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cesses which take place in the atmosphere, the sinful speaking against God, but beyond quesformation and solution of vapor, according to tion the root, which lay still deeper, of these inthe ohanging direction of the wind, the play of lividual sinful outbreaks--the remainder of units colors, the generation of hail and of the roll-expiated sin, of inward impurity, not yet wholly ing thunder are described with individualizing removed by purification, from which he suffered, accuracy; and many questions are propounded and the presence of which he had repeatedly acwhich we in the present state of our physical knowledged. The mission of Elihu, as appears knowledge may indeed be able to express under with pre-eniinent clearness from this last dis. mcre scientific definitions, but scarcely to an- course of his, is none other than to prove the swer satisfactorily. The book of Job is gene- inseparable connection between those criminal rally regarded as the most perfect specimen of utterances of the sorely-tried sufferer and their the poetry of the Hebrews,' etc.

deeper ground in the moral nature, and at the 2. We are constrained to make an observation same time to prove the unavoidable necessity of in opposition to Delitzsch respecting the anthro- suffering for purification, even for the man who pological, ethical, and soteriological representa- is comparatively righteous. In other words tions of the First Part (and indeed of the whole Elihu sets forth the educational and remedial discourse, for the same representations appear value of the afflictions ordained by God for every also in the Second Part towards the end; see one who is visited by them, even for him who chap. xxxvii. 12 seq,, 19 seq.). When this com- appears to be most innocent. The course of his mentator, who is so highly esteemed on account discussion also rests on the doctrine of affliction, of his exegesis of this book, maintains (II., p. only that he affirms more urgently and empha307 seq.) that Elihu, as in his discourses gene- sizes more strongly the necessity of suffering for rally, so in this final discourse particularly, all grounded in the sinfulness of all that is done "takes up a position apart from the rest of the by the discourses of Jehovah. These rather lay book, in so far as he makes Job's sin the cause the chief emphasis on the unfathomableness of of his affliction ; while in the idea of the rest of the divine purpose in decreeing suffering, as the book Job's affliction has nothing whatever to do also, in close connection with this, on the object with Job's sin, except in so far as he allows him- of suffering, which is to cultivate and to conself to be drawn into sinful language concerning firm the obedience, humility and truth of the God by the conflict of temptation into which the pious. In short, that which Elihu seeks to de. affliction plunges him”—we believe that we monstrate is that the significance of Job's sufmust reject as a one-sided representation this fering is predominantly that of chastisement and way of characterizing the distinction between purification; that to which the conclusion of the the solution of the great mystery of suffering whole poem points on the contrary is that its given by Elihu and that given by God, or taught significance is predominantly that of probation. by the whole poem. We must also charge with Chere is no absolute contrast, but essentially one-sidedness the statement wbich follows in im- only a difference of degree between the solution mediate connection with this, that it is only the of this problem which Elihu propounds, and the assumed “older poet” (i. e., the author of the final decision of Jehovah. The former contempoem as a whole omitting Elihu's discourses), plates the affliction laid by God on the pious and not Eliha, who discusses us his theme the more with reference to its final and supreme mystery of affliction, because it is the former purpose of salvation, or which is the same only who exhibits Job as suffering wholly with thing—the former undertakes the solution of the out guilt, or even êvekev čekawouvns, whereas problem from a soteriological stand-point which Elihu "leaves sin and suffering together as in- in part as yet that of the law, the latter from separabie, and opposes the false doctrine of re- one that decisively approximates that of the tribution by the distinction between disciplinary New Testament. Comp. above, Introd. ở 10, chastisement and judicial retribution. We must ad 8. be permitted to doubt whether on Old Testament grounds a suffering purely on account of righteousness (which under the New Testament would be suffering purely on account of Christ, discourse, the anthropological-ethical and the

In a homiletic respect both divisions of the the genuine suffering of martyrdom) could have been anywhere conceived of, much less set forth physico-theological, present, much that is inwith poetic elaboration. For the “evil thought aim of the practical expositor to exhibit vividly

structive and stimulating. It will be one chief and imagination of man's heart from his youth,” and with proper care the reciprocal influence of together with the "secret frults” without num both elements in treating of such passages as ch. ber, and the "errors which cannot be understood”—all this was rooted too firmly and deeply 22 seq.

xxxvi. 5, 16, 22 seq. ; xxxvii. 5, 12 seq., 19 seq., in the consciousness of every thinker within the circle of the Old Testament revelation to admit

Particular Passages. of the possibility of separating oneself in any Chap. xxxvi. 5 seq. ZELTNER: Although God measure from this all-embracing sinfulness and is the Most Mighty One, His wisdom and goodguilt which attaches to all who belong to our ness do not permit that He should reject and

Moreover the actual issue of the action condemn any one without cause, by virtue of a of the poem in ch. xlii. shows clearly enough bare unconditional decree. His righteousness that the idea that “Job's suffering had nothing vindicates itself alike with the evil and the whatever to do with Job's sin," was not that of pious. And although in the case of the pious apthe poet. That for which Job is there obliged pearances indicate that He has forsaken them, the to repent in dust and ashes is not simply his hour never fails to come at last when He brings




forth their cause, and establishes their right, 80 | storm, and all the more at such a time pray to that they behold with pleasure His grace. -V. Him and fear Him as the true God...: In a GERLACH: Whereas Elihu has previously set forth heavy thunder-storm every one should humble the retribution of God's righteousness, which himself before God, and cry to Him, beseeching without fail overtakes the wicked, so now he Him to take us and ours into His gracious prohere sets forth His gracious fatherly guidance tection.-WOHLFARTH: Although we no longer, of His servants. He does not cast them off at like the ancients, find a sign of the personal and once on account of their missteps, for He is also visible nearness of God in the fearfully beautiful

mighty in strength of heart," i. e., His wisdom natural phenomenon of a storm, but would fain penetrates all things; He knows therefore how explain this (completely ?) by the laws of naby wondrous ways to lead them to the right goal. ture, it declares to us nevertheless the God of

Chap. xxxvi. 8 seq. Brentius: If kings or power, wisdom, and goodness, and disposes us princes, whether in liberty or in captivity and to the worship of Him, who gave to nature her chains, will not despise the instruction of the laws. . . . If by its terrors the storm first of all Lord, but will rather submit to Him when He declares to us God's majesty, and with earnest admonishes them of those things which are right, warning points us to the day of judgment, when and chastises them by afliction, and repent of mighty princes will tremble like the least of their wickedness, then shall they find the Lord their subjects, it at the same time declares to us favorable to them, and ready to forgive whatever the wisdom and goodness of the Most High.* iniquities they had before committed. ..Of Chap. xxxvii. 16 seq. Weim. BIBEL: God's this you have an example in Manasseh.--V. An- works and wonders, which lie in nature and DREAE: If in the present condition of things in which come to pass daily, are rightly perceivel the world the pious must at times languish in and learned only by believers, for it is they who misery, this is in order that they may persist- by the contemplation of such works are aroused ently endure in the right way, which conducts to give praise to God.—CocceIUS: If in other them to that blessed goal. He who rebels against matters, which happen every day, man is not these divine methods of treatment, will thereby summoned by God to act as His umpire and counonly forfeit the blessing which is ever conse- sellor, and if no one can demand that this should quent upon such suffering.

be done, nor presume to murmur against such Chap. xxxvi. 22. OECOLAMPADIUS: The invi- an arrangement, it is just that man should not sible things of God indeed are known from those require of God that the reason of the divine adthings which are seen, but all the knowledge ministration in this world should in like manner which is attainable to us now is imperfect. We be made known to him, but that he should acsee afar off, and in darkness, and through a quiesce in it whether he understands it or not, glass, having a better knowledge of what God is that he should trust God's word, and in patience not than of what He is. We are not able to await His blessing. search out His judgments, but we know Him to Chap. xxxvii. 21 seq. BRENTIUS: The true be the Most High, and the Incomprehensible light, which is God, cannot be seen, neither does One. However much accordingly philosophers it present itself to eyes of flesh. We see indeed may dispute about the way in which snow, rain, a certain splendor of the clouds, we see the light lightning, thunderbolts are produced, they are of the sun, when the clouds are scattered by the nevertheless wholly ignorant by what decree of winds, we see also gold coming from the North ; God they are brought into being. It is other i. e., we see the clouds, resplendent as with gold, wise however that our theologian (Elihu] dig. and bright serenity, proceeding from the North. courses concerning the secrets of nature. He All these are spectacles from which the pious does it in order that in them the righteousness mind rises to the praise of the great and terrible of God may be observed, showing kindness to God; and as the heavens declare the glory of some, afflicting others. But by God's appoint. God, so men from the divine works may recog. ment all things are ordered for good to those nize and glorify the true God.-UMBREIT: The who are good, at the same time that all crea- comparison here given is incomplete, but may tures work evil to those who are evil. ANDREAE: easily be understood, and may be more particuThe same storm which on the one side is sent larly set forth thus: As the sunlight, when it upon the lands for punishment and destruction suddenly bursts forth from behind a thick reil is at the same time appointed on the other side of clouds, dazzles and blinds men's eyes, so also to bless them abundantly, and to make them would the hidden majesty of God, if once it were fruitful. Thus even the severest judgments of revealed in all its glory to mortal man, veil his God are ever to be regarded as at the same time vision with darkness. & source out of wbich divine grace distils forth.

Chap. xxxvii. 1 seq. CRAMER: Thunder, light- * There is much on these points of practical utility accom. ning, and storms, are to be our open-air preach panied indeed by much which scientifically considered is un. ers, and preachers of repentance. They are tonable, absurd, and curious, in the older works on Satanal God's regalia, and emblems of His divine ma- | (Bibl. Physicus, p. 112 seq.), J. A. Fabricius (Pyrotherlogie, jesty.-STARKE: When God thunders, He, as it oder anweisung zur Erkuntniss Gottes ans B-trachtung des Feuers, were, speaks to us in wrath (Ex. xx. 19). God as an Appendix to Will. Derham's Astrothelagie, etc., Hamwould have us recognize Him even out of the l über "Blitz und Donner, Gresswald, 1745), etc..

burg, 1765); P. P. Ahlwardt, (Brontotheologia ; Betrachtungen

The Third Stage of the Disentanglement.

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 1-XLII. 6. JEHOVAH'S DISCOURSE.-The aim of which is to prove that the Almighty and

Only Wise God, with whom no mortal man should dispute, might also ordain suffering simply to prove and test the righteous : (Second Half of the positive solution of the problem.)


First Discourse of Jehovah (together with Job's answer): With God, the Almighty and Only

Wise, no man may dispute. Chap. XXXVIII. 1-XL. 5. 1. Introduction: The appearance of God; His demand that Job should answer Him.

CHAP. XXXVIII. 1-3. 1 Then the Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind, and said: 2 Who is this that darkeneth counsel

by words without knowledge ? 3 Gird up now thy loins like a man;

for I will demand of thee, and answer thou Me!

2. God's questions touching His power revealed in the wonders of creation.

a. Questions respecting the process of creation :

VERS. 4-15.
4 Where wast thou, when I laid the foundations of the earth ?

declare, if thou hast understanding. 5 Who hath laid the measure thereof, if thou knowest ?

or who hath stretched the line upon it? 6 Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened ?

or who laid the corner-stone thereof: 7 when the morning-stars sang together,

and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

8 Or who shut up the sea with doors,

when it brake forth, as if it had issued out of the womb ? 9 When I made the cloud the garment thereof,

and thick darkness a swaddling-band for it; 10 and brake up for it my decreed place,

and set bars and doors, 11 and said, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further;

and here shall thy proud waves be stayed ? 12 Hast thou commanded the morning since thy days;

and caused the day spring to know his place; 13 that it might take hold of the ends of the earth,

that the wicked might be shaken out of it ? 14 It is turned as clay to the seal ;

and they stand as a garment. 15 And from the wicked their light is withholden,

and the high arm shall be broken.

6. Respecting the inaccessible depths and heights below and above the earth, and the forces proceeding from


VERS. 16-27. 16 Hast thou entered into the springs of the sea ?

or hast thou walked in the search of the depth ? 17 Have the gates of death been opened unto thee?

or hast thou seen the doors of the shadow of death ? 18 Hast thou perceived the breadth of the earth ?

declare if thou knowest it all.


19 Where is the way where light dwelleth ?

and as for darkness, where is the place thereof, 20 that thou shouldest take it to the bound thereof,

and that thou shouldest know the paths to the house thereof? 21 Knowest thou it because thou wast then born ?

or because the number of thy days is great? 22 Hast thou entered into the treasures of the snow?

or hast thou seen the treasures of the hail, 23 which I have reserved against the time of trouble,

against the day of battle and war? 24 By what way is the light parted,

which scattereth the east wind upon the earth ? 25 Who hath divided a water.course for the overflowing of waters,

or a way for the lightning of thunder; 26 to cause it to rain on the earth, where no man is ;

on the wilderness, wherein there is no man; 27 to satisfy the desolate and waste ground;

and to cause the bud of the tender herb to spring forth ?

c. Respecting the phenomena of the atmosphere, and the wonders of the starry heavens.

VERS. 28-38. 28 Hath the rain a father?

or who hath begotten the drops of dew ? 29 Out of whose womb came the ice ?

and the hoary frost of heaven, who hath gendered it ? 30 The waters are hid as with a stone,

and the face of the deep is frozen. 31 Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades,

or loose the bands of Orion ? 32 Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season?

or canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons ? 33 Knowest thou the ordinances of heaven?

canst thou set the dominion thereof in the earth

34 Canst thou lift up thy voice to the clouds,

that abundance of waters may cover thee? 35 Canst thou send lightnings, that they may go,

and say unto thee, Here we are ?

36 Who hath put wisdom in the inward parts ?

or who hath given understanding to the heart ? 37 Who can number the clouds in wisdom?

or who can stay the bottles of heaven, 38 when the dust groweth into hardness,

and the clods cleave fast together?

d. Respecting the preservation and propagation of wild animals, especially of the lion, raven, wild goat,

oryz, ostrich, war-horse, hawk, and eagle.

Chap. XXXVIII. 39-XXXIX. 30. 39 Wilt thou hunt the prey for the lion ?

or fill the appetite of the young lions, 40 when they couch in their dens,

and abide in the covert to lie in wait ? 41 Who provideth for the raven his food ?

when his young ones cry unto God, they wander for lack of meat.

1 Knowest thou the time when the wild goats of the rock bring forth?

or canst thou mark when the hinds do calve ?
2 Canst thou number the months that they fulfil?

or knowest thou the time when they bring forth ? 3 They bow themselves, they bring forth their young ones,

they cast out their sorrows. 4 Their young ones are in good liking, they grow up with corn;

they go forth, and return not unto them.

5 Who hath sent out the wild ass free?

or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass? 6 Whose house I have made the wilderness,

and the barren land his dwellings. 7 He scorneth the multitude of the city,

neither regardeth he the crying of the driver. 8 The range of the mountains is his pasture,

and he searcheth after every green thing. 9 Will the unicorn be willing to serve thee,

or abide by thy crib? 10 Canst thou bind the unicorn with his band in the furrow?

or will he harrow the valleys after thee? 11 Wilt thou trust him because his strength is great ?

or wilt thou leave thy labor to him? 12 Wilt thou believe him, that he will bring home thy seed,

and gather it into thy barn?

13 Gavest thou the goodly wings unto the peacocks?

or wings and feathers unto the ostrich? 14 Which leaveth her eggs in the earth,

and warmeth them in the dust, 15 and forgetteth that the foot may crush them,

or that the wild beast may break them. 16 She is hardened against her young ones, as though they were not hers:

her labor is in vain without fear; 17 because God hath deprived her of wisdom,

neither hath He imparted unto her understanding. 18 What time she lifteth up herself on high,

she scorneth the horse and his rider.

19 Hast thou given the horse strength ?

hast thou clothed his neck with thunder? 20 Capst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper?

the glory of his nostrils is terrible.

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