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21 He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength :
he goeth on to meet the armed men.
neither turneth he back from the sword.
the glittering spear and the shield.
neither believeth he that it is the sound of the trumpet.
and he smelleth the battle afar off,
the thunder of the captains, and the shouting.
and stretch her wings toward the south ?
and make her nest on high?
upon the crag of the rock and the strong place.
and her eyes behold afar off.
and where the slain are, there is she.
8. Conclusion of the discourse, together with Job's answer, announcing his humble submission.
CHAPTER XL. 1-5.
he that reproveth God, let him answer it.
I will lay mine hand upon my mouth.
yea, twice; but I will proceed no further.
It testifies against him by means of the deep
humiliation which the majesty of the Almighty
occasions to him, by means of the consciousness
the influence of which the last remainder of | also here a similar presence and self-manifestainsolent pride still adhering to Job must of tion of the Highest is intended, taking place necessity dissolve and disappear. The discourse under the veil of those mighty phenomena of forms one well-conceived, harmoniously con- | nature; hence only a symbolical, not a corporeal structed whole, consisting of two principal divi- | appearance of God. For this reason we may sions of almost equal length, of which the first with some propriety describe the solution of the (ch. xxxviii. 4-38) refers to the creation and to whole problem of our poem which is introduced inanimate nature, the second (chg. xxxviii. 39; | by this divine appearance as "a solution in the Xxxix. 30) to the animal kingdom, as sources of consciousness" (Delitzsch). In any case the theevidence proving the divine majesty. It is not ophany which effects it is to be conceived of as necessary to resolve these two divisions into two one in which God “drew near to the earth separate discourses, as is done by Köster and veiled, perceptible indeed to the ear, and in His Schlottmann, the former of whom even deems it shining veil visible to the eye, but nevertheless necessary to resort to the violent operation of | veiled, and not presenting a bodily appearance" transposing the conclusion in ch. xl. 1-5, and (Ewald). [In accordance with the explanation putting it after ch. xxxviii. 36.--Each of these given above of ch. xxxvii. 21, 22, the joyo out divisions may be subdivided into three strophe- of which Jehovah speaks is not to be limited to groups, or long strophes, consisting of 11-12 the storm wbile raging, but refers rather to verses each, which may again be subdivided, “the dark materials of the storm now pacified.” according to the subjects described, into subor- the mountainous cloud-masses in the north. dinate strophes or paragraphs, now longer and which having spent their thunder, were now now shorter. Of these simple, short strophes | looming up in “terrible majesty," while their the three long strophes of the first principal open rifts disclosed the golden irradiation of the division (a, b and c) contain respectively three sunlight, a scene we may suppose not unlike to four, whereas the last two long strophes, at that described by Wordsworth near the close of least of the second chief division, which dwell the Second Book of the Excursion. Such a on themes derived from the animal world, con- scene, just preceded as it had been by the awesist of but two short strophes respectively. inspiring phenomena of the storm at its height 2. The Introduction : ch. xxxviii. 1-3.-Thon
would filly usher in the Divine Presence, from Jehovah answered Job out of the storm.
which the words which are to end the contro-The "answering” or “replying" refers back
versy are about to proceed.-E.) to Job's repeated challenges, and especially to
Ver. 2. Who is this that darkens coun.
sel: lit. “who is this, who is here (177 ', the last, found in ch. xxxi. 35: “Let the Almighty answer me!” — 77on? (here, as
comp. Gesenius, & 122 [8 120], 2) darkening also in ch. xl. 6 with medial ); comp. Ewald, &
counsel ?” 773y. without the article (instead of 9, 11, c [Green, & 4, a]; which the K'ri in both 13?, or instead of 'nyy) is used intentionally cases sets aside) “out of the storm (thunder- in order to describe that which is darkened by storm);"' not (as Luther translates) “out of a Job qualitatively, as something “which is a storm." It is beyond question an unsatisfac- 1 counsel (or a plan),” as opposed to a whim, or tory explanation of the definite article to say a cruel caprice, such as Job had represented that as applied to mnyo it means that storm God's dealings with him as being. * Two which "always, or as a rule, is wont to announce things are implied in what is here said to Job: and to accompany the appearance of God, when- that his suffering is founded on a plan of God's, ever He draws nigh to the earth in majesty and and that he by his perverse speeches is guilty in the character of a judge” (Dillmann). In of distorting and mistaking this plan (in repreview of the way in which the most ancient Old senting it as caprice without a plan).” Dillm. Testament sources describe the theophanies of Job's ignorant words had “darkened” God's plan the patriarchal age in general, this generic ren by obscuring or keeping out of sight its intelligent dering of the article is not at all suitable (comp. benevolent features). The participle Tong is also 1 Kings xix. 11: “the Lord was not in the
used rather than the Perf., because down to the wind"). The only explanation of the inyong
very end of his speaking Job had misunderstood here, as well as in ch. xl. 6, which is linguisti.
God's counsel, and even during Elihu's discourses cally and historically satisfactory, is that which finds in it a reference to Elihu's description of a
he had recalled nothing of what he had said in
this particular. For to the instruction and reviolent thunder-storm in his last discourse (ch.
proofs of this last speaker he had made no other Xxxvi. 37)—a reference which at the same time
response than persistent profound silence. He confirms not only our interpretation of this discourse given above, but also its genuineness,
actually appeared accordingly at the moment • and the authenticity of Elihu's discourses in
when Jehovah himself began to speak as still a
“darkener of counsel,” however true it might general. Placing ourselves (along with the
be that his conversion to a better frame of mind commentators cited above on ch. xxxvi.) on this,
had already begun inwardly to take place under the only correct point of view, we see at once the impossibility of viewing “God's speaking out
the influence of the addresses of his predecessor. of the storm" as taking place through a corpo This participle : un accordingly furnishes no real appearance of Jehovah in human form. On argument against the genuineness of chap. xxxii. the contrary, precisely in the same way that | xxxvii. (against Ewald, Delitzsch, Dillmann, Elihu's description pre-supposed only an invisi- etc.): and all the less seeing that a direct inter ble approach and manifestation of God in the ruption of Job at the moment when he had last storm-clouds, in their thunder and lightning, 80 spoken contentiously and censoriously in respect
to God's plan (ch. xxxi. 35 seq.) hy the appear-I ner-stone ?” where the “laying down" (077, ance of God cannot be intended even if these jacere) of the corner-stone points to the wonderchapters were in fact not genuine (comp. re- ful ease with which the entire work was accommarks on that passage). And especially would plished. the assumption that the interpolator of the Elihu • Ver. 7. When the morning-stars sang discourses had been prompted by this expres- out together, and all the sons of God sion, Tuna, purposely to avoid introducing shouted for joy.-The Infinitive in is conJob within the limits of that section as making tinued in 6 by the finite verb, as in ver. 13, and any confession whatever of his penitence, pre- often. The whole description determines the suppose on the part of the interpolator a degree time of the fact of the founding of the earth of artistic deliberation, nay more, of crafty cun (kara 3027) Kód LOV) spoken of in ver. 6. The ning absolutely without a parallel in the entire founding is here set forth as a festal celebration Bible literature.
(comp. Ezra iii. 10; Zech. iv. 7) attended by all Ver. 3. Gird up now thy loins like a the heavenly hosts, which are here mentioned by man--i, e., in preparation for the contest with the double designation "gons of God” (comp. me (comp. ch. xii. 21). According to b this con- ch. i. 6; ii. 1) and “morning stars, i. e., createst is to consist in a series of questions to be tures of such glory, that they surpass all other addressed by God to Job and to be answered by creatures of God in the same way that the the latter; hence formally or apparently in the brightness of the morning-star ( 22 23= very thing which Job himself had in ch. xiii. 22 55
1997?, Is. xiv. 12, Lucifer) eclipses all the other wished for; in reality however God so overwhelms him by the humiliating contents of these
stars. As another example of this generic gene. questions that the absolute inequality of the con
| ralized form of expression here found in the tending parties and Job's guilt become apparent
word “morning-stars,” compare the O'?'03 of at once.
Is. xiii. 10, i. e., the Orion-like constellations. 3. The argument. a. God's questions respect. The expression “morning-stars" moreover is ing the process of creation : vers. 4-15. [This di- scarcely to be understood as a tropical designavision consists of three minor strophes of four
tion of that which is literally designated by the verses each, the fourth verse in each forming, as expression "sons of God," that is to say, the Schlottmann observes, a climax in the thought). angels (Hirzel, Dillmann [Carey, Wemyss,
a. Questions touching the foundation of the Barnes] etc.). Rather are the angels and stars earth: vers. 4-7.
mentioned together here in precisely the same Ver. 4. Where wast thou when I found way that in chap. xv. 15 “heaven" and "the ed the earth ? (A question similar to that of holy ones” of God are mentioned together, this Eliphaz above: ch. xv. 7 seq.). Declare it if being in accordance with the mysterious conthou hast understanding—to wit, of the way nection which the Holy Scriptures generally set in which this process was carried on. This forth as existing between the starry and angelic same How of the process of founding the earth worlds (comp. also on ch. xxv. 5). Such a reis also the unexpressed object of 777 “declare!”.
presentation of the brightly shining and joy. In respoct to 7)? yr, “to have an under
ously "jubilating" stars (comp. Ps. xix. 2;
cxlviii. 3) as present when the earth was founded standing of anything," comp. Is. xxix. 24; | by God by no means contradicts the Mosaic an Prov. iv. 1; 2 Chron. ii. 12.
count of creation in Gen. i. where verse 14 (acVer. 5. Who hath fixed its measure
cording to which the sun, moon and stars were that thou shouldest know it?-Y7 '?, not: pot made until the fourth day) is assuredly to “for thou surely knowest it" (Schlottmann) be interpreted phenomenally, not as descriptive [Good, Lee, Barnes, Carey, Renan, Elzas), but of the literal fact. *so that thou shouldest know it” ( as in ch. B. Questions respecting the shutting up of the sea iii. 12). [Dillmann objects to the rendering. | within bounds : vers. 8-11. “ for thou knowest,” that the verb should be in
| Ver. 8. And (who) shut up the sea with
, Ver. 8. And (W.no) saur that case syt'; an objection which may also
doors ?-30"), which is attached to 177 ? in be urged against the rendering of E. V., Sept.,
ver. 6, is used with reference to the waters of the Vulg., Umbreit, Rosenmüller, Bernard, “if thou
sea in the newly-created earth, which at first
wildly swelling and raging had in consequence knowest.” Compare nyt ox in ver. 4 6.]. I to be enclosed, penned up, as it were, behind the “ The 'p inquires not after the person of the doors (comp. ch. iii. 23) of a prison (comp. Architect, the same being sufficiently known, Gen. i. 2, 9 seq.). The second member introbut rather after His character, and that of His
duces a clause determining the time of the first activity:-what kind of a being must He be
which continues to the end of ver. 11.-When who could fix the earth's measure like that of a it burst forth, came out from the wombbuilding?" (Dillmann).
i. e., out of the interior of the earth (comp. rer. Ver. 6. Whereon were its pillars sunken | 16). The verb ņ'), which is used in Ps. xxii. 10 -i. e., on what kind of a foundation? 09378  of the bursting forth of the foetus out of the lit. "pedestals,” comp. Ex. xxvi, 19 seg.: Can:) womb, is explained by the less bold word xy! ticles v. 15. The meaning of the question is of (which follows the Infinitive in the same way as course that already indicated in ch. ix. 6, and the finite verb above in ver. 7). The represenxxvi. 7, according to which passages the earth | tation of the earth as the womb, out of which hangs free in space. The question in b refers the waters of the sea barst forth, seems to conto the same thing: “or who laid down her cor. tradict the modern geological theory, which on the contrary makes the earth to emerge out of no it is certainly admissible to read with the the primitive sea, which enveloped and covered everything. But the science of geology recog. | K’ri non ?'; the anarthrous ? of the pizes not only elevations, but depressions by sink- / first member by no means requires us to remove ing of land or mountain masses (comp. Friedr. the definite article from the dawn, which is alPfaff, Das Wasser, Munich, 1870, p. 250 seq.). ways only one. ["The mention of its place' Especially do the recent “Deep Sea Explor&- here seems to be an allusion to the fact that it tions," as they are called, seem to be altogether does not always occupy the same position. At favorable to the essential correctness of the bib- one season of the year it appears on the equal lical view presented bere and also in Gen. vii. at another north, at another south of it, and is 11; viii. 2, which regards the interior of the constantly varying its position. Yet it always earth as originally occupied by water (comp. knows its place. It never fails to appear where Pfaff, p. 90 seq.; Hermann Gropp, Untersuchung by the long-observed laws it ought to appear." en und Erfahrungen über das Verhalten des Barnes). Grundwassers und der Quellen, Lippstadt, 1868). Ver. 13. That it may take hold on the
Ver. 9. When I made the cloud its gar- borders (or “fringes") of the earth. The surment, etc. A striking poetic description of that face of the earth is conceived of as an outspread which in Gen. ii. 6 seq. is narrated in historic carpet, of the ends of which the dawn as it were prose. In respect to 19ņn, “wrapping, swad
takes hold all together as it rises suddenly and
spreads itself rapidly (comp. ch. xxxvii. 3; Ps. dling-cloth," comp. the corresponding verb in
cxxxix. 9), and this with the view of shaking out Ezek. xvi. 4. [By this expression the ocean is
of it “the wicked, the evil-doers who, dreading obviously compared to a babe. “God thus in
the light, ply their business upon it by night;" grand language expresses how manageable was
i. e., of removing them from it at once. The pagthe ocean to Him." Carey 1.
sage contains an unmistakable allusion to Job's Ver. 10. And brake for it (lit. “over it”).
er. 10. And brake for it (lit. “over 10") own previous description in ch. xxiv. 13 seq. my bound, etc. The verb 70 which is not God, anticipating herein in a certain measure the here equivalent to 772, “to appoint," as Arn contents of His second discourse, would give heim. Wette. Hahn Lee. Bernard. Noyes. Co-Job to understand “how through the original Dant, Wemyss, Barnes, Renan] think, sor ac-order of creation as established by Himself hucording to Rosenmüller, Umbreit, Carey, “to man wrong is ever annulled again") Ewald. span," after the Arabic] vividly portrays tbe Comp. also v. 15). abrupt fissures of the sea-coast, which is often Ver. 14. That it may change like signet80 high and steep. Comp. the Homeric śni clay-i. e., the earth (yî onpavopis, Herod. II.
| 38), which during the night is, as it were, a önyuivi Jaraoons. On ph, "bound,” comp. ch.
shapeless mass, like unsealed wax, but which, in xxvi. 10; Prov. viii. 29; Jer. v. 22. Onb comp. | the bright light of the morning, reveals the enver. 8 a.
tire beauty of its changing forms, of its heights Ver. 11. Hitherto shalt thou come, and
and depths, etc. The subj. of 133?n? is to be no further con x scil. siz)); bere let sought neither in the “morning' and “dayone set against the pride of thy waves. spring" of ver. 12 (Schultens, Rosenmüller), scil. “ a dam, a bound." The verb non"let
which is altogether too far removed from this one place” is used passively (and impersonally]
clause, nor in the borders” of ver. 13 (Ewald), for “let there be placed” (comp. Gesen. & 137
but in the particular things found on the earth's
surface. The effect of the morning on them is  ). It is not necessary, with the Vulg. and
that “they set themselves forth (or, all sets Pesh. to read hun, “bere shalt thou stay the itself forth) like a garment," i, e., in all the mapride of thy waves," or, with Codurcus, Ewald, nifold variegated forms and colors of gay apparel. and others to make xd the subj. (in the sense Ver. 16. From the wicked their light is of “this place"). On the pride of the waves" withheld-i. e., the darkness of the night with =“proud waves," comp. Ps. Ixxxix. 10 . which they are so familiar and which is to them
y. Questions respecting the regular advance of the what light is to others), comp. ch. xxiv. 16 seq. light of morning upon the earth : vers. 12-15. ' (Delitz.: “the light to which they are partial” [The transition from the sea to the morning is ihr Lieblingslicht]). And the uplifted arm not so abrupt as it appears. For the ancients (is) broken-i. e., figuratively, in the sense supposed that the sun sets in the ocean, and at that the light of the day compels it to desist his rising comes out of it again.” Noyes. “Here from the violence, to fulfil which it had raised with genuine poetry the dawn sending forth its itself (comp. ch. xxii. 8). rays upon the earth immediately after creation 4. Continuation : b. Questions respecting the is represented in its regular recurrence and in heights and depths above and below the earth, its moral significance. This member accordingly and the natural forces proceeding from them : forms the transition to the following strophe; it vers. 16-27. is however first of all the logical conclusion of a. The depths under the earth: vers. 16-18. the first.” Schlottmann).
Ver. 16. Bast thou come to the wellVer. 12. Hast thou since thy birth (lit. springs of the sea ?-i. l., to those “fountains “ from thy days") commanded the morning of the deep" of which the Mosaic account of (i. e., to arise at its time), made known to the Flood makes mention; Gen. vii. 11; viii. 2 the dawn its place, (lit. “made the dawn to | (comp. above on ver. 8). The phrase D'-22, know its place"). Instead of the K'thibh, nya found only here, is not, with Olshausen and ,נבע is evidently only a harsher variation of נבךְ
Ritzig, to be changed into 0-521, for the root know the paths of their house, i. e. “to
their home, their abiding place” (comp. ch. and so beyond a doubt expresses the notion of xxviii. 23). It is possible that by this "know"welling, springing.” Thus correctly the LXX: ing about the paths of their house" is meant ANYT) Sažácons. [Jarchi, followed by Bernard,
taking back [escorting home] the light and Lee, (and see Ewald and Schlottmann) defines
darkness, just as in the first member mention is D's) to mean “entanglements, mazes” (comp.
made of fetching, bringing them away; for the 92); but this meaning is less probable than the repetition of '? seems to indicate that the mean. one more commonly received after the Sept.). - ing of the two halves of the verse is not identiIn respect to pn in b, comp. above, ch. viii. cal (Dillmann). 8; xi. 7.
Ver. 21 is evidently intended ironically: Ver. 17. Have the gates of death opened | Thou knowest, for then wast thou born, themselves to thee, etc.—Comp. ch. xxvi. 6,
i. e. at the time when ligbt and darkness were where the mention of the realm of the dead fol- created, and their respective boundaries were lows that of the sea precisely as here. On
determined. The meaning is essentially tbe “death,” as meaning the realm of the dead,
| same as in ch. xv. 7. On the Imperf. with it comp. ch. xxviii. 22; and on nid 8 in the same
comp. Gesenius, & 127 [8 125], 4, a; Ewald, &
136, b.-And the number of thy days is sense, see ch. x. 21 seq.
Ver. 18. Bast thou made an examination many.—The attraction in connection with 1900 unto the breadths of the earth.-7 jalann as in ch. xv. 20; xxi. 21. [The interrogative signifies, as also in chap. xxxii. 12, to at- rendering of this verse, as in E. V.: “Knowegt tend to anything strictly, to take a close obser- thou it, because thou wast then born ?” etc., is vation of anything," the ny indicating that this excessively flat. It may be undesirable, as observation is complete, that it penetrates Barnes says, “to represent God as speaking in through to the extreme limit. The interrogative the language of irony and sarcasm, unless the
rules of interpretation imperatively demand it.” o? is omitted before m ano, in order to avoid
But humiliating irony gurely accords better the concurrence of the two aspirates (Ewald, with the dignity and character of the speaker, 8 324, 6). On 6 comp. ver. 4. a refers not as well as with the connection, than pointless
insipidity.-E.] to the earth, but in the neuter sense, to the things
y. Snow and hail, light and wind: vers. spoken of in the questions just asked. [" To see
22-24. the force of this question), we must remember
| Ver. 22. Hast thou come to the treasuthat the early conception of the earth was that it was a vast plain, and that in the time of Job
ries of the snow ? Comp. on ch. xxxvii. 9. its limits were unknown.” Barnes. "Too much
The figure of the "treasuries” (ninsk, magastress is commonly laid on the fact that when zines, storehouses) vividly represents the imthe poet wrote this, only a small part of the mense quantities in which snow and hail are earth was known. Unquestionably the conscious- wont to fall on the earth; comp. Ps. cxxxv. 7. ness of the limitation of man's vision was in Ver. 23 gives the purpose and rule of the some respects strengthened by that fact; but that | Divine Government of the world, which snow which is properly the main point here, to wit, and hail are constrained to subserve.- Which the inability of man, at one glance to compass | I have reserved for the time of distress. the whole earth and all its hidden depths retains such an 73 ny (comp. ch. XV. 24; xxxvi. 16) all its ancient stress in connection with the
may be caused in the east not only by a hailwidest geographical acquaintance with the sur
storm (Ex. ix. 22; Hag. ii. 17; Sir. xxxix, 29), face of the earth.” Schlottmann).
but even by a fall of snow. In February, 1860, B. The heights of light above the earth : vers.
innumerable herds of sheep, goats and camels, 19-21. Ver. 19. What is the way (thither, where)
and also many men, were destroyed in Hauran
by a snow-storm, in which snow fell in enorthe light dwells.-On the relative clause mous quantities, as described by Muhammed his ow! comp. Ges. 8 123 [% 121], 3, c. On b, el-Chatib el-Bosrawi in a writing still in the comp. ch. xxviii. 1-12. The meaning of the whole possession of Consul Wetzstein (Delitzsch).—The verse is as follows: Both light and darkness second member refers to such cases as Josh. X. have a first starting point or a final outlet, which 11 (comp. Is. xxviii. 17; xxx. 30; Ezek. xiii. is unapproachabie to man, and upattainable to | 13; Ps. lxviii. 15 ; 1 Sam. vii. 10; 2 Sam. his researches. [“ As in Gen. i., the light is xxiii. 20), where violent hail or thunder-storms here regarded as a self-subsistent, natural force, contributed to decide the issues of war in independent of the heavenly luminaries by which accordance with the divine decrees. it is transmitted : and herein modern investiga- Ver. 24. What is the way to where the tion agrees with the direct observations of anti- light is parted [where the east wind quity." Schlottm.]
spreadeth over the earth. The construction Ver. 20. That Thou mightest bring them as in ver. 19 a. The light and the east wind (light and darkness) to their bound flit, “it (i. e. a violent wind, a storm in general, comp. to its bound,” the subjects just named considered ch. xxvii. 21) are here immediately joined togeseparately). I as above in ver. 5. np5 lit.
ther, because the course of both these agenis “to bring, to fetch;” comp. Gen. xxvii. 13;
defies calculation, and because they are incred
ibly swift in their movements [possibly also xlii. 16; xlviii. 9.-And that thou shouldest because they both proceed from the same point