anguish other hand that the assumption that 7y=

do the dying groan." But the second member :

"and the soul of the wounded cries Sy nox is somewhat doubtful.-E. 7.

out," brings up before us a scene of blood, inVers. 10-12 again bring into the foreground volving the slaying of a multitude, for which we as subject those who are maltreated by the should have been unprepared without the menproud oppressory. These are however no longer tion of the “ city” in the first member.-E.1. represented as the wretched inhabitants of

Yet God regards not the folly !_, steppes or caves, but as poor serfs on the estates of the rich, and are thus represented as being in

lit. ["insipidity), absurdity, insulsitas (chap. i. inhabited cities and their vicinity. Naked they

22), & contemptuous expression which seems (the poor) slink about, without clothing.

very suitable here, serving as it does to describe

tersely the violence of the wicked, mocking at Comp. ver. 7, and in respect to 37277, " to slink,”

the moral order of the universe, and still remainsee ch. xxx. 28. And hungry they bear lingunpunished. The punctuation 750A,“ prayer, the sheaves-i. e. for the rich, whose hired service they perform, who however allow them

supplication” (Pesh., some MSS.) [Con., Noyes, to go hungry in their service, and thus become

Good, Elzas], may also be properly passed by guilty of the crying sin of the merces retenta la

without consideration. In regard to the absoborum (Deut. xxv. 4; 1 Tim. v. 18, etc.). [The English translators, misled probably by the Piel, | xxii. 22), " he regards not,” see ch. iv. 20; Is. ohn, which they took to be transitive, have xli. 20; and especially Ps. l. 23, where, premade the “oppressors” of the vers. preceding

cisely as here, the expression is construed with

the accus. of the object. [The rendering of the subject of ver. 10. 1?? however is always E. V.: "yet God layeth (=imputeth) not folly “to walk about, to go to and fro" (so also in to them," is not essentially different, but is less

,בְּלִבּוֹ supply), לא־יָשִׂים lute use of |

comp
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than אוֹר to נָתִיבוֹתיו as well as in ,דְרָכָיו ix in

expressive. Oppression ravages the earth; in they have no fellowship with it, as children of the wilderness, among rocks and caves, in fields night and of darkness. The rendering of the and vineyards, in villages and cities, men suffer, Targ. and of some of the Rabbis (approximately groan, die-and all this chaotic folly, this dark also of the Vulg.) [also of E. V.: "which anomaly, this mockery of the Divine order-God (houses) they had marked for themselves in the heeds it not !-E.)

daytime,” is opposed by the fact that Onn sig 4. Second Division : Second Half: vers. 13-25. | nifies always obsignare, never designare; comp. Continuation of the preceding description, in ch. xiv. 17; xxxvii. 7. which special prominence is given to those evil- Ver. 17. For to them all deep darkness doers who commit their crimes in secret, and is morning; i. e. when the deepest darkness escape for a long time the divine punishment, of the night (nid 38, comp. ch. iii. 5) begins, which surely awaits them.

then they enter upon their day's work [tbe Eighth Strophe : vers. 13-17.

Toose and
Those (17en,

drawing on of the night is to them what day. emphatically contrasting the present objects of break is to others a striking characteristic of the description, as a new class of evil-doers, the èpya TOÙ Ckótouc, in which these evil-doers with those previously mentioned) are rebels engage. Umbreit and Hirzel (and so E. V. against the light, or: “are become rebels,”

| Ber., Con.] unsuitably take not nips, but pa etc.; for so may the clause ? "? with ) essen

as subject : “the morning is to them at once tial, comp. ch. xxiii. 13) be taken, unless we prefer to explain : “are become among apostates

deep darkness.” Against this explanation it from the light," i. e. have acquired the nature may be urged that in' means not "at once," of such (Del., Dillm.) [in either case 17'7is not but as in ch. ii. 11; ix. 32, etc., wall together, the mere copula, but expresses a process of all in a body.”-Because they know the becoming). nix-'yin, "apostates, revolters | terrors of deep darkness; i. e. are fam from the light, enemies of the light,” are essen

with them, as other men are with the open day; tially the same, as “children of the night”

comp. ver. 16 c; ch. xxxviii. 16. The sing. (Rom. xiii. 12; 1 Thess. v. 5; Eph. v. 8, etc. again makes its appearance here [? ?, lit. Will not know its ways; i. e. the ways of 6 for he (or one) knows," etc.), because stress is the light, for it is more natural to refer the suf laid on the fact that every member of this wicked

band has this familiarity with the darkness of

night. [According to the rendering of E. V., to “God."

Hirzel, etc., here rejected, the meaning would be Ver. 14. At the dawn (nix's, sub lucem, cum that morning or daylight would bring terror to diluculo, toward the break of day, before it is these evil-doers, the fear i. e. of being detected yet broad daylight) the murderer riseth up. and condemned. In the second member 7943 nyin, one who makes a trade of murder, who would then be antecedent, either general: kills to steal, like the English garotter; for the “when one can discern” (Con.), or particular: wealthy oppressor is no longer (down to ver. 18) “if one know them” (E. V.) and nipis ninga. the subject of the discourse.- He slays the

the consequent-terrors of death-shade!" The poor and needy: because of their defence

other rendering, however, has on the whole the less condition; not of course for plunder, but to

advantage of greater simplicity, and agreement gratify his bloodthirsty disposition.]-And in

with usage and the context.-E.] the night he acts like a thief, or: “he

Ninth Strophe : vers. 18-21. becomes as the thief,” i. e. in the depths of

The judgment

which will overtake the wicked who have been night, when there is no one to cross his path,

thus far described. This judgment Job describes he plies the trade of a petty, common thief, com

here proleptically, for in vers. 22-24 a he returns mitting burglary, etc. For the Jussive 'n' once again to their haughty, insolent conduct instead of 77'n', comp. above ch. xviii. 12; xx. before the judgment comes, in order to bring out 23, etc. (poetic form]; and for inx, instead of

the thought that a long time usually elapses

before it overtakes them. ninx, ch. xxiii. 9.

This strophe sets

forth, in the first place, and this intentionally in Ver. 15. And the adulterer's eye watches strong language, which in the mouth of Job is (now, observare, to be on the watch for, to lurk quite surprising, that & grievous punishment for) the twilight, i. e. the evening twilight,

and certain destruction infallibly awaits them; before the approach of which he does not ply

but that such destruction, for the most part, is his craft; comp. Prov. vii. 9. 703 here crepus

long delayed, is maintained in the following

strophe, which, however, in ver. 24 again culum; see above on chap. iii. 9-And puts a resumes the description of the destruction. The veil over the face: lit. “and lays on a cover- language does not permit us with the LXX., ing of the face," i. e., some kind of a veil;- Vulg., Pesh., Eichh., Dathe, Umbr., Vaih, eto, hardly a mask, of which oriental antiquity had to take these verses in an optative sense, as no knowledge; comp. Delitzsch on the passage. description of the punishment, which ought to

Ver. 16. They break in the dark into befal evil-doers: thus at the outset in ver. 18 we houses; lit. "he," or "one breaks in;" the indefinite subj. of non, is, as the plurals in the following members show, an entire band of | out every sign of the optative form of speech is thieves. -They, who by day keep them wanting. It is possible, but the same is not selves shut up, know not the light, e. e. indicated with sufficient clearness by the author,

-and so through ;יְהִי קַל הוא not קל הוא have |

and for that reason is altogether too artificial, to extends its influence also to the second mem. take vers. 18-21 (with Ewald, Hirzel, Schlottm., ber. As to the sentiment, comp. Ps. xlix. y. Gerlach, Heiligstedt, Dillmann) as a descrip- 13 [12] 21 [20]; also ver. 18 a; not however tion of the well-merited judgment inflicted on ch. xxi. 23, where rather the euthanasia [of the the wicked, ironically attributed by Job to his subject) is described, not his sudden end withopponents, Job's own opinion on the opposite out deliverance. side being in that case annexed to it in ver. 22 Ver. 20. The womb forgets him, (whereas) seq. See against this opinion, as well as against the worms feed sweetly on him. The two the related opinion of Stickel, Böttcher, Hahn, short sentences which constitute this member etc., the remarks of Delitzsch [ii. 33: “(1) There stand in blunt contrast to each other. pro here is not the slightest trace observable in vers. 18- sensu activo : to taste anything with 'pleasure, 21 that Job does not express his own view. (2) delectari aliqua re (lit. "to suck”-hence the There is no such decided contrast between vers. meaning "sweet”). So then is iniquity 18-21 and vers. 22-25, for ver. 19 and ver. 24 | broken like the tree-(i. e. like a shattered, both affirm substantially the same thing con- or felled tree; comp. Eccles. xi. 3; Dan. iv. 7 cerning the end of the evil-doer. Io like man- seq.; also above ch. xix. 10). Instead of tbe ner it is not to be supposed with Stickel, Löw., wicked man his injurious conduct (7791, comp. Böttch., Welte and Hahn, that Job, outstripping

on ch. v. 16) is here mentioned as having come the friends, as far as ver. 21, describes how the

to an end, while ver. 21 again speaks in the evil-doer certainly often comes to a terrible end,

concrete concerning the evil-doer himself, in and in ver. 22 seq., how the very opposite of this, however, is often witnessed ; 80 that this

order to point to his heinous blood guiltiness as consequently furnishes no evidence in support

the cause of his punishment. [" The funda

mental thought of the strophe is this, that nei. of the exclusive assertion of the friends. More

ther in life nor in death had he suffered the punover, ver. 24 compared with ver. 19, where there

ishment of his evil-doing. is nothing to indicate a direct contrast, is opposed

The figure of the to it; and ver. 22, wbich has no appearance of

| broken tree (broken in its full vigor) also correferring to a direct contrast with what has

responds to this thought; comp. on the other

hand what Bildad says, ch. xviii. 16: “bis been previously said, is opposed to such an

roots dry up beneatb, and above his branch is antithetical rendering of the two final stro

Jopped off” (or: withered). The severity of phes."1

his oppression is not manifest till after his Ver. 18. His course is swift on the face of the waters: i. e. lightly and swiftly is he

death." Delitzsch).

Ver. 21. He who hath plundered (lit. born hence, as one who is swept away irresisti

“fed upon, devoured,” comp. ch. xx. 26 ) the bly by the flood; comp. ch. ix. 26; Hos. x. 7.

: | barren, that beareth not (who has therefore [Carey curiously conjectures that this ver.

er: no children to protect her), and hath done no speaks of pirates!]-Accursed is their portion in the land; or: “a curse befals," etc.

good to the widow-but on the contrary has

shown himself hard of heart towards her. On (Dillm.). [In German: Im Fluge ist er dabin auf Wassers Fläche; verflucht wird ihr Grund

the form 9'0": comp. Gesen. $ 70 ( 69], 2, stück im Lande; or according to Dillmann:

Rem. [Green, & 150, 2]. [The Participial form Flucht trifft, etc., whereby, continues Zöckler, men introducing the characteristics of tbe class. the paronomasia between S2PA and 5p is still and followed by finite verb according to Gesen. more clearly expressed. This paronomasia it is

& 131, Rem. 2]. impossible to reproduce in English without

| Tenth Strophe: vers. 22-25. And yet Ee

preserveth long the men of might by Eis slightly paraphrasing the one term or the other. The above attempts to combine the verbal play

strength-i. e., but truly (! before quo is at with fidelity to the German original: “his course

once adversative and restrictive). He (God, is swift” for “im Fluge dahin,” and “accursed”

comp. ver. 23) often greatly prolongs the life of for “verflucht.") Whether a divine curse, or a such mighty evil-doers (O'??x, comp. Is. xlvi. curse on the part of men, is intended, seems 12) [“ the strong, who bid defiance not only to doubtful: still parallel passages, such as ch. v. every danger, (Ps. lxxvi. 6) but also to all di3; xviii. 20, favor the latter view. The inter- vine influences and noble impulses." Delitzsch). change of plur. and sing. occurs here as in ver. On svo as applied to the agency of God in 16.-He enters no more on the way of the prolonging life comp. Is. xiii. 22; Ps. xxxvi. vineyard; lit. "he turns no more into the way | 11; lxxxv. 6 [6]. Such an one rises up to the vineyard” (comp. 1 Sam. xiii. 18); i. e. again, although despairing of life--when he there is an end of his frequent resorting to his had already despaired of continuing in life. (So favorite possession, and in general of his enjoy- far from using his power to crush the mighty ment of the same. Observe that from here on | villains of earth, God uses it to bring them triwealthy evil-doers again form the prominent umphantly through those crises in which they subject of the description; in this differing from themselves had given up all hope -E.] *77 vers. 13-17. Ver. 19. Drought and heat carry off (1572

17?X?- subordinate circumstantial clause, comp. lit. “bear away as plunder"] the snow-water

: Ewald, & 341, 4.-17, Aramaizing piur. like (comp. ch. vi. 16 seq.): so the underworld 1997??, ch. iv. 2. [According to E. V. and most those who have sinned. — xon, a rela- commentators the subject of ver. 22 is still the tive clause, which is at the same time the wicked man, gwir being taken to mean: “10 object of the verb in the first member, which draw, drag" as a captive; or “to hold, bind;'

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or “to destroy. He subjugates the mighty, j a way as to set forth a natural death, such as and puts all in terror for their very life. The all die, rather than that caused by a divine interpretation given above however is more in judgment, such as often falls upon tbe wicked. accord with the proper nieaning of 90s, with

Ver. 25. And should it not be so (iOx x5-ox! ver. 23 understood as having God for its sub

as in ch. ix. 24) who will convict me of ject; and is specially favored by the considera

falsehood, and make my speech of no eftion that it gives more distinct expression to the thought, so important to Job's argument here of | fect?—The phrase 95 D'ing (instead of which the lengthening out of the life and prosperity of the Symm., Vulg., Pesh. read 58?) is precisely evil-doer, and of the long delay of his punishment. I the game with eic under Tiévai, or our: "bring The omission of the Divine Name is so characteris

to nought," comp. Ewald, & 286, 9; 321, b. The tic of our book as to present no ditculty:.-E.J; whole question is a triumpbant expression of Ver. 23. He grants him safety (lit. “He

the superiority which Job vividly felt himself to (God) grants to him to be in safety; permits him

possess over his opponents, especially in the to be at his ease [nuar, adverbial, of the state

| views derived from experience which he had or condition He grants him to be in; so that just urged respecting the incomprehensible. he is sustained (199", expressing the conse- dealings of God with the destinies of men. quence of that divine grant of security), and Eis (God's) eyes are upon their ways-in

DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL. order, namely, to keep them therein, and to

1. The significance of the present discourse bless and protect them; comp. 7 Yan, ch. x. of Job lies essentially in its descriptive treatment 8. [God's eyes, says Job, follow the prosper- of ethical and anthropological themes, some ous evil-doer with watchful interest, to see that passages even describing matters of interest in he does not step out of the path of security and the history of civilization (ch, xxiv. 5 seq.), success! According to the other interpretation, whereas the speculative and theological element which continues the evil-doer as the subject, the becomes subordinate. The latter is restricted meaning is that the oppressor allows io those almost exclusively to the first and shorter Diviwho are in his power only a transient respite, sion, which is occupied with the mystery of watching for every pretence or opportunity to Job's own destiny of suffering, just as the seinjure them. See Scott. The full-toned suflix cond Division is occupied with the obverse side 177seems chosen for emphasis.-E.).

of this mystery, the prosperity and impunity of Ver. 24. They rise high-a little while the wicked. That which the first Division says only, and they are gone. 109, Plur. Perf. touching the inexplicableness of his sufferings from Don=017, to raise oneself, to mount up- is substantially only a repetition of the wish, al. ward” (Ew. & 114 a; comp. Gesen. 67 12 667 | ready several times uttered, that God by His Rem. 1 [Greeu, % 139, 1], wyo with following personal intervention might decide the contro. ! for the consequent, forms a short sentence by

versy, and confirm his innocence, combined with

a statement of the reasons why tbis wish could itself, as in Ps. xxxvii. 10. As to 133'X? “then

not be realized. On the first of these reasons, to he is no more," comp. Gen. v. 24. The inter- wit: that on account of the overwhelming machange of numbers as in ver. 16 and ver. 18. jesty pertaining to the appearance of God, the And they are bowed down (concerning Unapproachable and Almighty One, it would be ???? [Aramaizing] Hoph. from a, comp. impossible for him to put in his answer before Gesen. 8 67 r8 66). Rem. 1); like all they Him (ch. xxiii. 6) he does not dwell this time as perish (i. e. like all others), and as the top

on two former occasions (ch. ix. 34; xiii. 21); of the ears (of grain: i. e. the grain-bearing

he merely touches it with suggestive brevity. head of the wheat-stalk] they witber.—1980P,

His consciousness of innocence is too strong to lit. "they shrivel together" (Niph. Reflex. from

| allow him to give way long to this thought ;

thanks to the incessant assaults and accusations Kal; comp. ch. v. 16) i. e., they perish. There is no reference to the componere artus of the dead

of the friends, it has become consolidated and [Ges. “to gather oneself up, composing the

strengthened to such a degree that in ch, xix. (as body and limbs as in death,” which here would

indeed had been the case before here and there, mean to die in the course of nature, not by vio

especially in ch. xvi. 17; xvii. 9) it even found lence, or suddenly), nor to the “housing,'' i. e.

utterance in decided exaggeration, and drove the burial of the dead (comp. Ezek. xxix. 5).

him to extreme assertions touching his absolute

blamelessness and immaculateness, for which he The expression is rather a figure taken from ve

must hereafter implore pardon. Among these getable life, like the following 178, “they wi. assertions we find the following: that he would ther like the heads of grain;" see on ch. xlii. 2. come forth out of God's trial of him like gold, [It may be claimed with reason that the connection that he would never swerve from His ways, that here favors the definition, “to be cut off," the ori. be had always observed the words of His mouth ental custom of reaping being to cut off the tops, more than his own law (ch. xxiii. 10-12). All leaving long stalks standing in the field.] It is not the more emphatic however is the stress which altogether in the sense of euthanasia, therefore, he lays on the other reasons why that wish of an easy, painless death, as described in ch. seems to him incapable of realization. God, he xxi. 23, that the present passage is to be under-thinks, purposely withdraws Himself from him. stood (against Ewald, Dillmann, etc., also Del.). It is deliberately and with good reason that He It rather resumes the description in ver. 18 seg., keeps Himself at a distance and hidden from although in less forcible language, and in such him, it being now His settled purpose to make

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