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of order, the wasting away of all vital energy | classics, such as Lucretius II., 600 seq., Ovid, and beauty. Hence as Sixen describes the un

| Fast. II., 269 seq.) does not conflict with the

mention of the “ pillars of the earth” in ch. ix. derworld as the insatiable receptacle of the de-6, for the reason that the “ pillars ” are conparted, demanding and drawing men into itself, ceived of as the inner roots or bones, the skeleorcus rapax, 1970% gives us a glimpse yet deeper ton as it were of the body of the earth. It is into its abysmal horrors, its destructive, wast-only quite indirectly that the passage before us ing potencies. Hence the fearful significance can be used to prove the creation of the world with which in Rev. (ix. 11) it is applied, as the out of nothing. We may suggest as worthy of Hebrew equivalent to the Greek Apollyon, to the note the descriptions, which remind us of the angel of the bottomless pit.-E.).

one before us, in the more recent oriental poets, Ver. 7. Who stretcheth out the north- as e. g. the Persian Ferideddin Attar (in v. Ham. ern heavens over empty space.-The Par- mer, Geschichte der schönen Redekünste Persiens, ticiples in this and the two following verses at- / p. 141, 143): tach themselves to God, the logical subject of the

“ Pillarless be spreads ont the heavens ver. preceding (and are used to describe the di

A canopy above the eartb..

What bears the atmosphere? 'Tis nothing, vine activity herein specified as continuous].

Nothing on nothing, and only nothing;" Our rendering of joy in the sense of the north- also the Arabian Audeddin Alnasaph (de reliern heavens, the northern half of the heavenly gione Sonnitar., princ. v. 2): vault, has decisively in its favor the verb noj, “Out of a breath He made the beavens ;" which is never used of the stretching out or ex. and already in the Koran, in its Sur. 13, v. 2, pansion of the earth, or a part of it, but always it is said: “It is Allah, who has built the heaof the out-stretching of the heavenly vault, vens on high, without founding it on visible which is conceived of as a tent; comp. chap. ix. | pillars.” Comp. Umbreit on the ver. 8; Is. xl. 22 ; xliv. 24; Zech. xii. 1; Ps. civ. 2, Third Strophe: vers. 8-10. Who bindeth etc. It would be singular, moreover, if Job had up (or “shuts in,” comp. Prov. XXX. 4, c) the first mentioned only a part of the earth, the waters in Bis clouds: which accordingly northern, and not until afterwards had men- are regarded as vessels [bags, bottles, etc.) or tioned it as a whole, however true it might be transparent enclosures for the waters of the that the popular notion of oriental antiquity, heavens above: without the clouds burstwhich represented the north of the earth as a ing under them (the waters); i. e. so that the part of it which abounded most in mountains, weight of these masses of water does not cause and was highest and heaviest, would seem to fa- them to pour themselves forth in torrents of vor this view (against Hirzel, Ewald, Heiligst., rain out of their cloud-vessels, implying that Schlottmann, Dillmann). [Ewald calls atten- this is as God expressly wills and orders it; tion to the corresponding Hindu notion concern-comp. Gen. vii. 11; viii. 2. [“ By which nothing ibe north. Schlottmann thinks such a re- ing more or less is meant than that the pbysical ference to the north as the heaviest part of the and meteorological laws of rain are of God's apearth best suited to the connection. Dillmann pointment." Del.]. argues that it could not properly be affirmed of Ver. 9 ["describes the dark and thickly the heavens, that they are stretched out over the clouded sky that showers down the rain in the

appointed rainy season.” Del.] Who en

shroudeth the outside of His throne-lit. hemisphere of the heavens (Umbreit, Vaih., Hahn., of the throne,” for 702, as in 1 Kings 2. 19 Olsh., Del., etc.) is favored also by this conside

is for XD2, scarcely, as Hirzel thinks, by an ertion in addition to those already mentioned, that all the more important constellations which our ror of transcription for ONDƏ. But unquesbook mentions (the Bear, Pleiades, etc.) belong tionably “the throne” is simply="llis throne," to this northern hemisphere, and that moreover God's throne in heaven (comp. Is. lxvi. 1 ; Matt. among other people of the ancient world, the v. 31). It is said of the face or outside (39) of “pole” (i. e. the north pole), and “heaven," this throne, i. e., that side of it which is turned are used as synonyms ; so especially among the towards this earth, that God “encloses " or Romans (Varro, de L. L. vii. 2, 8 14; Ovid, Fast. enshrouds” it by causing the clouds to come 6, 278; Horace, and other poets). The correct between it and the earth. inx?, Piel from inx, view was substantially given by Brentius : Sy- I used here of the artificial veiling, or unclosing. necdoche, a part for the whole ; for Aquino, las

| draping it as it were) ["itix signifies to take which is Septentrio (North) is used for the

| hold of, in architecture to hold together by whole heaven or firmament. Hangeth the

means of beams, or to fasten together. . . then earth upon nothing: 77972, not anything also as usually in Chald. and Syr. to shut (by [lit. “not-what']=nothing, here substantially means of cross-bars, Neh. vii. 3), here to shut

| off by surrounding with clouds.” Del. Hence synonymous with “the empty space,"47777 (comp.

not exactly “to hold back," E. V. but to “ fasten Gen. i. 2), hence denoting the endless empty

up." Merx understands the verb of bearing, space in wbich the earth (which according to

holding up, and the verse to set forth the miraver. 10 is conceived of as a flat disk, rather than

cle that God bears up the throne on which He as a ball), together with the overarching north

sits. But in that case '3D would be superfluous. ern heavens, hangs freely. The cosmological ET

E.]. Spreading over it His clouds—this conception of the suspension of the earth in the

member of the verse explaining the former. empty space of the universe (with which may be compared parallel representations from the "7 refers to ixo? ??, and the quadril. verb

to the northern צָפוֹן The reference of .[תהוּ

Yung is Inf. Absol. and may thus be rendered in the phenomenon of an earthquake, or that of a
Latin by expendendo, in our language by the Pres. tremendous thunderstorm (comp. Ps. xxix.; also
Active Participle (comp. Ew. 8 141, c; and Del. on Rev. vi. 12 seq.; xx. 11).
the ver.) [According to others, e.g., Dillmann,

Ver. 12. By His power He frightens up Green, 2189 a, the vb. is preterite. Gesenius

the sea.-yai here not intransitive as in ch. (Lex) regards the quadriliteral as a mixed form. vii. 5; but transitive in the sense of “frightenfrom wng and ind. Delitzsch argues forcibly | ing up, arousing," tapáccal (comp. Is. li. 15; against this, and regards it as an intensive form

Jer, xxxi. 35); hardly in the sense of intimidaof wnp. formed by prosthesis, and an Arabic | ting, or putting at rest, as some expositors

(Umbreit, Dillm. [Conant, Carey, Rod.], etc.) change of Sin into Shin.]

Ver. 10 [passes from the waters above to the render the verb after the LXX. (KaTétavosv). waters below. He hath rounded off (encir

# Tencirs E. V. “divideth” (and so Bernard) here, and cled, n, comp. the eyupwoev of the LXX.) a min. the jhoo EV of the LXX.) a in all the passages cited: but unsupported and

| less suitably. And by His understanding bound pro as in ch. xiv. 5) for the face of He smites Rahab in pieces.-Comp. on ch. the water, to the ending of the light be- ix. 13, where already it was shown to be necesside the darkness : or “to the extremity” sary to understand an. (LXX.: kitos) of a (the confines, the boundary line) of the light colossal demon-monster of legendary antiquity with the darkness, ad lucis usque tenebrarumque (not of Egypt, nor of the raging fury of the sea, confinia (Pareau). So correctly Del. and Dill. to which yno, “to shatter, to dash in pieces" [E. V. Con., Words., Carey, Renan., Rod. Merx),

would not be suitable). while most moderns (Rosenm., Ewald, Hirz.,

Ver. 13. By His breath the heavens Schlottm., Hahn, etc.) take man-zy by itself

become bright: lit. "are brightness,” 17798, in an adverbial sense, “most perfectly, most

a substantive found only here, which, however, accurately,” (comp. ch. xxviii. 3), take yix

does not denote a permanent quality of the heaeither as a remoter accus. of JN (so Hirz.), or

vens (Rosenm.), but one that is transiently as Genit. to pin, standing at the head of the occasionally) produced by God [by His breath clause in the construct state (so Ewald). In

He scatters the clouds, and brightens the face either case, however, we get a construction

of heaven]; His hand hath pierced the which is much too harsh. As proving that fleeing serpent.—75 h, Po. from Shn, Is. li. n on-hy is by no means necessarily used ad. 9, hence perforavit, trucidavit; not Pil. from verbially, comp. above ch. xi. 7. The meaning son or son, so that it would express the idea of the verse will be rightly apprehended only by of forming, creating as the Targ., Jer., Rosenm., referring it not to the limit in time between light Arnh., Vaih., Welte, Renan [E. V., Con., Noy., and darkness, i. e. to the regular succession of Ber., Rod.), explain. For here again the disday and night (Schlottm.), but to the limit in course treats not of a creative energy of God, but space, the line separating between the light and of one that is exercised as a part of the estabdark regions of the heavenly circle, which runs lished order of nature, and in all probability it along the surface of the waters of the ocean, en- discusses the same theme as that to which ch. circling the earth. "That is to say this descrip- iii. 8 refers, to wit, the production of eclipses of tion, like that in Prov. viii. 27, has for its basis the sun and moon. For the popular superstition the conception, prevalent also among the classic prevalent at the time of the composition of our nations, and down into the middle ages, that the book conceived of this phenomenon as consistearth is encompassed all around by water, or a ing in the attempt of a dragon-like dark monsea, -that upon this earth-encircling ocean is ster to swallow up these luminaries, accompamarked out the circle of the celestial hemis nied by an intervention of God, who slays or phere, along which the sun and stars run their strangles this monster [**go that it was custocourse (so that a part of the water lies within mary to say, when the sun or moon was eclipsed: this circle)—that the region of the stars, of the The Dragon, or the Flying Serpent, has wound light, lies inside of this circle, and that the around it;' and on the other hand when it was region of darkness begins outside of it; comp. released from the obscuration: God has killed Voss on Virg. Georg. I., 240 seg.” Dillm.

the Dragon.'” Dillm.] It is to this exercise of Fourth Strophe: vers. 11-13. -The pillars of God's power, bringing deliverance, that the heaven are made to tremble, and are astonished at Bis rebuke.—“Pillars of heaven" is the name which the poet gives to the

same expression also in I8. xxvii, 1) denotes the mountains towering upon high, which seem as

monster referred to, which is represented as it were to bear up the arch of heaven; comp.

seized upon in the act of fleeing (before God), the ancient classic legend of Atlas, and see above

hence as "a fugitive, fleeing serpent.” In that on ch. ix. 6. In speaking of these pillars as

parallel passage in Isaiah, the LXX. rightly “moved to trembling" (1991), Piel. from 947,

translate by όφιν φεύγοντα, while their rendering

in the passage before us, Spákovta á tootáTIV, Trváceiv) ["the signification of violent and quick whether we regard the language or the thought, motion backwards and forwards is secured to is equally inadmissible with the coluber tortuosus the verb” by forms in the Targ., Talm. and of the Vulg. [followed by E. V. “crooked serArabic.-Del.], and as fleeing in astonishment pent"], or the serpentem vectem of the same verbefore God's rebuking thunder (comp. Ps. civ. sion in Is. xxvii. 1 (comp. the voi ovykheiovra, 7; Is. I. 2; Nah, i. 4), the poet describes here I "the barring serpent,” of Symmachus).

חלִלָה יָדוֹ clause refers
,
while

the) נָחָשׁ בָּרִיחַ

Ver. 14. A recapitulating closing verse, stand-, relatively friendly-in a way in which the final ing outside of the schema of strophes.-Lo, peaceful termination of the conflict (ch. xlii. these (7778 pointing backwards, as in ch. xviii.

7-9) is remotely intimated. That which Bildad

actually brings forward is a truth which does 21) are the ends of His ways; or, “of His

not at all touch the real point at issue, which way,” according to the K’thibh; the same wa- Job himself has on former occasions expressly vering between 1977 and 1217 to be seen also conceded (see ch. ix. 2; xiv. 4), the same truth in Prov. viii. 22. 'The ends'' or borders" which Eliphaz had in his first two discourses (Delitzsch) Conant, Words., etc., 7 of God's ways prominently emphasized, and in the renewed are the extreme outlines of what He is doing in statement of which, at this time, Bildad closely governing the world, those intimations of Alis copies even the expressions of his older associate. beavenly activity which are lowest, and nearest,

He only reminds Job of the universal sinfuland most immediately accessible to our power

ness of the human race once again, without of apprehension.-And what a faintly whis-direct accusation, in order that Job may himself

derive from it the admonition to bumble himself; pering word (it is) that we hear!-190-772

and this admonition Job really needs, for his 737, lit. “and what a whisper of a word.” For

specches are in many ways contrary to that this combination of op with a substantive in humility which is still the duty of sinful man, apposition, comp. Ps. ixx. 10; Is. xl. 18; and even in connection with the best justified con

sciousness of right thoughts and actions towards you with of the attentive bearing of the holy God” (Del.). anything, see above ch. xxi. 2; also ch. Xxxvii. 2. of the fact that Job is still wanting in pro2; Gen. xxvii. 5; Ps. xcii. 12. Against the per humility, and in a profound perception of partitive rendering of ja, advocated by Schlott. sin, he at once proceeds to give evidence in his and Delitzsch, may be urged the plur. form rejoinder in ch. xxvi. In this he appears as 1277, preferred by the Masoretes, as well as decisively victorious over his opponents, who the probability that to express this meaning the

have shown themselves totally unequal to the preposition would rather have been used. problem to be solved, while he, by his emphatic SHere again, as in ch. iv. 12, the incorrect ren

reference to the incomprehensibleness and undering of E. V.: “How little a portion is heard

| searchableness of God's ways, had made at least

an important advance towards its solution, of Him," mars the poetic beauty and graphic

and bad shown his appreciation of the myscontrast of the passage. On you Wordsworth

tery as such in its entire significance. But remarks: “We feel as it were a zephyr of God's | he makes his vanquished opponents duly Presence walking in the garden of this world in sensible of this superiority which he bad the cool of the day.” 1-But the thunder of over them, when in replying to Bildad, the His omnipotence (according to the K'ri last speaker of the number, he wields the inid, “his energies”) who can under- weapon of sarcasm in a way that is altogether stand ? i. e, the full, unmodified manifestation

merciless, and seeks to humiliate him by a euof His energies, the unsmothered “thunder

logy of the divine omnipotence and exaltation course” of His heavenly spheres (comp. what w

what which is visibly intended to surpass and eclipse Raphael says in the Prologue to Faust) would

that which had been said by him. It is true be unbearable by us, frail, sinful children of

indeed that this very description in its incomearth 5«Job could not have uttered in nobler | parable grandeur gives us to understand clearly language his deep feeling of the degree in which enough how entirely filled and carried away Job the divine glory surpasses all human knowledge. J is by its infinitely elevated theme, and how by There resounds in it in truth an echo of the far

virtue of his fight to this height of an inspired off divine thunder itself, and before this the poet contemplation of God, every thought respecting has the friends now become entirely dumb."

the unrelenting, or even vindictive persecution Schlottm.]

of his opponents disappears, so that the closing | reference to the unattainable beight and glory

of the divine nature and activity (ver. 14) is unDOCTRINAL, ETHICAL AND HOMILETICAL.

accompanied by any expression whatever of tri1. That which Bildad brings forward against umphant pride, or bitter enjoyment of their Job in ch. xxv. is so meagre, and possesses so discomfiture (comp. V. Gerlach below, Homilittle novelty, that it may be said, that in his letic Remarks on ch. xxvi. 2 seq.). The pure discourse the opposition of the friends dies the and undivided enthusiasm with which he surdeath of exhaustion, and that the bitter irony renders bimself to the contemplation of the Diof Job's rejoinder to it seems fully justified. vine has manifestly an ennobling, purifying, and For the real problem which underlies the whole elevating influence on his spirit. It shows that controversy-the great mystery touching the he is not far removed at length from the goal of frequency with which the innocent suffer, which a perfectly correct and true solution of the dark Job had again set forth so eloquently just before mystery which occupies him. It makes it apo --that problem Bildad certainly does not consi- | parent that essentially one thing is lacking to der. He avoids indeed those bitter personalities him that he may press upward through the dark and odious accusations against Job with which scenes of his condict to the light of pure truth Eliphaz had made his exit just before in a man- and peace with God, and that is,& humble subner that was altogether unworthy, and takes his mission beneath the dealings of the only wise leave of the sufferer, whom he himself also had and true God, dealings which are righteous eren heretofore violently assailed, in a way that is towards him, sincere repentance and confession

of the errors and failures of which he had been of heaven, so is their brightness a type of the guilty even during the hot conflict of suffering holiness of the inbabitants of heaven, just as imthrough which he had passed, that “repenting mediately after (in ver. 6) the mortality and in dust and ashes” to which God's treatment wretchedness of man is a type of his sinfulness. brought him at last, as one who had been af- In this contra-position there lies a profound flicted by his Heavenly Father, not indeed in ac truth: Holiness and shining brightness, and sin cordance with the ordinary standard of retribu- and death's corruption correspond to each other. tion, but nevertheless not unjustly, not without In his frailty and mortality man has an incesa remedial and loving purpose.

sant reminder of his sin and corruption ; in see3. That which is of greatest interest in the ing his outward lot he should humble himself two short sections preceding not only to the inwardly before God. scientific, but also to the practical and homiletic Ch. xxvi. 2-4. WOHLFARTH: After that Job expositor, are those elements of a poetic cosmo- has ironically shown to his friend the irrelevancy logy and physical theology, which in Bildad's of his reply, he takes a nobler revenge upon discourse are presented more briefly and more bim, by delivering a much worthier eulogy on in the way of suggestion, but which in that of God's exalted greatness, of which notwithstandJob are exhibited in a more developed and com- | ing and during his suffering he has a most vivid prehensive form. It is that material which at and penetrating conviction.-V. GERLACH: Job's an earlier day was treated by Baur in his Syste- | frame of mind bordering on pride, which causes ma Mundi Jobæum (Hal. 1707), Scheuchzer in him altogether to misunderstand that which is his Jobi Physica Sacra, etc., and which to this glorious and exalted in Bildad's last discourse, day is a theme of no small interest in its theolo- belongs to the earthly folly which clings to him, gical aspects as well as in those related to cos- | which is to be stripped away from him by the mology and the history of civilization. The fact sufferings and conflicts of his inner man, and that certain mythological representations, and which does at last really fall away from him. in particular a few traces of astronomical myths, The splendid description which follows, and esare scattered over this magnificent picture of pecially its humble conclusion (ver. 14), proves creation, and that the teachings of modern in the meanwhile that the fundamental disposiscience concerning the mechanism of the hea- tion of Job's heart was different from that which vens cannot be derived from it, cannot injure the the particular expressions uttered by him in his peculiarly high value of the description, nor de- | more despondent moods. would seem to indicate. stroy its utility for practical purposes. It is in Ch. xxvi. 7 seq. BRENTIUS: The fact that God any case a view of the universe of incontroverti-stretches out the heavens, and supports the ble grandeur, which in all that is described in earth, without the aid of pillars, is a great arch. xxvi. 5-13 beholds only the “fringes" of gument in proof of His power (Ps. cii. 26). The God's glory as they hang over on earth (comp. poets relate that Atlas supports heaven on his Is. vi. 1), only a few meagre lineaments of the shoulders; but we acknowledge the true Atlas, entire divine manifestation, only a muffled mur the Lord our God, who by H13 word supports mur echoing from afar off as a poor substitute / both heaven and earth.-WOHLFARTH : The look for the thunder of His omnipotence. And in re- to heaven which Job bere requires us to take, spect to the purity and correctness of its repre- | does not indeed reach upwards to the throne of sentations in detail, this physical theology of the Eternal (ver. 7 seq.). But although we canJob ranks sufficiently high, as is shown by that not now behold Him, who dwells in His inacceswhich is said of “hanging the earth upon noth- sible light, we can nevertheless feel His nearing" (ver. 7), a description of the fact no lessness, recognize His existence, experience His surprising than the following descriptions of me | influence, see His greatness and majesty, when teorological and geological processes are poeti we pray to Him as the Being who stretches out cally bold and elevated.

the heavens above the earth like a tent, at whose

beckoning the clouds open and water the thirsty Particular Passages.

earth, who has given to the water its bounds, "Ch. xxv. 4 seq. COCCEIUS: Although in our etc. As the work bears witness to its master, so eyes the stars may seem kavapov TL oTimBelv (to does the universe to its Creator, Preserver, and shine with some degree of purity), nevertheless | Ruler (Ps. xix. 5); and no despairing one bas even they are outside of God's habitation, being ever beheld the eternal order which stands beesteemed unworthy to adorn His dwelling-place. fore him, and its mysterious, but ever beneficent ... How therefore can miserable man, who is movements, no sinner desiring salvation has ever mortal and diseased and liable to death, who is tarried in the courts of this great temple of God, a son of Adam, who is no worthier than a worm, without being richly dowered with heavenly or a grub, who is made of earth, who crawls on blessings. the earth, who lives by the earth, who is at Ch. xxvi. 14. OECOLAMPADIUS: These tokens once foul and defiled, .... who in a word is of divine power however great will nevertheless as far below the stars, as the worm is below rightly be esteemed small, as being hardly a himself-how shall be dare or be able to face slight whisper in comparison with the mighty God in His court, and on equal terms to argue thunder. There is nothing therefore so frightwith Him? Let him, along with the moon and ful, but faith will be able to endure it, when it the stars, keep himself in his own station, and he thus exercises itself in the works of God's power, will enjoy God's favors; but let him attempt to especially with the word of promise added.exalt himself, and he will be crushed by the WOHLFARTH : We can survey only the smallest weight of the divine majesty.-V. GERLACH: As portion of God's immeasurable realm! What is the hosts of heaven are types of the pure spirits the knowledge of the greatest sages but the

short-sighted vision of a worm! Our earth do we know of Him; how great is the sum of is a grain of sand in the All, the “drop of that which is hidden from us! (1 Cor. xiii. a bucket,” as the prophet says; and how little | 9 seq.).

III, Job alone : His closing address to the vanquished friends. Chap. XXVII-XXVIII.

a. Renewed asseveration of his innocence, accompanied by a reference to his joy in God, which had not

forsaken him even in the midst of his deepest misery. Chap. xxvii. 1-10. 1 Moreover Job continued his parable, and said : 2 As God liveth, who hath taken away my judgment;

and the Almighty, who hath vexed my soul; 3 all the while my breath is in me,

and the spirit of God is in my nostrils ;4 my lips shall not speak wickedness

nor my tongue utter deceit. 5 God forbid that I should justify you :

till I die I will not remove mine integrity from me. 6 My righteousness I hold fast, I will not let it go :

my heart shall not reproach me so long as I live. 7 Let mine enemy be as the wicked,

and he that riseth up against me as the unrighteous. 8 For what is the hope of the hypocrite, though he hath gained,

when God taketh away his soul ? 9 Will God hear his cry

when trouble cometh upon him ? 10 Will he delight himself in the Almighty ?

will he always call upon God?

6. Statement of his belief that the prosperity of the ungodly cannot endure, but that they must infallibly

come to a terrible end. Vers. 11-23. 11 I will teach you by the hand of God;

that which is with the Almighty will I not conceal. 12 Behold, all ye yourselves have seen it;

why then are ye thus altogether vain ? 13 This is the portion of a wicked man with God,

and the heritage of oppressors, which they shall receive of the Almighty. 14 If his children be multiplied, it is for the sword;

and his offspring shall not be satisfied with bread. 15 Those that remain of him shall be buried in death;

and his widows shall not weep. 16 Though he heap up silver as the dust,

and prepare raiment as the clay; 17 he may prepare it, but the just shall put it on,

and the innocent shall divide the silver, 18 He buildeth his house as a moth,

and as a booth that the keeper maketh. 19 The rich man shall lie down, but he shall not be gathered ;

he openeth his eyes, and he is not! 20 Terrors take hold on him as waters,

a tempest stealeth him away in the night.

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