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Theod.: and Maloup (similarly the Targ.) turning round about, hither and thither," etc. [Fürst and Lee: the Northern constellations; Thus understood, it would be better to adhere to Mercier: Septentriones ; Good : the Arctic cham- the singular renderin, of "coud” in ver. 11, as bers; Renan: the north winds, etc.).

being more individual and vivid.-E.]. nizoo, Ver. 10. From the breath of God there is “round about,” as elsewhere 3'3p, or nigrapin impersonal as also Prov. xiii. 10) (“there Piloted by Him (lit. “by Nis pilotings,” cometh, there is given"] ice—viz., when a cold the clouds being thought of as God's ships, or blast, proceeding from God, sweeps over the face of the water, by means of which, according to b, ing to their doings-i. e., according to the

coursers; comp. Ps. xviii. 11 (10) seq.) accordthe breadth of the waters (is brought) into a actions of men, God having established & strict strait” (comp. ch. xxxvi. 16), i.e., is solidified, economic relation between those actions and the and so fettered as it were, is arrested in its free, flowing movement. Precisely thus the Arabic agency of His clouds in heaven, now yielding

This poet, Montenebbi: “ the flood is chained by bands blessing and now working destruction. of ice.” In respect to the apparent contradiction reference of the suffix in obye to men (Ewald, between this representation and the physical fact Hirzel, Heil., Dillm.) is favored by ver. 13, as of the expansion of freezing water, see below on also by the Masoretic accentuation, which forbids chap. xxxviii, 30.

Vers. 11-13 return to the description of the the connection of obyos with what follows, acphenomena of clouds and rain, occasioned by a cording to the view which finds favor with the new phase of the storm just taking place, con- majority of modern commentators—“that they Bisting in the outpouring of rain in extraordinary may do whatever he commandeth them on the abundance. Schlottmann correctly: “The storm face,” etc.. [To which add the use of the strongly in its magnificent approach drifts victoriously individualizing and descriptive Xin at the begin. before all the senses of Elihu, so that from all ning of the verse, after which it is altogether other images brought forward as they are with unlikely that the plural suffix would be used, a certain haste, he ever recurs to that of the especially seeing that again in ver. 13 6 the sing. storm” (comp. Del.).

suffix is used, 1.739?".-E.] The third member Ver. 11. Also he loadeth with moisture

expresses the object of the verb Syo-Whatsothe clouds—comp. ch. xxvi. 8.—'?, from 017, ever He commands to them apon the signifies “moisture, wet,” and '????, related to ngo, “burden,” is “10 load, to make heavy." globe. The pleonastic expression 1.7

[lit. "the habitable land (of) the earth"] occurs All explanations which take '?? as one word

again in Prov. viii. Respecting the form from the root 973 (or 1773) are against the con 1878, comp. already ch. xxxiv. 13. nection, e. g., "serenity [brightness] dispels the (Targ., Rosenm., Umbreit [Bernard,

'Ver. 13. More specific statement of the object

for which God steers the clouds in accordance Barnes, Elzas], etc.); frumentum (12) desiderat with the conduct of men: be it for a scourge, nubes (Vulg., Symmach.); ékheKtdv katataHogel when it is (necessary) for His earth, or for a vegean (LXX., and similarly Theod., Pesh.). [Gesenius, Noyes: “In rain He casts down the blessing, He causeth it to come.-ix7x5-DX. thick cloud.” Carey: “By (its) watering the is not co-ordinate with the two other conditional thick cloud falleth headlong." But the vers. clauses (Rosenm., Umbreit, Del. [E. V., Noyes, which follow, and particularly ver. 12 a, are Words., Carey, Rod.): "now for a scourge, now scarcely consistent with the idea that the cloud for the benefit of His earth, now for mercy," has cast down its contents. E. V. also seems to etc.), but subordinate [as is proved (1) by the take '? actively—" by watering He wearieth the decided contrast between " whether for & thick cloud;" the meaning being apparently that scourge” and “or for mercy,” each at the beby showering down its contents the cloud is ginning of its balf-verse; a contrast and a prowearied or worn away; against which the ob- portion of parts which would be destroyed by

jection just noted holds.-E.]. He spreadeth introducing another co-ordinate OX; (2) by the far and wide the clouds of His light-1, e., tautology which ensues from making the second the thunder-clouds, pregnant with lightning, clause with Dx co-ordinate, there being really no through which the lightning flashes; comp. ch. material difference between “for the benefit of xxxvi. 29; and in respect to rom, "to scatter, His land” (or earth), and "for mercy."-E.] to spread abroad,” comp. chap. xxxviii. 24.

The earth is called “His earth," because it is Ver. 12. And these-round about they

God's possession (comp. ch. xxxiv. 13), and the turn themselves.—X17! cannot refer to God

before i7 78 differs from the before the other (Rosenmüller, Schlottmann) [Lee; also Good iwo nouns, in that it introduces a Dat. commodi. and Elzas, who, however, both render nipp? In respect to wad="chastisement,” comp. ch. “seasons" (courses)]. It can be referred only xxi. 9. to 138, or ay, “clouds,” ver. 11. [The most

8. Conclusion. 6. Application : chap. xxvii. natural way of accounting for its use here is to with Him, Job should draw from His wonderful

14-24. Instead of censuring God, or quarreling understand it as descriptive, Elihu pointing out

operations in the natural world the right conthe cloud at the time—497!“And there it is !|clusion in regard to the mystery of his suffering.


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11 sq.

The appeals and questions addressed to Job to extent also by Carey's paraphrase—" You, Job, the end of the discourse, are seriously intended. can readily enough feel the changes of the weaAn unprejudiced consideration of the passage ther, but you cannot give any explanation of will find in it no tace "a lofty irony them.” The rendering, “How (i. e., dost thou (Schlottmann, Ewald, Dillmann).

know how) thy garments are warm, when, etc.", Ver. 14. Hearken unto this, O Job, is certainly insipid enough. In favor of the stand still, etc. Both this” (nri), and the rendering adopted above see further on ver. 18. “ wonders of God” in b, point not to” wbat fol-The rendering of b with E. V., " when He quilows, but to the contents of the preceding de- eteth (Conant, lulls ') the earth by the southscriptions.

wind," is admissible, although on account of the Ver. 16. Dost thou know how God com. absence of the suffix after upon the subject is mandeth them?_hy did, as in Ex. v. 8, and more probably yox, with the verb in the inoften, of imposing commands upon, not, as in transitive sense-to be tranquil, or rather in ch. xxxiv. 23, of " setting one's thoughts on any. Hiph. to enjoy tranquillity, to find rest. The thing” (Rosenmüller, Hirzel, Delitzsch [Conant, appropriateness of the language of this verse as Rodwell, Gesenius; i. e., when God planned (E. descriptive of summer heat will appear from the V., “disposed”) them]). Diva is not (according following extract from Thomsou's Land and the

Book (Vol. II., p. 312): “ The sirocco to-day is to the authorities just mentioned) a determina- of the quiet kind, and they are often more overtion of time when, but a specification of the ob-powering than the others. I encountered one a ject of yinn, this specification being further year ago on my way from Lydd to Jerusalem. enlarged by the Perf. consec. Y'pin!. [Accord- Just such clouds covered the sky, collecting, as ing to this explanation ? is used partitively af- these are doing, into darker groups about the

tops of the mountains, and a stranger to the ter yt, like the Greek genit. after verbs of country would have expected rain. Pale lightknowing, “ to have knowledge of,” hence of par- nings played through the air like forked tongues tial knowledge. See Ewald, 7 217, 3, 2, y). The of burnished steel, but there was no thunder and suffis in omny refers back either to the “won

no wind. The heat however became intolerable, ders of God,” ver. 14 b, or to the clouds,” ver. dark-vaulted room at the lower Bethhöron. I

and I escaped from the burning highway into a · Causing the light of the clouds to then fully understood what Isaiah (ch. xxv. 5), shine," in b (comp. ch. iii. 4; 1. 8, etc.) is a cir- meant when he said, Thou shalt bring down the cumlocution for the simple idea of lightning ; noise of the strangers as the heat in a dry place, comp. ver. 11 b. Ver. 16. Dost thou understand the bad as the heat with the shadow of a cloud--that is,

as such heat brings down the noise, and makes lancings of the clouds ?-?op from ivha the earth quiet—a figure used by Job (ch. xxxvii. 050, to weigh (Ps. lviii. 3 [2]), to poise, a si- he quieteth the earth by the south wind. We

17) when he says, Thy garments are warm when milar structure to that of an, ch. xxxvi. 29, can testify that the garments are not only warm, but not for that reason to be regarded as an in- but hot. This sensation of dry hot clothes is terchangeable form of that word (against Ewald). only experienced during the siroccos, and on Respecting O'Y?? ORA in b, comp. on ch. xxxvi. such a day, too, one understands the other ef4. The form nixsopinstead of 'p? found only fects mentioned by the prophet, bringing down

the noise, and quieting the earth. There is no Verg. 17, 18 introduce a new, and at the same living thing abroad to make a noise. The birds time the last digression from the phenomena of hide in thickest shades, the fowls pant under the storms, which otherwise constitute throughout walls with open mouth and drooping wings, the the principal theme of the description. Here it Alocks and herds take shelter in caves and under is to the phenomena which accompany the full great rocks, the laborers retire from the fields, blaze of the summer sun beaming in a perfectly and travelers hasten, as I did, to take shelter in

and close the windows and doors of their houses, serene and clear sky, that the speaker digresses. the first cool place they can find. No one has The X of ver. 17 is not a conjunction :'?

energy enough to make a noise, and the very air (Rosenm , Umbreit, Hirzel) [Good, Lee, Noyes, is too weak and languid to stir the pendent Renan, Rodwell, Barnes, etc., and E. V.) or leaves even of the tall poplars."-E.] ON (Schlottmann), but a pronoun referring to Job, the person addressed, and introducing a re- the sky ? i. e., dost thou with Him give its lative clause, precedent to the interrogative sen- vaulting or out-spanning (Gen. i. 7 sq.) to the tence in ver. 18.-Thou, whose clothes (be- firmament of clouds (oppm here essentially as come) hot, when the earth becomes sultry in ch. xxxv. 5), which is firm as a molten (lit.

becomes calm, still ”) from the South; mirror ? N7"mirror,” the same as x?? in i. l., not merely by the south-wind, which Din could not signify, but by the united influence of

Ex. xxxviii. 8. Prid, Partic. Hoph. from p' the solar heat and the torrid winds. So cor- (ch. xi. 15), indicating the preparation of the rectly Bolducius, Ewald, Stickel, Hahn, Delitz., mirror from molten and polished metal. With Dillmann (Carey, and, though less decidedly, this representation of the heavenly firmament Wordsworth], except that some of these commen- | *P*, otepéqua), as constituting a smooth, shitators (Ewald, Dillmann), inappropriately find an ning, and solid mirror, may be compared, as ironical meaning in the words (conveyed to some l most nearly resembling it, the representation of


Ver. 18. Dost thou with him arch over


it as transparent sapphire (Ex. xxiv. 10), or, , shines clearly in the bright clouds, inasmuch as more remotely, as a curtain (Ps. civ. 2) or gauze the wind has passed over it, and cleansed it of (Is. xl. 22) or a veil (Ps. cii. 27 [26]). (It should all obscurity” (Ros., Hirz., Ew., Dillm., (Schlottbe observed that the description here given of mann, Noyes, donant, Lee, Carey, Wordsworth, the skies is especially appropriate to the daz- Rodwell

, Elzas) etc.),—is not to assist but to obzling brilliancy of the oriental sky in summer, scure the comprehension of the passage. (The whence the well-known comparison of the sky in explanation of Delitzsch, adopted by our Commy.

season of heat and drought to “brass." It does not seem quite as clear as Zöckler reprewill thus be seen that those two verses, (17 and sents it. D'pro is used by Elihu in two senses : subject to the influences of the seasons, whose (1) in ch. xxvi. 28 of the rain-clouds ; (2) in garments are hot in summer, when the earth be-ch. xxvii. 18 of the sky, or firmament. De

litzsch takes it more in the latter sense here, comes still from the South, canst thou claim to he associated with Him who spread on high yon translating: “the sunlight that is bright in the blazing canopy, solid and burnished as a molten is forbidden by the onnon of c. It cannot be

etherial heights." This interpretation however mirror? the comparison being with the molten said that the wind clears the etherial heights. metal used as mirrors.—E.] Ver. 19. Teach us what we shall say to here spoken of include the lower region of

The suffix evidently shows that the "skies" Him, the mighty Author and Preserver of this clouds. Moreover the explanation itself requires magnificent world-structure ?---what we shall say that somewhere in the verse mention should be to Him, that is, when we would argue with Him. made of the lower clouds, which for a time hide We can set forth nothing (lit. “we cannot Lyset forth,” scil. O'ke) by reason of clouds, which are blown away by the wind,

the light. But if opnu must include these darkness, i. e., because of the darkness of our Del.'s explanation becomes inconsistent with the understanding; comp. Eccles. ii. 14; Is. lx. 2. preposition ?, which certainly cannot mean, 20In respect to do?, præ, propter, comp. chap. cording to Żöckler's suggestion, behind the xxiii. 17.

clouds,” or above them. Moreover, as Dillmann Ver. 20. Shall it be told Him (19?? opta- justly objects, the aspect in which God is about tive) that I would speak ?-[“Greatly in- to be presented is not that of One who, having creased vividness is imparted to the discourse by been hidden for a time suddenly reveals Him. this sudden transition from the first person plu- self, but rather that of On whose majesty is too ral to the first singular, as though Elihu would terrible for contemplation, and whose greatness realize on the instant, in his own person, all that is unsearchable. To which add that this is also was fearful in that which he assumes.” Schlott- the prominent thought in the verse just precedmann].-Or did ever a man wish to be de- ing (ver. 20);—God is so great that to approach stroyed ? lit., “ did he say, that he would be Him is to risk annihilation. With this thought (might become) destroyed ?(comp. xxxiv. 31). the other rendering stands in better connection, This question has for its basis something like so that the whole train of thought from ver. 20 the well-known Old Testament idea that “no

on may be freely rendered as follows:-Shall it man could see God and live.” See Ex. xix. 21; be apnounced to Him, the Eternal King, awful xxxiii. 20; comp. Gen. xxxii. 30; Judg. vi. 22 in glory, that I would speak to Him? Shall I

utter the desire to be ushered unto His preseq. ; xiii. 22.

Ver. 21 seq. refers again to the storm which sence, whom to see is to perish? Even now men during the whole discourse is visible in the hea- cannot look on the light—the symbol of His vens, not however with the purpose merely to glory.-- as it blazes there in the skies, over which point it out or describe it, but to use the specta much less can they gaze on His terrible majesty!

the wind has passed, clearing them up; .. cle which the storm at the moment presents as a symbol of Job's condition and relation to God at Elibu seems to speak with a presentiment of the time.

the approaching presence of God.-E.). Ver. 21. And now indeed one sees not

Ver. 22 continues the description in ver 21 c the light, which is gleaming brightly of that which follows the obscuration of the sun

by thunder-clouds: From the north comes (aina only here) in the clouds; i. e., which forth the golden brightness; - around notwithstanding the clouds that veil it, or, which Eloah (hovers) the sublimest splendor.behind the clouds shines with its customary bril. These words are referred by most modern comliancy. But a wind passeth by and clear- mentators (following the Vulg.: ab aquilone aueth them away (dispels these clouds, so that rum venit) to the metal gold, which comes out it becomes quite clear again). The meaning of of the lands lying to the north (in favor of the passage can be only this—that “the God who which they appeal to Herodotus, III., 116: is hidden only for a time, respecting whom one Pliny, Hisi. Nut., VI., 11; XXXIII., 4), and runs the risk of being in perplexity, can sud- which accordingly, even if hard to obtain, is deply unveil Himself to our surprise and confu- nevertheless at all times accessible to men, sion, and that therefore it becomes us to bow whereas God's majesty remains forever unaphumbly and quietly to His present mysterious proachable to them. But whether in this view visitation ” (Delitzsch). To reject this thought, we find the tertium comparationis to be the rewhich is so clear, and so strikingly in harmony moteness of the northern lands (Ewald, Hirzel, with the connection, and to substitute for it the Vaihinger, Welte) (Schlottmann, Lee, Conant, other and much more artificial thought—"But Dillmann), or the mysterious obscurity wbich now one cannot look upon the sunlight, while it | veils them (Stickel, Hahn, Delitzsch), the comparison would after all have something frigid Ver. 23. The Almighty-we find Him about it, would be but ill suited to the present not.—He ever remains for us One who is bepassage, and would agree but poorly with the yond our reach, both as regards the perception other intimations of the Old Testament touching of our senses and of our minds (comp. ch. xxiii. commercial geography, which locate the princi- 3), one püs oikõv ánpóoitov) 1 Tim. vi. 17). pal mines of gold towards the south rather ; [Who is great in power), but right and comp. ch. xxii. 24; xxviii. 1,6, 16. The correct the fulness of justice (17273-3), as in ch. rendering has already been indicated by the xxxiii. 19) Be perverts not-i. e., with all LXX., who translate an by véon xpvoavyoīvra, His incomprehensibleness He still continues ever following which Luther in a marginal gloss ex- righteous in His dealings—a proposition which plained the term to mean “fair weather like brings the discourse back to its starting-point pure gold”. [and so E. V.); and similarly Bren- (ch. xxxvi. 5). The phrase 1731 bovdni intius, Cocceius, Starke, Rosenmüller, Umbreit, stead of 131 779.7, which is usual elsewhere, beArnheim, and Böttcher (Aehrenl., p. 76), [Noges, longs to the Aramaizing idioms of the discourses Bernard, Barnes, Good, Wemyss, Carey, Rodwell, Elzas, Renan], but with the subordinate of Elibu (comp. the Talmudic 19? 73y; its nonvariation among themselves, that some of them occurrence elsewhere however does not necessiexplain the art of the clear sunlight breaking tate that, in disregard of the

Masoretic accents, we forth (Cocceius, etc., Umbreit), others of the should connect nip73-37 MOVII with fulv in 6, golden-shining clouds, as the covering of Jehovah in which case the objectless clause nyo will appearing in the storm. The latter modification have to be rendered either—"He does not exerof this meteorological application of the word, in cise oppression” (Umbreit, Schlottmann, Kampfavor of which may be cited that other figurative hausen) [E. V. ("He will not afflict”), Noyes, rendering of the word “gold” which we find in Conant, Barnes, Bernard, Elzas, Wordsworth, Zech. iv. 12, where gold is used for “pure oil " Good—who makes Y-37 subj. ], or as a relative -must in any case be preferred, because the clause—“which He doth not oppress" (Stickel), sun itself could not be described as coming or after the reading 12y_x", "He answereth giapp, and because the explanation of this 115? not, giveth no account of Himself” (LXX., as meaning "by means of the north-wind,” is Peshito, Rosenmüller, Hirzel, Vaihinger) [Lee, altogether too precarious, and equally at vari- Carey, Renan, Rodwell]. The explanation of ance with usage as Umbreit's translation - Hahn would seem more natural—" As regards “from heaven."

The parallel passages pro- right and the fulness of justice He doth therein duced by Schultens out of Arabic poets, in favor no wrong." of the comparison of the sunlight with gold, as Ver. 24. Therefore do men fear Him-i. e., likewise the Latin expressions aurea luz, aureus men of the right sort, men as they should be, sol, are however none the less pertinent for il- who live in accordance with the precepts of true lustration (comp. “the golden sunlight” with wisdom (ch. xxviii. 28). The optative renderus), for it still remains true that the sun is the ing of the Perf. (Umbr., Vaihinger, Stickel, source of the golden splendor, with which a por- Heiligstedt [Good, Lee, Noyes, Carey, Renan, tion of the thunder-clouds is wont to shine forth, Rodwell], etc.) is as unnecessary as the Imperawhen the storm breaks up, and the clouds begin tive_fear Him” is inadmissible, which would to retire (comp. Brentius below in the Homiletic have been written 177187!. instead Remarks on the passage). Moreover according (against Arnheim, Hahn). On the contrary the to this explanation the first member of the verse

Perf. is used here as in ch. xxxvi. 24, 25, to destands to the second in the relation of compari- note a public, universally recognized fact of exson and preparation. From the north, when the perience. He doth not look on those who winds scatter the storm (in the direction of the south) there burst forth clouds of light shining are wise in their own conceit.—39.-12-17 with the brilliancy of gold, an emblem of the in- lit. “all the wise of heart," i. e., those who comparable majesty and splendor (nin xaid on the ground of their own heart (instead of on comp. Ps. civ. i) of the light in which God' is to be wise, omnes qui sibi videntur esse sapientes clothed. There is no reference to the ancient (Vulg.). "The censorious element of the expresbeing in the north (such as Böttcher attributes sion does not lie strictly in 3? (comp. ch. ix. 4; to the passage), nor to Ezekiel's description of Prov. xi. 29; xvi. 21), but only in the contrast to the chariot of cherubim as coming from the the notion of the fear of God expressed in a. north. There may possibly have been certain Not to look on any one is, according to ch. meteorological causes of a local character, to as

xxxv. 13 b, to deem him worthy of no notice; certain which with certainty is beyond our of no gracious well-wishing in his behalf. The power, which determined the poet to the choice subject of this verb can be only God; if the conof th-expression pisxp, which in any case bas ceited were subj., and God the object (Vulg., about it something singular, susceptible only of Rosenmüller, Stickel) (Bernard, Carey) instead imperfect explanation, whether anti be under of 78?! the text would read rather #387. An stood in a mineralogical, or a meteorological uncalled-for " disparagement of Job” (Dillmn.), sense.

by no means lies in this closing sentence of Vers. 23, 24 conclude the entire meditation on Elihu's discourses, but simply a final admonition God's incomprehensibly great and wonderful dissuading him from those presumptuous judgoperations.

ments respecting God, and those presumptuous

יִרְאוּהוּ speeches against God, against which the polemic y occur in the like combination nowhere in the edge of these discourses had been principally Old Testament, and such as belong in truth to the turned, and that with entire justice. (“This is profoundest utterances which the revealed literature the sum of all that Elihu had to say that God of the Old Testament has produced in the attempt to was original and independent; that He did not solve the mystery of aßiction before the coming of ask counsel of men in His dealings; that He was Christ. great and glorious, and inscrutable in His plans; In respect to the Second Part, however, we and that men therefore should bow before Him believe that we have shown: with profound submission and adoration. ... (1) That the reflections in the sphere of phyHaving illustrated and enforced this sentiment, sical theology therein contained, so far from deElihu, overwhelmed with the awful symbols of serving the reproach of lacking originality, the approaching Deity is silent, and God is in- form on the contrary a glorification of the matroduced to close the controversy.” Barnes). jesty of God revealed in nature, which is most

harmoniously adjusted in all its parts from beDOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL.

ginning to end, poetically lofty and unique of

its kind. The prejudice of modern critics against the (2) That in particular the description of the contents and significance of Elihu's discourses terrors and beauties of the storm, exhibiting as in general has in many instances betrayed them it does in masterly combination beauties of its into judgments immoderately harsh even in re- own, deserves to be placed beside the most elespect to this, the last and most glorious of the vated passages of the sort which the Old Testsseries. Dillmann, e. g., gives it as his opinion ment literature has produced (e. g., Ps. xvii. that “if the first part of this long discourse Ps. xxix. etc.), or even surpasses them. groups together the principal thoughts of Elihu, (3) That the independence of the description, the second travels a path which the friends have as compared with the contents—similar in part already attempted (e.g., in ch. V., xi., xxv.); and -of Jehovah's discourse in ch. xxxviii. seq., is in the remainder of it is evidently based on pas- vindicated by the fact that its character is alsages of the discourses of God in chap. xxxviii. most exclusively meteorological, being limited to seq., the individual beauties of which in their the atmospheric phenomena of heat and moiscontents and application are thereby in part an- ture, and that its objects accordingly coincide ticipated. Forasmuch as Dillmann, as appears only to a limited extent with those of the disfrom his previous discussions, recognizes at the courses which follow. same time in these “principal thoughts of Elihu (4) That the supposition—which forces itself grouped together in the first part,” little or no- upon us with a necessity from which there is no thing that is original, this opinion of his is as escape-that the magnificent description here disparaging, not to say contemptuous, as it can given is continued throughout by the sight of an well be. Elihu is thereby even in respect to the actual storm in the heavens, accompanied by an contents of this his final discourse, reduced to abundance of the phenomena of thunder and the position of a mere compiler, destitute of in- lightning, furnishes a still further and a weighty dependence, who borrows the ideas and beauties contribution to the evidence in favor of the oriof others, and without remarkable skill seeks to ginality of the section in relation to what folelaborate them for his own purpose. We be- lows. lieve that the detailed exegesis which we have (5) That, finally, the suggestive conclusion of given above, and.particularly of this same fourth the whole, where the natural phenomena immediscourse, in which the point under considera- diately contemplated are symbolically referred tion has claimed thorough examination and treat--and that no less naturally than impressively ment from us, makes it unnecessary for us now -to God's mysterious operations in respect to to undertake a special refutation of this and si- Job, prepares the way for the final decisive somilar objections. We believe that we have lution of the whole problem (see especially ch. shown in respect to the reflections, predomi- xxxvii. 21 seq.). The way in which this result nantly ethical and theological, contained in the is secured banishes the last remnant of doubt first part (chap. xxxvi. 6-21), that they repeat touching the genuineness of this section, while edly set forth indeed the fundamental thought at the same time it serves to corroborate the of these discourses, to wit, the idea of a reme- view of this whole Elihu-episode as an essential dial purifying and chastening influence of di- part of the poet's own artistic plan, and as harvinely ordained suffering on the pious; that ing a close organic connection with ch. xxxviii. they do this however in a way more impressive seq. In short we believe that we have shown and soul-thrilling than any previous portion of that the descriptions of nature in the discourse the whole book; and that in particular the before us may be ranked with the best and most closing verses of this division (vers. 16-21) con- original portions of Holy Scripture of that class. tain statements in respect to God's loving treat- We believe that such a man as Alexander von ment in “alluring out of the jaws of distress,” | Humboldt showed neither poor taste nor defecin respect to the danger of allowing oneself to tive judgment in æsthetic criticism, when in the be led away from God by the “heat” of suffer- Second Part of his Cosmos (Vol. II., p. 414, ing, and the greatness of the “ransom” to be Bohn's Scientific Library) he writes with referpaid by means of it, in respect to the insuffi- ence to this very passage: “Similar views of ciency of our own strivings and conflicts and the Cosmos occur repeatedly in the Psalms (Ps. prayers for procuring salvation, in respect to the Ixv. 7 seq.; lxxiv. 15 seq.), and most fully per natural tendency of the heart to do and to utter haps in the 37th chapter of the ancient, if not ante vanity rather than to suffer patiently, such as Mosaic Book of Job. The meteorological pro

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