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13

14

In troubled thoughts from spectres of the night,
When falls on men the vision-seeing trance,-
And fear has come, and trembling dread,
And made my every bone to thrill with awe, —
'Tis then before me stirs a breathing form ;8
O'er all my flesh it makes the hair rise up.
It stands ;10 no facell distinct can I discern;
An outline is before mine eyes;
Deep silence !1? then a voice I hear:
Is MORTAL" MAN MORE JUST THAN GOD?
IS BOASTING" MAN MORE PURE THAN HE WHO MADE HIM?
IN HIS OWN SERVANTS, LO, HE TRUSTETH NOT,
EVEN ON HIS ANGELS DOTH HE CHARGE15 DEFECT.
Much more to them who dwell in homes of clay,
With their foundation laid in dust,
And crumbled like the moth.

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At times. This is justified, and even demanded in 1 8 Ver. 16. A breathing form. Some render nin order to give the true conception of the future form in 23.1. here a spirit (a spectre, phantasm); others. simply a wind.

The rendering above given combines both ideas-not for the It is the frequentative future, denoting repeated happening, Anka of compromise. but because it is supposed to be most a coming of things, one after another, and therefore futare

descriptive of the fact intended : a stirring, or movement in

descriptive of the fact intended : a stirr to each other as a picture, though all past as a narration.

the air, produced by a spiritual presence, thus, as it were, The pictorial Hebrew language uses this future in prose,

taking form and position for the sense, or, in this way, ansometimes, as well as in poetry. There is an example of it,

nouncing itself. Walter Scott may not have thought of Job, ch. i. 5: “Thus did Job continually," 21'X 701 702 but he bas something of the same conception in respect to (thus would he do, D'On7 2 "all the days "-time after

the effect produced by the presence of spirits, when William

of Deloraine disturbed the grave of the wizard. Michael time). We may render it by a past tenge ; but there is a

Scott (Lay of the Last Minstrel, Cant. ii. 16): subjective or relative futurity in it. There is, moreover, something in this forın, as here used, that gives an anticipa

Strange sounds along the chancel past, tory, a looking-out sense to the whole passage. It is painted

The banners waved without a blast. as something coming on, as though the speaker placed him.

n . self in medias res, or rather back of all and regarded the We have, along with this, that most peculiar verb events as they appeared to him in each time of his having

generally denoting some mysterious, indescribable change. this clairvoyant experience; for the whole style of the lan.

The simplest word, however, answers the purpose here. It guage seems to convey such an idea ; ay in the case of the !

was & stirring in the air, just making, or seeming to make, Paluóruov of Socrates which so frequently appeared to him,

itself perceptible to the sense. though not always, perhaps, in the same way. The plural nouns in the first clause of ver. 13 confirm this view: "in

| Ver. 15. Made my hair rise up: PDA. There seasons of serious thought-in visions of the night;" as is no reason why this Piel verb should not have its transithough it had often happened.

tive sense, though most commentators renderit intransi. To render in the past, without any wau conversive, tively, making hair the subject. If taken transitively, 17

(wind or spirit) is the subject: or the feminino may denote or any affecting particle, or any thing in the context to jus.

à general or indefinite subject, the event itself. tify it, geemy very arbitrary, besides overlooking the whole

10 Ver. 16. It stands. 7 '--takes position after the spirit of the passage. As the formal future ("* will steal") would not suit our idiom, or our Occidental modes of ex- | breathing motion, and before the announcement. pressing relative time, the best thing we can do is to imitate 11 No face. 0782, aspectus, visage, something that the pictorial manner by putting it in the present, with

has features. It is a more distinct word than n some word to denote its repetitive idea as an experience, and

A in the gomething to express the subjective anticipatory f-eling.

next clause, and makes a contrast with it stronger than the To this latter service, no word is better adapted than our

words form and image as used by E. V. and CONAXT. It is word seems, as used in vers, 12 and 15.

the mere outline without any look, or any internal linesSimilar remarks are applicable to the futures that follow, ments.

12 Ver. 16. Deep silence! 7097 might, perhaps, namely, 2n', a peculiarly visionary word, and DM, be taken interjectionally, as we sometimes use the noun ver. 15, and 704', ver. 16. The præterites mingled with

silence for hush! as though the narrator, in his vivid apprehension, is carried back, and loses himself in the scene: “Hush! 'tis a voice I hear!" or, am about to hear (subjective

future youx). distinction from the descriptive style; but these, too, may be regarded as subjective retro-transitions, or shiftings of

18 Ver. 17. The announcement of the Spirit is put in scenic event. It may be maintained, also, that they are all capitals; but it is not certain where it ends, or where Eliphaz affocted by the peculiar subjective character given to the resumes his moralizing. Ver. 19, beginning with 7X, looks whole passage by the starting future d', ver. 12.

as though it might be the application that the speaker 6 Ver. 12. Warning word.—727, here, has its sense makes of the Spirit's message, which either stops here or

goes through the chapter. oraculum, as in Num. xxiii. 5, 16, and frequently in the

14 Ver. 17. Boasting man. The opithet is used to Prophets.

| mark the contrast intended between VidX, weak man, mor. 6 Ver. 13. Vision-seeing.-On the propriety of this word, see remarks Int. RøyTI. VER., p. 51.

tal man, and 121, strong man, hero, ávýp, vir. i ; Ver. 14. Thrill with awe. TN97 is an intensive 15 Ver. 18. Defect: 0757n, ignorance. verb of fear, but does not, of itself, mean to shake, as E. v. 16 Ver. 19.05; justly regarded by Conant and others rendery it. The Hiphil form makes it here peculiarly strong

as comparative.

have more of the narrative in (הפחיד and קראני) them

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13 Ver. 21. Their cord of life. D3 O n This "not found in the land of the living," that is, among mor

tal men at all. Or it may be referred to the highest wisdom rendering is adopted by the most modern commentators. It of which man is capable, " the fear of God,xxviii. 28, but gives us the same image as the mournful language of Heze

which comparatively few men possess. kiah, Isa. Ixxviii. 12, "x2 77777. Life, as a cord or

It is not exactly certain where the metaphor ends. Critics

of the Lowthian school might deem this a fault. In the thread, is a common figure in many languages.

sacred writings, however, metaphors are not employed for 13 Ver. 21. Still lacking wisdom. O na 877

embellishment. It may be thought, too, that in this case

the effect is strengthened by the very uncertainty. We literally, brut not in wisdom, or with wisdom. It may be hardly know where the moth ends and the man begins, or taken as referring to the deep wisdom of God, Job xxviii. 13 | where the one fades away into the other.

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CHAPTER V.

Call now. Does any answer thee?
To whom among the Holy dost thou turn?
Grief slays the foolish man ;
It is the simple one whom anger kills.
I've seen myself the foolish' taking root;
But soon I cursed his home.
His sons, from safety far removed,
Are trampled in the gate-no helper near.
His harvest doth the hungry man devour;
Even from the thornso he seizes it;
Whilst thirsty robbers swallow up his wealth.
Be sure that evil comes not from the dust,
Nor trouble grows as herbage from the ground.
Ah no! Man's woe is from his birth.
Thence rises it as rise the children of the flame.

8

To God then, surely, would I seek ;
To God would I commit my trust;
To God whose works are vast, his ways unsearchable,
His wonders numberless ;

9

Ver. 3. The foolish. X here. if taken in the 1 : Ver. 5. Even from the thorns. This intensive milder yet still morally culpable sense of foolish, may be rendering is demanded by the union of the prepositiong personally applicable to Job for his violent outcry, although 5x and to and from. They glean close, even the stray Eliphaz does not sufficiently consider, or understand, his heads of grain that grow among the thorns. D'oy is best extreme bodily anguish. In the harsher sense of great crimipality, ench as seems to he denoted in the description fol made here from Oy with the sense of Xy to thirst lowing, we cannot regard them as imputing great crime to (ZÖCKLER, UMBREIT, EWALD, MERX). One version has robber, Job, or holding him out as a fit subiect for such a retribu: with little or no authority, unlegg regarded as metaphorical tion. The controversy has not yet come to that, and such a from the idea of the thirsty, with which we have combined andden and unwarranted imputation upon one who had been it in the version above. DILLMANN, DAVIDSON, CONANT, koown as "sincere and upright, one who feared God and render it the snare, as in xviii. 9, though it seems quito eschewed evil," even as God Himself describes him, wonld forced here, and entirely out of harmony with 80, to gape certainly be a gross dramatic inconsistency, to say the least. Job's outcry astonishes them. Whether rightly or not, they

or pant after. The VULG, has armatus for robber. The Sp. underatand him as implying that God is unjust, that He even

riac renders it thirsty, which certainly seems to make the favory the wicked, or, at least, that He has no regard, in His

clearest contrast with hungry ( ), and therefore to be preprovidential dealings to the character or destiny of men.

ferred notwithstanding xviii. 9. It is a defence of God against such a supposed charge rather

8 Ver. 7. Ah, no! is not only strongly adversative than an attack upon Job personally. In this idea we find

here, but evidently implies a negative; ou any addá. Chila key to much that is aftarwards said, though it must be ad-dren of the flame; literal rendering of 0 ), mitted that as the dispute grows warm there comes more whether regarded as metaphorical of sparks, or' of ravenand more of personal crimination.

ous birds, as GESENIUS and others take it.

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Who giveth rain upon the earth,
And sendeth waters o'er the fields.
The lowly ones he sets on high ;
The mourning souls in safety are exalted.
He foils the cunning in their vain device;
Their hands are powerless to work reality."
He snares the wise in their own craftiness ;
Whilst the dissembler's plot is hurried on to ruin.
These are the men who meet the darkness in the day;
Who grope at highest noon as in the night.
God rescues from the sword, from their devouring mouth,
Yea, from the very hand, so strong, He saves the poor.
And thus the weak has hope ;
And foul injustice shuts her greedy mouth.

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O blessed is the man whom God reproves ;
The Almighty's chastening, therefore, spurn thou noto
'Tis true he woundeth, yet he bindeth up.
He smiteth, yet 'tis his own hand that heals.
In troubles six will he deliver thee ;
In seven-still no harm shall touch thy soul.
In famine, he from death will thee redeem,-
In war, from the sword's edge.
From the tongue's smiting thou art hidden safe;
Nor shalt thou fear war's wasting when it comes.
At devastation and at famine shalt thou laugh;
Of forest beasts® thou shalt not be afraid.
For with the very stones hast thou a covenant;
All creatures of the field hold peace with thee.
So shalt thou know thy tabernacle safe ;
Thine household muster, and find nothing gone."
Then shalt thou learn how numerous thy seed, —
Thine offspring as the earth's green growing herb.
And thou thyself, in ripened age, unto thy grave shalt come,
As sheaf that in its season to the garner mounts.

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Lo this ; we've pondered well; this is our thought.
O hear and know it; take it to thyself.

4 Ver. 12. Reallty, win. See Note 7, vi. 13. Lo Ver. 22. Forest Bensts: V90 niny, beasts of the

earth; wild beasts in distinction 'from 77707 nin, beasts 6 Ver. 20. Death here is represented as a tyrant or a l of the field, or domestic animals. conqueror, and therefore there is used the word 1779 to re- Ver. 24. Xona xs. E. V., not sin. Primary sense deem.

bere: not miss.

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CHAPTER VI.

1 Then Job replied

O could my grief be weighed,
And poised' against it, in the scale, my woe!
For now it would be heavier than the sand;

And thence it comes, my incoherent speech.
4 For Shaddai's arrows are within my flesh;

Their poison drinketh up my soul;

God's terrors stand arrayed before my face.
5 Brays the wild ass when the green herb is nigh?

Or lows the ox when fodder is before him?
6 Unsalted, tasteless—how can it be eaten ?

What relish is there in the white of eggs ?
7 [So with your words]. My soul refuses taste.

'Tis food. I loathe.

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10

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O that my prayer were heard ;
That God would grant the thing for which I long.
Let him consent and crush me down;
Let loose his hand and cut' my thread of life.
For here would be my comfort still,
That I could yet endure, though he spare not
The Holy one, whose word I've not denied.
But what then is my strength, that I should hope ?
And what mine end that I be patient still?
My strength! is it the strength of stones ?

Or is my flesh of brass ?
Is not my help within me gone,
And driven from me life's reality ?!
Unto the faint, love still is due from friends,
Even though he had the fear of God forsaken.

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1 Ver. 2. Polsed 180°, implying weight-lifting up, 1 6 Ver. 9. Comp. iv. 21, and Isaiah xxxviii. 12. 80 as to hang in free suspension. N' here may refer to 6 Ver. 10. Endure; 177908). Most modern commonthe grief and suffering laid together, or a denoting coin- | tators follow Schultens in his deduction of this once occur. cidence ; at one-like I '; the two ends of the beam in one horizontal lide; expressive of great exactness. | ring word from the Arabic to paw the ground as a

horse, thence getting the sense of exultation. It seems ex for 7777, great misfortune, -extreme wretchedness-asighing

travagant, and out of harmony with the other language onomatope, like our word woe. See HUPPELD's very full ex. Better take it from the Chalda

which has the senso planation of the word Ps. v. 10.

of burning. Hence also, as senses in use, those of contractVer. 3. Incoherent. Primary sense of ny 7 is swal

ing drawing ones-self firmly up. See the example given, Inring, as our translation gives it. The secondary sense is BUXTORP, Chald. Lex. 1481, from BERESCHITA RABBA, 102) confused and difficult utterance, as though the words were choked or swallowed.

D. anima ejus contrahitur, retrocedit in eo. Our 3 Ver. 6. The white of eggs. This comparison that

Ing. Ver, harden myself is not far from this idea. Though seems so little poetical, is evidently significant of the unsa

He spare not, or, let Him not spare. The 3d clause. Foriness and tastelessness of the counsel just given. How

Literally: For I have not denied the words of the Holy One. Tapid is all your moralizing as contrasted with the pungency T Ver. 13. min, from the substantive verb W'. Anyof my insupportable anguish! See the remarks of A. B. thing substantial and real in distinction from the failing and Davidson, a late bat most admirable commentator, who is the evanescent. very full on this and the following verse.

8 Ver. 14. Such is Dr. CONANT's clear rendering of this dif...Ver. 7. '17. 97. Lit., diseases of my food,- ficult passage. Op; primary sense, melting. Hence failing sickness of my food, or food of sickness-unsavory, or that (liquescentem), allegoria percuntis. See Glass. Philologia San makes me sick.

cra, 1712.

15

Not so my friends—illusive as the brook,
As bed of streams whose waters pass away;
Whose turbid floods are darkened from the sleet,
As on their face the snowflakes hide themselves.
What time they shrink,'° deserted of their springs,
As quenched in heat they vanish from their place,
'Tis then their wonted ways are turned" aside ;
Their streams are lost, gone up in emptiness.
The caravans of Tema look for them.
The companies of Sheba hope in vain.
Confounded are they wbere they once did trust;
They reach the spot and stand in helpless's maze.
And thus are ye—but nought;
A fearful spectacle ye see, and gaze in terror.
Have I said, give to me?
Or from your wealth be liberal for myli sake?
Or save me from the hostile15 hand,
Or from the invader's power redeem my life?
Give me your counsel, and I'll hold my peace;
And let me clearly know where I am wrong.
How mighty are the words of righteousness !
But your reproving ! how does it convince ?
At words do ye your censures aim ?
At wind-such words as one may utter in despair ?
It is as though you cast lots for the orphan's wealth;
Or traffic made of one you called your friend.
And now, O turn to me, behold my face.
I will not speak before you what is false.
Return, I pray ; let not the wrong prevail.
Return again ; there's justice on my side.
Is there perverseness in my tongue ?
Cannot my conscience'' still discern iniquity ?

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Ver. 16. Hide themselves. It does not represent, 19 Ver. 20. They reach the spot; 7gy. Right a frozen stream, but a dark scene of winter, or of the rainy | up to it-on its very brink. season, when the wadys are full. It is the snow falling on 13 ani, literally, blush with shame. The expression is the swollen waters and immediately disappearing; the same not too strong when we think of the sickening disappointexquisite image that Burns so happily employs:

ment of men travelling days in the desert, sustained by the

hope of the cooling water, and finding at last only the parched Or as the snow falls in the river,

bed of the wady. A moment white, then gone forever.

14 Ver. 22. For my sake, W . A wider sense than 10 Ver. 17. Deserted of their springs. 1993–

7: For me, pro me-propter me, as though by way of rancut off from their fountains. The word occurs but once.

som or deliverance from an enemy. See note 953 to Noldius' It is best derived from the Syriac 1 coarctarit. The sense

Concordance of Hebrew Particles. drying up is closely allied to this, and also to that of heating,

15 Ver. 23. Hostile hand. Job seems to be ever which is commonly given to the verb. See DILLMANN and

thinking of some great and terrible enemy, who is not God. UMBREIT.

Comp. xvi. 9, 11.

16 Ver. 27. As though. The language is evidently 11 Ver. 18. Zöckler here, we think, is right in referring comparative. ninX to the streams themselves, instead of rendering it 17 Ver. 27. Or traffic made. 7) with the sense caravans like many others. The process is by way of evapo emit, like the corresponding Arabic, and as used Deut. ii. 6; ration; "they go up into tohu," the waste atmosphere. It is Hon. iii. 2. So SCHLOTTMANN und verhandelt euern Freund, not easy to apply this language to the caravans, though it is 18 Ver. 29. The rendering of DELITZSCH. admirably descriptive of the drying up of the streams. The 19 Ver. 30. Conscience, the palate, when used verb ind , they twist to one side, well represents an aban-metaphorically, depotes the moral rather than the intellecdoned channel.

tual judgment.

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