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9 Then Satan answered the Lord and said: Doth Job fear God for nought? 10 Hast thou not made a hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that

he hath on every side. Thou hast blessed the work of his hands : his wealth has 11 spread abroad in the land. But put forth thy hand now and touch all that he 12 hath, and see if he will not curse thee to thy face. And the Lord said to Satan :

Behold, all that he hath is in thy power; only against his person put not forth thy

hand. So Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord. 13 Now it was the day that his sons and his daughters were eating and drinking 14 wine in the house of their brother, the first-born. And there came a messenger to

Job and said: The cattle were ploughing, the she asses were feeding beside them, 15 when the Sabæaus fell upon them and took them; The servants also have they

smitten with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee. 16 While he was still speaking, there came another and said: The fire of God fell

from heaven, and burned the flocks and the young men, and consumed them; and

I only am escaped alone to tell thee. 17

While he was still speaking, there came another, and said : The Chaldæans made three bands, and set upon the camels and took them. The servants also have they slain with the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.

While he was still speaking, there came another and said : Thy sons and thy

daughters were eating and drinking wine in the house of their brother, the first19 born. And behold, there came a great wind from the direction of the wilderness, and struck upon the four corners of the house, so that it fell upon

the

young people, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.

Then Job arose and rent his garment, and shaved his head; and he fell to the earth and worshipped. And he said : All naked from

my

mother's womb I came,
And naked there shall I again return.
Jehovah gave, Jehovah takes away;

Jehovah's name be blessed.
In all this Job sinned not, nor charged cruelty" upon God.

18

20

21

22

1 Ver. 10. Made a hedge about him. Among the state of more perfect security. He is called Zeùs 'Epreios, striking epithets which the Greek poets affix to the name of say the Scholiasts, because his statue stood in the epkos, the supreme god Zeus, no one is more suggestive of certain and that these frigid souls, and many modern critics with kriptural ideas than that of Zews 'Epkeios (derived Latin them, think to be enough. They never think of asking the Jupiter Herceus) literally, “the @od of the household,” of question that lies back of this: why way his statue placed the enclosure" (from @pros, a fence, hedge, or wall)-the "God in that spot? There was in it the same idea that is repreof families," of the domestic relations. It is thus the style of sented in those words of the Latin poet: Scripture not to shrink from placing side by side, as it were, the two extremes in the divine idea: the "God Eternal, Al

“Sacra Dei, sanctique patres"mighty, Most High” (ses the names El Olam, El Shaddai,

80 pregnant with a meaning of which he himself perhaps had El Elyon, as they occur in Gen sis) in close connection with

a very inadequate conception,--the sacred family idea, now epithetx denoting patrial, local, and even family relations.

80 fiercely assailed in some quarters—those holy domestic He is the God of the universe, Travrokpátwp, and at the same relations so closely allied to religion, and where Righteoustime, a beos ratpwios, God of Israel, the God of His people, ness lingers last when taking its departure from the earth: of his elect, in a closer sense than was ever dreamed of in any Grecian mythology. This epithet is a gem from the

“extrema per illos ancient mine of ideas. The thought it carries is from the "Justitia excedens terris vestigia fecit." patriarchal days. “Thou hast made a hedge about him and about his house, and all that he hath.” God does not deny 11 Ver. 22. Cruelty, izbon: enormity. Any thing what Satan says, although, for his own transcending reasons, He gives him permission to enter that sacred enclosure, abnormal, anomalous, inexplicable. See the note on tho and lay it waste for a season, that it may be restored to a l word, ch. xxiv. 12.

CHAPTER II.

1 Again it was the day when the Sons of God came to present themselves before

the Lord; and Satan came also among them to present himself before the Lord. 2 Then said the Lord to Satan : Whence comest thou ? And Satan answered the

Lord and said: From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and 3 down in it. Then said the Lord to Satan: Hast thou observed my servant Job,

that there is none like him in the earth, a man pure and just, fearing God and shunning evil? And still he holds fast his integrity, though thou didst move me

against him to destroy him without cause. 4 And Satan answered the Lord and said : Skin after skin'; yea all that a man 5 hath will he give for his life. But put forth thy hand now, and touch his bone; 6 touch his flesh; and see if he will not curse thee to thy face! And the Lord said

to Satan: Behold, he is in thy hand, only spare his life. 7 Then Satan went forth from the presence of the Lord, and smote Job with a 8 grievous sore, from the sole of his foot to his crown. And he took a potsherd to 9

scrape himself therewith, as he sat among the ashes. Then said his wife to him: 10 Dost thou still hold fast thine integrity? Curse God and die. But Job said to

her: Thou speakest as one of the foolish women speaks. Shall we, then, accept good at the hands of God, and shall we not accept evil? In all this Job sinned not

with his lips. 11 Now three friends of Job heard of all this evil that was come upon him. And

they came, each one from his place, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shu

hite, and Zophar the Naamathite, for they made an appointment together to go 12 and mourn with him, and to comfort him. And they lifted up

their

eyes and knew him not; and they wept aloud, and rent, each one, his mantle, and

afar off,

sense.

1 Ver. 4. Skin after Skin. Heb. niy va yiy, it's tba bine, and to the quick en tender fresh and representa or skin for skin, if we wish to take my in the same way as dren. These may be stripped off, like one cuticle after at the end of the verse, IVD) wa, for his life. But it another, but the interior life, the bone and the quick-flesh,

is not reached. Touch that and see if he will not cry out comes to the same thing. From the sense of after, which

in a different strain. Satan wanted to try the effect of certainly belongs to nya, and, in Arabic, is the prominent

severe bodilv pain. He knew how intolerable it was, and seuse, comes that of exchange, one thing after another, or taking the place of another; the preposition coming before

that other afflictions, though deemed greater, perhaps, when either the price or the thing exchanged. But what is the

estimated as matter of loss, could more easily be borne. meaning of it? It would require a large space to give the

The history shows that it was not the fear of death that different views that have been entertaioed. The reader will

was so terrible to Job, since he sometimes expresses a desire find a very full list of them, as given by Dr. Conant: Skin to die. 109, then, here rendered the life (end of ver. 4) is for skin-skin of another for skin of one's self-skin for the

not life, as existence, but life as feeling, feeling of severe body-skin for skin, a proverbial saying, like for like-skin pain. At the end of ver. 6, the context demands the other afterskin, as Schultens explains it; that is, a willingness to be

He will give anything, says Satan, to get relief Hayed over and over again, that is, figuratively, to be stripped from that when it becomes excruciating. See Remarks on of all his possessiony, etc. It seems strange that none of them this idea of unendurable pain in the Introduction on the seek the explanation of the language in any thing beyond Theism of the Book, p. 28.

After so much discussion, it is with diffidence the 2 Ver. 9. The reasons for this rendering are still stronger translator makes the suggestion that the whole difficulty is here than in the other passage, i. 5. Tho wife's vehemence, cleared up by simply adverting to the words in3y and

and apparent bitterness, demand the strongest expression.

3 Ver. 10. Accept. This is a more suitable word, and ing? (“his bone and his flesh”) in the next verse. Dy denotes more than receive.

The latter word does not debone is used for the very substance of a thing, in distinction from its outside, or incidental properties. See Exodus xxiv. 12. So , sometimes. But take it here for bone, occurs in Daniel and Ezra, and may be called an Aramaism;

but such examples, as has been fully shown, prove little as something more interior than the skin, or as containing or nothing in respect to the date of the Book. There are the medulla, or as connected with the flesh which has in still more decided Aramaisms in Genesis and Judges. There it more of the life, the feeling, than the skin, and we have are reasons, in some cases, for regarding them as marks just the comparison desired. It is the interior filesh, the of antiquity rather than of the contrary. quick flesh, as contrasted with the less sensible skin. So in 4 Ver. 10. With his Jips. The Jewish commentators xix. 25, it is the contrast between the raw flesh to which infer from this that while Job preserved correctness of be points (Xi), as yet remaining, and the skin which the speech, he was already sinning, or beginning to feel a want crawling worms, bred by his disease, had already nearly de- of submission, in his heart. But there hardly seems any poured. The comparison seems obvious. The skin is outside | good warrant for this. See Int. Theism, p. 28.

itself.

קַבֵּל לקח termine the manner, being, like the Hebrew

13 sprinkled dust upon their heads toward heaven. And they sat down with him

upon the earth, seven days and seven nights; and none spake a word to him; for they saw that his pain was very great.

Ver. 13. Pain was very great. IX?, means,

able pain, which the fell disease was bringing upon him.

Satan was now touching his bone and his quick-flesh, inproperly, bodily pain, although used sometimes for affliction

stead of his skin, that is, any outward good. See Note on generally, or dolor cordis, the aching of the soul (see Isa.

Ver. 4. The conduct of the friends shows this. Had it been lxv. 14). "But even this is on account of the dolor corporis, mental sorrow alone, however sovere, there would have been which may become so great as to overpower everything

no reason why they should not have spoken to him. But else. This has not been sufficiently attended to by commeritators. See remarks Int. Theism, p. 28, etc. Job's grie- would be useless, if not an aggravation.

to a man writhing in such extreme bodily anguish, speech 1028 cry, ch. ii., was simply the expression of this intoler

CHAPTER III.

1 After this Job opened his mouth and cursed his day.
2 And Job began and said,

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cursed be" אָרוּר הַיוֹם אֲשֶׁר יְלַדְתִּי בּוֹ :14

.Jerem

. xx

1 Ver. 3. i3 7598. When I was to be born.-W. to Ilirck in the construct. state. The other rendering makes

comparative, and takes yn as equal to 18 Hiph. follow Rascht, who gives the future here its prospective sig. part. of 778: like those who curse the day. This, however, nificance. The post-anticipating imagination goes back of would make what follows in ver. 8 but a tamo repetition, birth, and takes its stand before the coming event, as though which is not likely. From 1732 we get the sense of conondeprecating, praying against, its appearance. The day on tution, wrapping or rolling together. Hence the image of which I was going to be born,” he renders it noob 189 any great obscuration, veiling or darkening of the heavens. 76293 " and was then not yet born." Unless there had beer 6 Ver. 8. Doomed.—The primary sense of tiny is a some such idea as this it is not easy to see why the preterite would not have been used, as it is in the parallel passage, and from that the sense of skilled which, however, does not

near futurity, something impending, hence prompt, prepared, . : : , “ occur elsewhere in Hebrew, and seems to have been made hy

GESENIUS and others, for this one place. The primary sense, the day in which I was born."

given nearly in E. V., will do here, and, in connection with • Ver. 3. The night that said,-More grammatical it, it is easy to take Leviathan in its usual sense of some

well as more significant than our English Version. Night great monster, and the whole passage as denoting persons is personified. This is now generally acknowledged.

exposed to some imminent danger, or in the extreme of mi3 Ver. 5. Call it back.-UMBREIT, einlösen, redeem it, cursing. Delitzsch, and others, refer it to a superstition

sery: let it have the cursing of such--that is, the deepest buy it back, Darkness and Tralmgzeth are called upon to take it back as something which had been loaned or mort.

built upon the fable of the dragon swallowing the moon in gaged-reclaim it as their own-a terrific image. The other in this way, are supposed to produce eclipses. . It seems very

an eclipse. Those who rouse Leviathan are enchanters, who, sense of 5x], namely, that of staining, which some give it far-fetched, and has about it an aspect of artificiality quito here, will not do at all.

alien to the deep passiorateness of the passage. There is, be * Ver, 6. Dire eclipses.—?????. Patach shortened

sides, not the least evidence of any such superstition among the Jews or the ancient Arabiang.

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9

Be dark its twilight stars.
For light let it look forth, and look in vain ;
Nor may it ever see the eyelids of the dawn.
For that it did not shut the womb when I was born,
Nor hide the coming sorrow from mine eyes.

10

11

12

13

Why at the birth did I not die
When from the womb I came—and breathe my last?
Why were the narsing knees prepared ?
And why the breasts that I should suck?
For now in silence had I lain me down ;
Yea, I had slept and been at rest
(With kings and legislators of the earth-
The men who build their mouldering' monuments-
Or princes once enriched with gold,
Their homes with treasure filled),
Or, like the hidden birth,' had never lived;
Like still-born babes that never saw the light.

14

15

16

17

18

For there the wicked cease from troubling;
There the weary are at rest.
There lie the captives all at ease;
The driver's voice they hear no more.
The small and great alike are there;
The servant from his master free.

19

20

21

O why does He give light to one in pain ?
Or life to the embittered soul?
To those who long for death that never comes ;
Who seek for it beyond the search of treasure;
Who joy to exultation,-yea,
Are very glad, when they can find the grave.

22

23

24

[The grave !!] 'tis for the man whose way is hid, -
Whom God hath hedged around.
For still my groaning goes before my food,
My moans like water are poured forth.
For I did greatly fear," and it hath come;
Yea, it hath come to me, the thing that was my dread:

25

6 Ver. 12. The nursing knees.-An affecting power and pathos of the passage. Such avoidance in Hebrew image of the preparation made for the coming birth. The of the direct naming of the subject almost always denotes tenderest care becomes the object of the direst imprecation. Bomething fearful in the thought of the act or the agent.

7 Ver. 14. Mouldering Monuments.-nin. 10 Ver. 23. Were it not for the Masoretic accentuation and DELITZSCH, TuinsSo UBRIOC: _Monumerits, lik called be- division, nap, ond of ver. 22, might be taken with the mories of those who built them. There is here a bitter irony, clause that follows: the grare is for the man, etc. In that as UMBREIT says.

case, however, the preceding verb would have needed an ob. Ver. 16. Had never lived. TON NS in sense jective sufix representing typ, ver. 21. The force of the connects back with 'NO', ver. 13, and what intervenes may be regarded as parenthetical comparisons: The first IX, ver. word nap may, at all events, be regarded as carried over 15, is simply connective of vers. 14 and 15.

into the following verse, as the still sounding refrain : the • Ver. 20. Why does He?-God is evidently the sub- grave-it is for the man whose way is hid, etc, Ject of sn'. It is as though Job feared to name him other.

11 Ver. 25. Did greatly fear.-The language is soli

loquizing. It may be regarded as a resuming, after a pause wise than by the pronoun. There is no need of taking it in which there occurs to the mind of Job this silent protest, passively, as in E. V., and thereby destroying much of the l anticipating, as it were, something of the kind of charge

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that might, perhaps, be brought against him by the friends. | presents, as though he then feared some other terrible thing I was not presumptuous, he seems to say; this trouble could as coming upon him. So DelITZSCA renders it, although tho not have come as a punishment for any such feeling. He verbs in the next verse, having precisely the same form, and had thought of adversity in the midst of his prosperity; standing in precisely the same grammatical connection

may refer to a fear he had hai or this awful disease, the elo. (namely

, 'nib, vopo, etc.), ho takes in the past. It

phantiasis, which had, at last, come upon him. It is not easy to discover the reason why some commentators turn

, ',

seems like treating the Hebrew tenses as though they could be made to mean anything which a commentator might wish to bring out.

into ,יגרתי ,פחדתי ,these distinct preterite verbs of fear

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6

7

8

same.

Is not thy pious' fear thy confidence ?
Is not thy hope the pureness of thy ways?
Call now to mind; when has the guiltless perished ?'
And where were just men hopelessly destroyed ?
It is as I have seen, that they who evil plough-
Who mischief sow, they ever reap

the
By the breath of God these perish utterly;
By the blast of his fierce wrath are they consumed.
(Hushed is) the lion's cry, the schachal's roar;
The strong young lion's teeth are crushed.
The fierce old lion perishes from want;
The lion's whelps are scattered far and wide.

9

10

11

12

To me, at times, there steals a warning' word;
Mine ear its whisper seems to catch.

context.

zeugma.

1 Ver. 6. Plous fear. The epithet is used in order to deavored to supply this by the words in brackets. Such give the distinctive meaning. 1717 nxt is the Hebrew ellipses seem allowable when it is easy to understand a verb phrase for religion, and becomes used elliptically.

agreeable to the nature of the nouns, and suiting the ? Ver. 7. The emphasis here is on the verb, 2x and

It may, however, be regarded as case of 17072), both strong words. The first might be rendered kost, utterly gone. The second is well expressed, in the 4 Ver. 12. Although the Hebrew here is so very short in Eoglish version, by the Jewish phrase, cut off. Instead of as expression Fet charging Job with crimes, or even insinuating them,

39?? 277 '?X?, only tbree words, the translator this language is meant to be encouraging. "The just, such

would defend his version as neither superfluong nor deficient. a thon claimest to be, and as we believe thee to be, are The latter charge would seem to be against the omission of riever utterly lost, destroyed, cut off from God's people. the conjunction: but 1, herm, is only a transition particle. Therefore, hope thou for healing and restoration."

It connects nothing, and, therefore, as any full English : Vers. 10 and 11. MERX puts these verser in the margin rendered by being left out (sve note on the omission of the

conjunction wonld only encumber the thought, the 1 is best of his text, in smaller letters, and regards them as a dis. conjunction xiv. 2). The Pual 339" is rendered deponently; placement. They certainly have that look, unless we may

T: retard them as a *pecimen of the way in which animated the passive form denoting merely ease or gentleness of moArabian speakers run out their comparisons, as Homer tion, as though from no agency of the subject. Literally sometimes does, until they seem to lose sight of the primary was stolen ; but the idea is evidently the same as we someides. What seerns, too, to favor this view of MERX is the

times express by the active steal, as in Milton's lines : apparent lack of any verb, or verbs, th first clause, unless they are connected with yns, which

A soft and solemn breathing sound

Rose like the scent of rich distilled perfumes, seems only applicable to the teeth. The translator has en- And stole upon the air.

noups in

he

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