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21 He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in his strength:

he goeth on to meet the armed men.
22 He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted;

neither turneth he back from the sword.
23 The quiver rattleth against him,

the glittering spear and the shield.
24 He swalloweth the ground with fierceness and rage;

neither believeth he that it is the sound of the trumpet.
25 He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha!

and he smelleth the battle afar off,

the thunder of the captains, and the shouting.
26 Doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom,

and stretch ber wings toward the south ?
27 Doth the eagle mount up at thy command,

and make her nest on high ?
28 She dwelleth and abideth on the rock,

upon the crag of the rock and the strong place.
29 From thence she seeketh the prey,

and her eyes behold afar off.
30 Her young ones also suck up

and where the slain are, there is she.


8. Conclusion of the discourse, together with Job's answer, announcing his humble submission.

1 And Jehovah answered Job, and said,
2 Sball he that contendeth with the Almighty instruct Him?

he that reproveth God, let him answer it.
3 Then Job answered the Lord, and said,
4 Behold, I am vile; what shall I answer thee?

I will lay mine hand upon my mouth.
5 Once have I spoken, but I will not answer :

yea, twice; but I will proceed no further.

It testifies against him by means of the deep

humiliation which the majesty of the Almighty

occasions to him, by means of the consciousness
1. The appearance of God, which Job had again wrought within him of his own insignificance
and again expressly wished for, a wish which and limitation in contrast with this fulness of
recurs in ch. xxiii. 3 seq., and especially towards power and wisdom, and by means of the princi-
the end of his last discourse (ch. xxxi. 35), and for ple which in this very way is brought forth into
which Elihu's preaching of doctrine and of repent- full expression, and which is expressly acknow.
ance had prepared the way—this appearance now ledged by him at the close of this first address
takes place during that storm, of fearful beauty, of Jehovah—the principle, namely, that from
which had supplied the last of Elihu's discourses henceforth he must lay aside entirely all con.
with the material for its impressive descriptions demnation of God's ways, and be willing to sub-
of the greatness of God in His works. This mit himself in absolute humility to His decree.
Divine manifestation, which is not to be under--Again the rich illustration, elaborated in the
stood as taking place corporeally in a human most elevated style of poetic discourse, which in
form; see on ch. xxxviii. 1-corresponds more this first address God gives of His all-transcend-
over to the preparatory representations proceeding majesty in contrast with man's insignificance
ing from Elihu in this respect, that like those (chs. xxxviii. 4—xxxix. 30) is also such as tes.
representations it bears testimony at the same tifies at once for and against Job, and thus con-
time in behalf of Job and against him. It testi- tinues with increased emphasis the strain already
fies for Job in that it brings about the actual begun by Elihu (especially in his fourth dis-
realization of the ardent longing which he had course). On the one side it serves to confirm
80 often uttered, and in that it is not accompa- the previous descriptions given by Job himself
nied by that terrifying and crushing effect on of God's greatness, wonderful power, and pleni-
the bold challenger which he himself had several tude of wisdom; on the other side it transcends
times dreaded as possible (ch. ix. 34; xiii. 21; the same in the incomparably more elevated and
xxiii. 6), and had on that account deprecated. I impressive power of its representation, under


the influence of which the last remainder of , also here a similar presence and self-manifestainsolent pride still adhering to Job must of tion of the Highest is intended, taking place necessity dissolve and disappear. The discourse under the veil of those mighty phenomena of forms one well-conceived, harmoniously con- nature; hence only a symbolical, not a corporeal structed whole, consisting of two principal divi- appearance of God. For this reason we may sions of almost equal length, of which the first with some propriety describe the solution of the (ch. xxxviii. 4-38) refers to the creation and to whole problem of our poem which is introduced inanimate nature, the second (chg. xxxviii. 39; by this divine appearance as “a solution in the xxxix. 30) to the animal kingdom, as sources of consciousness" (Delitzsch). In any case the theevidence proving the divine majesty. It is not ophany which effects it is to be conceived of as necessary to resolve these two divisions into two one in which God “drew near to the earth separate discourses, as is done by Köster and veiled, perceptible indeed to the ear, and in His Schlottmann, the former of whom even deems it shining veil visible to the eye, but nevertheless necessary to resort to the violent operation of veiled, and not presenting a bodily appearance" transposing the conclusion in ch. xl. 1-5, and (Ewald). [In accordance with the explanation putting it after ch. xxxviii. 36.-Each of these given above of ch. xxxvii. 21, 22, the ninyo out divisions may be subdivided into three strophe- of which Jehovah spenks is not to be limited to groups, or long strophes, consisting of 11-12 the storm wbile raging, but refers rather to verses each, which may again be subdivided, "the dark materials of the storm now pacified,” according to the subjects described, into subor- the mountainous cloud-masses in the north, dinate strophes or paragraphs, now longer and which having spent their thunder, were now shorter. Of these simple, short strophes looming up in “terrible majesty," while their the three long strophes of the first principal open rifts disclosed the golden irradiation of the division (a, b and c) contain respectively three sunlight, a scene we may suppose not unlike to four, whereas the last two long strophes, at that described by Wordsworth near the close of least of the second chief division, which dwell the Second Book of the Excursion. Such a on themes derived from the animal world, con- scene, just preceded as it had been by the awesist of but two short strophes respectively. inspiring phenomena of the storm at its height

2. The Introduction : ch. xxxviii. 1-3.-Then would filly usher in the Divine Presence, from Jehovah answered Job out of the storm.

which the words which are to end the contro-The "answering” or “replying” refers back versy are about to proceed.-E.]

Ver. 2. Who is this that darkens coun. to Job's repeated challenges, and especially to the last, found in ch. xxxi. 35: “Let the sel: lit. “who is this, who is here (771 m, Almighty answer me!” — 17770? (here, as

comp. Gesenius, & 122 [% 120], 2) darkening also in ch. xl. 6 with medial ); comp. Ewald, & counsel ?" oxy without the article (instead of 9, 11, c [Green, & 4, a); which the K'ri in both n3yo?, or instead of 'nşy) is used intentionally cases sets aside)" out of the storm (thunder. in order to describe that which is darkened by storm);” not (as Luther translates) "out of a Job qualitatively, as something “which is a

It is beyond question an unsatisfac- 1 counsel (or a plan),” as opposed to a whim, or tory explanation of the definite article to say a cruel caprice, such as Job had represented that as applied to nyo it means that storm God's dealings with him as being. [“ Two which “always, or as a rule, is wont to announce things are implied in what is here said to Job: and to accompany the appearance of God, when that his suffering is founded on a plan of God's, ever He draws nigh to the earth in majesty and and that he by his perverse speeches is guilty in the character of a judge” (Dillmann). In of distorting and mistaking this plan (in repreview of the way in which the most ancient Old senting it as caprice without a plan).” Dillm. Testament sources describe the theophanies of Job's ignorant words had “darkened” God's plan the patriarchal age in general, this generic ren- by obscuring or keeping out of sight its intelligent dering of the article is not at all suitable (comp. benevolent features]. The participle Tond is also i Kings xix. 11: "the Lord was not in the used rather than the Perf., because down to the wind”). The only explanation of the 177707 here, as well as in ch. 21. 6, which is linguisti- | very, end of his speaking Job had misunderstood cally and historically satisfactory, is that which he bad recalled nothing of what he had said in

God's counsel, and even during Elihu's discourses finds in it a reference to Elihu's description of a violent thunder-storm in his last discourse (ch. this particular. For to the instruction and rexxxvi. 37)—a reference which at the same time proofs of this last speaker he had made no other confirms not only our interpretation of this dis response than persistent profound silence. He course given above, but also its genuineness, when Jehovah himself began to speak as still a

actually appeared accordingly at the moment and the authenticity of Elihu's discourses in

“darkener of counsel," however true it might general. Placing ourselves (along, with the be that his conversion to a better frame of mind commentators cited above on ch. xxxvi.) on this, had already begun inwardly to take place under the only correct point of view, we see at once the impossibility of viewing “God's speaking out

the influence of the addresses of his predecessor. of the storm" as taking place through a corpo

This participle and accordingly furnishes no real appearance of Jehovah in human form. On argument against the genuineness of chap. xxxii. the contrary, precisely in the same way that xxxvii. (against Ewald, Delitzsch, Dillmann, Elihu's description pre-supposed only an invisi- etc.): and all the less seeing that a direct inter ble approach and manifestation of God in the ruption of Job at the moment when he had last storm-clouds, in their thunder and lightning, 80 | spoken contentiously and censoriously in respect


at once.

to God's plan (ch. xxxi. 35 seq.), by the appear-, ner-stone ?” where the “laying down” (777, ance of God cannot be intended even if these jacere) of the corner-stone points to the wonderchapters were in fact not genuine (comp. re- ful ease with which the entire work was accommarks on that passage). And especially would plished. the assumption that the interpolator of the Elihu Ver. 7. When the morning-stars sang discourses had been prompted by this expres- out together, and all the sons of God sion, rønn, purposely to avoid introducing shouted for joy.-The Infinitive is conJob within the limits of that section as making tinued in b by the finite verb, as in ver. 13, and any confession whatever of his penitence, pre- often. The whole description determines the suppose on the part of the interpolator a degree time of the fact of the founding of the earth of artistic deliberation, nay more, of crafty cun. (kara 3027) kóo uov) spoken of in ver. 6. The ning absolutely without a parallel in the entire founding is here set forth as a festal celebration Bible literature.

(comp. Ezra iii. 10; Zech. iv. 7) attended by all Ver. 3. Gird up now thy loins like a the heavenly hosts, which are here mentioned by man-i. e., in preparation for the contest with the double designation “gons of God” (comp. me (comp. ch. xii. 21). According to b this con- ch. i. 6 ; ii. 1) and “morning stars, i. e., createst is to consist in a series of questions to be tures of such glory, that they surpass all other addressed by God to Job and to be answered by creatures of God in the same way that the the latter ; hence formally or apparently in the brightness of the morning-star ("?? ??id= very thing which Job himself had in ch. xiii. 22 577, Is. xiv. 12, Lucifer) eclipses all the other wished for; in reality however God so overwhelms him by the humiliating contents of these stars. As another example of this generic genequestions that the absolute inequality of the con- ralized form of expression here found in the tending parties and Job's guilt become apparent word “morning-stars,” compare the one of

Is. xiii. 10, i, e., the Orion-like constellations. 3. The argument. a. Goi's questions respect. The expression “morning-stars" moreover is ing the process of creation : vers. 4-15. [This di- scarcely to be understood as a tropical designavision consists of three minor strophes of four tion of that which is literally designated by the verses each, the fourth verse in each forming, as expression “sons of God," that is to say, the Schlottmann observes, a climax in the thought]. angels (Hirzel, Dillmann [Carey, Wemyss,

a. Questions touching the foundation of the Barnes] etc.). Rather are the angels and stars earth: vers. 4-7.

mentioned together here in precisely the same Ver. 4. Where wast thou when I found way that in chap. xv. 15 “heaven” and “the ed the earth ? (A question similar to that of holy ones” of God are mentioned together, this Eliphaz above: ch. xv. 7 seq.). Declare it if being in accordance with the mysterious conthou hast understanding—to wit, of the way nection which the Holy Scriptures generally set in which this process was carried on.

This forth as existing between the starry and angelic same How of the process of founding the earth worlds (comp. also on ch. xxv. 5). Such a reis also the unexpressed object of Un? “declare!" presentation of the brightly shining and joyIn respoct to 7'? y.T, “to have an under- ously. jubilating” stars (comp. Ps. xix. 2;

cxlviii. 3) as present when the earth was founded standing of anything,' comp. Is. xxix. 24; by God by no means contradicts the Mosaic acProv. iv. 1; 2 Chron. ii. 12.

count of creation in Gen. i. where verse 14 (acWho hath fixed its measure cording to which the sun, moon and stars were that thou shouldest know it?-y!'?, not: pot made until the fourth day) is assuredly to for thou surely knowest it" (Schlottmann) be interpreted phenomenally, not as descriptive [Good, Lee, Barnes, Carey, Renan, Elzas), but of the literal fact. **80 that thou shouldest know it" ('? as in ch. B. Questions respecting the shutting up of the sea iii. 12). [Dillmann objects to the rendering, within bounds : vers. 8–11. for thou knowest,” that the verb should be in

Ver. 8. And (who) shut up the sea with that case myt; an objection which may also doors ?-, which is attached to 177in be urged against the rendering of E. V., Sept.,

ver. 6, is used with reference to the waters of the Vulg., Umbreit, Rosenmüller, Bernard, “if thou wildly swelling and raging had in consequence

sea in the newly-created earth, which at first knowest.” Compare DX in ver. 4 b.]. to be enclosed, penned up, as it were, behind the “The '? inquires not after the person of the doors (comp. ch. iii. 23) of a prison (comp. Architect, the same being sufficiently known,

Gen. i. 2, 9 seq.). The second member introbut rather after His character, and that of his duces a clause determining the time of the first activity :-what kind of a being must He be which continues to the end of ver. 11.-When who could fix the earth's measure like that of a it burst forth, came out from the wombbuilding?" (Dillmann).

i. e., out of the interior of the earth (comp. ver. Ver. 6. Whereon were its pillars sunken 16). The verb n'ı, which is used in Ps. xxii. 10 -i. e., on what kind of a foundation? D'ITA [9] of the bursting forth of the fætus out of the lit. “ pedestals,” comp. Ex. xxvi. 19 seq.; Can: womb, is explained by the less bold word x3 ticles v. 15. The meaning of the question is of (which follows the Infinitive in the same way as course that already indicated in ch. ix. 6, and the finite verb above in ver. 7). The represenxxvi. 7, according to which passages the earth tation of the earth as the womb, out of which hangs free in space. The question in refers the waters of the sea barst forth, seems to conto the same thing: “or who laid down her cor. tradict the modern geological theory, which on

Ver. 5.

the contrary makes the earth to emerge out of no it is certainly admissible to read with the the primitive sea, which enveloped and covered everything. But the science of geology recog- K’ri non myy; the anarthrous of the nizes not only elevations, but depressions by sink- first member by no means requires us to remove ing of land or mountain masses (comp. Friedr. the definite article from the dawn, which is al. Pfaff, Das Wasser, Munich, 1870, p. 250 seq.). ways only one. ["The mention of its place' Especially do the recent “Deep Sea Explora- here seems to be an allusion to the fact that it tions," as they are called, seem to be altogether does not always occupy the same position. At favorable to the essential correctness of the bib- one season of the year it appears on the equator, lical view presented here and also in Gen. vii. at another north, at another south of it, and is 11; viii. 2, which regards the interior of the constantly varying its position. Yet it always earth as originally occupied by water (comp. knows its place. It never fails to appear where Pfaff, p. 90 seq.; Hermann Gropp, Untersuchung by the long-observed laws it ought to appear.” en und Erfahrungen über das Verhalten des Barnes]. Grundwassers und der Quellen, Lippstadt, 1868). Ver. 13. That it may take hold on the

Ver. 9. When I made the cloud its gar- borders (or "fringes”) of the earth. The surment, etc. A striking poetic description of that face of the earth is conceived of as an outspread which in Gen. ii. 6 seq. is narrated in historic carpet, of the ends of which the dawn as it were prose. In respect to non, "wrapping, swad- takes bold all together as it rises suddenly and dling-cloth,” comp. the corresponding verb in cxxxix. 9), and this with the view of shaking out

spreads itself rapidly (comp. ch. xxxvii. 3; Ps. Ezek. xvi. 4. (By this expression the ocean is of it the wicked, the evil-doers who, dreading obviously compared to a babe. “God thus in the light, ply their business upon it by night;' grand language expresses how manageable was

i. e., of removing them from it at once. The pasthe ocean to Him.Carey). Ver. 10. And brake for it (lit. “over it”) own previous description in ch. xxiv. 13 seq.

sage contains an unmistakable allusion to Job's my bound, etc. The verb which is not God, anticipating herein in a certain measure the here equivalent to ya, “to appoint,” as Arn- contents of His second discourse, would give heim, Wette, Hahn [Lee, Bernard, Noyes, Co-Job to understand “how through the original nant, Wemyss, Barnes, Renan] think, [or ac- order of creation as established by Himself hucording to Rosenmüller, Umbreit, Carey, “to man wrong is ever annulled again") Ewald. span,” after the Arabic] vividly portrays the Comp. also v. 15). abrupt fissures of the sea-coast, which is often Ver. 14. That it may change like signet80 high and steep. Comp. the Homeric ésticlay-i. e., the earth (onnavopis, Herod. II. bnyuive Jahacons. On pi, “bound,” comp. ch. shapeless mass, like unsealed wax, but which, in

38), which during the night is, as it were, a xxvi. 10; Prov. viii. 29; Jer. v. 22. Onb comp. the bright light of the morning, reveals the enver. 8 a.

tire beauty of its changing forms, of its heights Ver. 11. Hitherto shalt thou come, and and depths, etc. The subj. of 133?n? is to be no further (gon sys? scil. xi34); here let sought neither in the “morning" and “dayone set against the pride of thy waves, spring” of ver. 12 (Schultens, Rosenmüller), scil. " a dam, a bound.” The verb rown, let which is altogether too far removed from this one place” is used passi [and impersonally]

clause, nor in the borders" of ver. 13 (Ewald), for let there be placed” (comp. Gesen. & 137 but in the particular things found on the earth's [& 134]). It is not necessary, with the Vulg. and surface. The effect of the morning on them is

that “they set themselves forth (or, all sets Pesh. to read noņ, “bere shalt thou stay the itself forth) like a garment,” i. e., in all the mapride of thy waves," or, with Codurcus, Ewald, nifold variegated forms and colors of gay apparel. and others to make Xd the subj. (in the sense Ver. 15. From the wicked their light is of “this place"). On the pride of the waves withheld-i. e., the darkness of the night with =“proud waves,” comp. Ps. lxxxix. 10 [9]. which they are so familiar (and which is to them

7. Questions respecting the regular advance of the what light is to others], comp. ch. xxiv. 16 seq: light of morning upon the earth : vers. 12-15. (Delitz.: "the light to which they are partial [" The transition from the sea to the morning is [ihr Lieblingslicht]). And the uplifted arm not so abrupt as it appears. For the ancients (is) broken-i. e., figuratively, in the sense supposed that the sun sets in the ocean, and at that the light of day compels it to desist his rising comes out of it again.” Noyes. “Here from the violence, to fulfil which it had raised with genuine poetry the dawn sending forth its itself (comp. ch. xxii

. 8). rays upon the earth immediately after creation 4. Continuation : b. Questions respecting the is represented in its regular recurrence and in heights and depths above and below the earth, its moral significance. This member accordingly and the natural forces proceeding from them : forms the transition to the following strophe; it vers. 16-27. is however first of all the logical conclusion of a. The depths under the earth: vers. 16-18. the first.” Schlottmann).

Ver. 16. last thou come to the wellVer. 12. Hast thou since thy birth (lit. springs of the sea ?—i. e., to those “fountains “from thy days”) commanded the morning of the deep" of which the Mosaic account of (i.e., to arise at its time), made known to the Flood makes mention; Gen. vii. 11; viii. 2 che dawn its place, (lit. “made the dawn to (comp. above on ver. 8). The phrase 01-???, know its place”). Instead of the K’thibh, nya found only here, is not, with Olshausen and

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Hitzig, to be changed into 0;-99, for the root know the paths of their boase, i. e. “ to 733 is evidently only a harsher variation of you, their home, their abiding place” (comp. ch. and so beyond a doubt expresses the notion of xxviii. 23). It is possible that by this "know. "welling, springing.” Thus correctly the LXX: ing about the paths of their house" is meant ANYT) Garboons. [Jarchi, followed by Bernard, taking back [escorting home] the light and Lee, (and see Ewald and Schlottmann) defines darkness, just as in the first member mention is 0'23) to mean “entanglements, mazes” (comp. made of fetching, bringing them away; for the 713); but this meaning is less probable than the repetition of '? seems to indicate that the mean. one more commonly received after the Sept.).—ing of the two halves of the verse is not identiIn respect to Pin b, comp. above, ch. viii. cal (Dillmann). 8; xi. 7.

Ver. 21 is evidently intended ironically: Ver. 17. Have the gates of death opened Thou knowest, for then wast thou born, themselves to thee,

etc.—Comp. ch. ixvi. 6, i. e. at the time when light and darkness were where the mention of the realm of the dead fol- created, and their respective boundaries were lows that of the sea precisely as here. On determined. The meaning is essentially the “death," as meaning the realm of the dead, same as in ch. xv. 7. On the Imperf. with in comp. ch. xxviii. 22 ; and on niphs in the same 136,6.-And the number of thy days is

comp. Gesenius, & 127 [& 125], 4, a; Ewald, $ sense, see ch. x. 21 seq.

Ver. 18. Hast thou made an examination many.-The attraction in connection with 1909 unto the breadths of the earth.-7 ann as in ch. xv. 20; xxi. 21. [The interrogative signifies, as also in chap. xxxii. 12, "to at- rendering of this verse, as in E. V.: “Knowest tend to anything strictly, to take a close obser- thou it, because thou wast then born ?” etc., is vation of anything," the ny indicating that this excessively flat. It may be undesirable, as observation is complete, that it penetrates Barnes says, “to represent God as speaking in through to the extreme limit. The interrogative the language of irony and sarcasm, unless the o? is omitted before musant, in order to avoid But humiliating irony gurely accords better

rules of interpretation imperatively demand it.” the concurrence of the two aspirates (Ewald, with the dignity and character of the speaker, 324, 6). On b comp. ver. 4, ma refers not

as well as with the connection, than pointless

insipidity.-E.] to the earth, but in the neuter sense, to the things spoken of in the questions just asked. [“ To see 22-24.

Y. Snow and hail, light and wind: vers. the force of this (question), we must remember

Ver. 22. Hast thou come to the treasuthat the early conception of the earth was that ries of the snow ? Comp. on ch. xxxvii. 9. it was a vast plain, and that in the time of Job its limits were unknown." Barnes. "Too much the figure of the "treasuries” (ningú, maga. stress is commonly laid on the fact that when zines, storehouses) vividly represents the imthe poet wrote this, only a small part of the mense quantities in which snow and hail are earth was known. Unquestionably the conscious- wont to fall on the earth; comp. Ps. cxxxv. 7. ness of the limitation of man's vision was in Ver. 23 gives the purpose and rule of the some respects strengthened by that fact; but that Divine Government of the world, which snow which is properly the main point here, to wit, and hail are constrained to subserve.—Which the inability of man, at one glance to compass I have reserved for the time of distress.the whole earth and all its hidden depths retains such an 7 ny. (comp. ch. xv. 24; xxxvi. 16) all its ancient stress in connection with the may be caused in the east not only by a hail. widest geographical acquaintance with the sur

storm (Ex. ix. 22; Hag. ii. 17; Sir. xxxix. 29), face of the earth.” Schlottmann).

but even by a fall of snow. In February, 1860, B. The heights of light above the earth : vers. innumerable herds of sheep, goats and camels, 19-21. Ver. 19. What is the way (thither, where) by a snow-storm, in which snow fell in enor.

and also many men, were destroyed in Hauran the light dwells.-On the relative clause

mous quantities, as described by Muhammed nix ; De comp. Ges. & 123 [4121], 3, c. On b, el-Chatib el-Bosrawi in a writing still in the comp. ch. xxviii. 1-12. The meaning of the whole possession of Consul Wetzstein (Delitzsch).--The verse is as follows: Both light and darkness second member refers to such cases as Josh. X. have a first starting point or a final outlet, which 11 (comp. Is. xxviii. 17; xxx. 30; Ezek. xiii. is unapproachabie to man, and unattainable to 13; Ps. Ixviii. 15 (14); 1 Sam. vii. 10; 2 Sam. his researches. [“As in Gen. i., the light is xxiii. 20), where violent hail or thunder-storms here regarded as a self-subsistent, natural force, contributed to decide the issues of war in independent of the heavenly luminaries by which accordance with the divine decrees. it is transmitted: and herein modern investiga- Ver. 24. What is the way to where the tion agrees with the direct observations of anti- light is parted (where] the east wind quity.” Schlottm.]

spreadeth over the earth.—The construction Ver. 20. That Thou mightest bring them as in ver. 19 a. The light and the east wind (light and darkness) to their bound [lit. “it (i. e. a violent wind, a storm in general, comp. to its bound,” the subjects just named considered ch. xxvii. 21) are here immediately joined togeseparately). ? as above in ver. 5. np5 lit. ther, because the course of both these agents to bring, to fetch;" comp. Gen. xxvii. 13; ibly swift in their movements [possibly also

defies calculation, and because they are incredxlii. 16; xlviii. 9.–And that thou shouldest because they both proceed from the same point

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