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of the compass). Vix scarcely denotes the a. Respecting rain, dew, ice, and hoar-frost: lightning, as in ch. xxxvii. 3 seq. (Schlottmann), vers. 28-30. which is first spoken of in ver. 25, and then Verg. 28-29. Is there a father to the rain ? again in ver. 35, and to which the verb obos, As this member, together with the following in"divides, scatters itself." is less suitable'than quires (through the formula 7'710 ?) after a to the bright day-light (comp. ver. 13 seq.) male progenitor for the atmospheric precipitaIn respect to 1977, se diffundere, comp. Ex. v. tions of moisture, so does ver. 29 inquire after 12: 1 Sam. xiii. 8. According to the E. V. the the mother of ice and hoar-frost, for the formula light is the subject of both members: “By what 175, in b also refers to the agency of a moway is the light parted, which scattereth the east wind upon the earth.” But this construc

ther, as well as the question in a. This varia

ition of gender in the representation is to be extion is less probable and suitable than that, given above, which recognizes the “light” as

plained by the fact that rain and dew come from

| heaven, the abode of God, while ice and hoarthe subject of the first member, and the “eastwind” of the second.-E.]

frost come out of the earth, out of the secret d. The rain-storm and the lightning considered womb of the waters (verse 8). - So 28 in as divinely appointed phenomena which, while | ver. 28 b are not “reservoirs of dew” (Gesethey inspire terror, are productive of beneficent results : vers. 25–27.

nius), for which the verb qisin would not be Ver. 25. Who hath divided a water suitable, but drops (lit. balls, globules ; LXX. : course for the rain-torrent, i. e., conducted Böhol) of dew, whether the root 5x be assothe rain through the thick masses of clouds to specific portions of the thirsty eartb. 990,

ciated with 55a, volvere (which is the view comwhich of itself meang “flood, torrent of waters” |

monly held), or with the Arab. agal, retinere, colin general, is used bere of a down-pouring be

ligere (so Delitzsch).

| Ver. 30 describes more specifically the wonneficent torrent of rain [“ the earthward direction assigned to the water-spouts is likened to

derful process which takes place when water is an aqueduct coming downwards from the sky;''

frozen into ice. The water hardens like Delitzsch], and hence in a different sense from

stone. xann, lit. “they hide themselves, e. g., Ps. xxxii. 6. The second member is taken

draw themselves together, thicken” (a related verbally from chap xxviii. 26.

form is xan, whence 78?m, curdled milk). Ver. 26. That it may rain on the land The same representation of the process of where no man is; lit. "to cause it to rain," freezing as producing contraction or compresetc. The subject of nonny is of course God

sion (& representation which in the strict

pbysical sense is not quite correct, seeing who has been already indicated by '? in ver. Lihat water on the contrary always expands 25. That it should rain on a land of “10. in freezing-comp. Pfaff, in the work cited man” (the construction as in ch. x. 22), i. e., on above, pp. 103, 189 seq.), was given above & land destitute of men, not artificially irrigated by Elihu, chapter Xxxvii. 10, not however and tilled by men, is here set forth as a wise and without indicating in what sense he intended loving providential arrangement of God's. this compression, a sense which is by no means

“God lays stress on this circumstance in order incorrect; see on the passage. A similar intito humiliate man, and to show him that the mation is conveyed here by the second member: earth was made neither by him, nor for him." and the face of the deep cleaves togeRenan. “Man who is so prone to put his own ther, and thus constitutes a firm solid mass interests above everything else, and to judge (continuum), instead of fluctuating to and fro, as everything from his own human point of view, | is here most strikingly reminded, how much

k in the fluid state. 192nn as in ch. xli. 8 [17]; wider is the range of the Divine vision, and how comp. the Greek éxeolai. God in the exercise of His loving solicitude re- ! ß. Respecting the control of the stars, and of members even those regions, which receive no their influence upon earth: vers. 31-33. care from min, so that even there the possibility Ver. 31. Canst thou bind the bands of of life and growth is secured to His creatures." the Pleiades ?- nistys here not = amanitates, Dillmann).

as in 1 Sam. xv. 32, [E. V., “gweet influences," Ver. 27 then states more definitely this benefi

referring to the softening and gladdening influcent purpose of God: to satisfy the wild and ences of spring-time, when that constellation wilderness, (17810? 180 as in ch. XXX. 3) makes its appearance] but vincula (LXX.: dequóv;

"the desert is thus like a thirsty pilgrim: it is Targ. '?'W = gelpás) as appears from Top “to parched, and thirsty, and sad, and it appeals to bind," and the parallel nidvin in b, and not God, and He meets its wants and satisfies it," less from the testimony of all the ancient verBarnes), and to make the green herb to sions, of Talmudic usage, and of the Masora. It sprout; lit. "to make the place (the place of is to be derived accordingly by transposition going forth, *xa, comp. ch. xxviii. 1) of the from 733", " to bind ” (comp. ch. xxxi. 36) not green herb to sprout."

from 17. The arranging of the stars of the 5. Continuation. c. Questions respecting the Pleiades (n??? as in ch. ix. 9) in a dense group phenomena of the atmosphere and the wonders is with poetic boldness described here as the of the starry heavens: vers. 28-38.

binding of a fillet, or of a cluster of diamonds.

to

(See a similar conception copied out of Persian | and confirm its influence (that of heaven, here poets in Ideler, Sternennamen, p. 147). - Or personified as a king; comp. Ewald, & 318 a) on loose the bands of Orion, so that this bril

earthly destinies. us, “ dominion,” is conliant constellation would fall apart, or fall down from heaven, to which the presumptuous giant strued (with ?] after the analogy of the verbs is chained (comp. on ch, ix. 9). The explang

7777, a son. tion preferred by Dillmann is admissible, and

y. Respecting the Divine control of clouds and even perhaps, in view of the etymon of hiavia,

lightnings: vers. 34, 36. On ver. 34 b, comp. e preferred to the one more commonly adopt. I ch. xxii, 11 6 (which is here verbally repeated). ed: “Or canst thou loose the lines (German

| On ver. 35 comp. Ps. civ. 3 ; xxxiii. 9. Zugseile, draw-lines, traces, the cords by which he is drawn up to his place, suggested by wo] |

wail 8. Additional questions relating to the clouds, of Orion (the giant suspended in heaven), and

and their agencies: vers. 36-38. thus canst thou now raise, and now lower him in Ver. 36. Who put wisdom in the dark the firmament?” The reference of the passage

clouds, who gave understanding to that to the Star Suhêl = Canopus (şaad., Gekat.,

which appears in the sky [Germ. Luftgebilde," Abulwalid, comp. also Delitzsch) is uncertain,

atmospheric phenomena]; i. e., who has given and conflicts with the well-known signification

to them an intelligent arrangement and signifi

cance. nino, from niu, signifies here as in of so, which is also firmly established by ch.

Ps. li. 8, därk, hidden places," meaning here, ix. 9. Ver. 32. Canst thou bring forth the bright

as the connection shows, “ dark clouds, black

cloud-layers ” (Eichhorn, Umbr., Hirz., Stickel, stars in their time (iny? as in ch. v. 26; Ps.

Hahn, Dillmann, etc., by comparison with the civ. 27; cxlv. 15). The word ninn, to which

Arabic sno, and its derivative nouns. In that such a variety of interpretations have been given, which already the Lxx. did not understand, and

| case '!, from the Hebr. and Aram. 77712, “to accordingly rendered by uaoovpád [followed see,” (comp. ? and nav?), signifies “apherein by E. V., “ Mazzaroth”j, seems to be pearance, phenomenon, form," here according most simply explained (with Dillmann) as a con- to the parallelism of the first member, "a form, tracted form of nini, from 777, splendere, and phenomenon of the atmosphere, or the clouds." to mean accordingly is the brightly shining, bril. It can scarcely mean (the rainbow being cerliant stars," in which case we may assume the tainly called Oup, Gen. ix. 13) “ an appearance planets to be intended, particularly such as are

of light, fiery meteor” (Ewald, Hahn), or “the pre-eminently brilliant, as Venus, Jupiter, Mars, (comp. Vulg., Luciferum) [Fürst: Jupiter,

full moon,” (so Dillmann, at least tentatively, the supreme god of good fortune]. The “ being assuming at the same time that ning refers to brought forth in their time" seems to suit better the dark phases of the moon). At all events the these wandering stars than e. g., "the two explanation which refers both parallel exprescrowns,” the Northern and Southern (Cocceius, sions to phenomena of the cloud-heavens is the Eichhorn, Michaelis, Ewald, by comparison with only one suited to the context (as was the case with 773) [these constellations being, as Dillmann ob the meteorological sense of “gold” in chap. jects, too obscure and too little known), or the xxxvii. 22 ; whereas on the contrary the intertwelve signs of the Zodiac (so the majority of pretation long ago adopted by the Vulg., the 2d moderns, on the basis of the very precarious | Targ., and many Rabbis (and E. V.] and recently

by Delitzsch (Gesenius, Noyes, Conant, Barnes,

| Wordsworth, Schlottmann, Renan], according to 5), or the twenty-eight stations (Arab. menâzil)

which nino means “the reins,” or “entrails,” of the moon (80 A. Weber, in his Abhandlung über die vedischen Nachrichten von den naxatra, oder | (comp. Ps. 11. 0 [°]), an

|(comp. Ps. li. 8 [6]), and "w the “cock” [as Mondstationen, 1860), or, finally, any prophetic “the weather-prophet Karl Foxhv among anistars whatever, astra præsaga, præmonentia (Ge- mals,” Delitzsch: while Gesenius, Schlottmann, genius, who refers the word to 773 in the Arabic Noyes, Conant, Wordsworth, Renan, as also E. signification). — And guide the Bear (lit., V., render by “heart, intelligence"] yields a “the she-bear,” Woy, comp. ch. ix. 9) together meaning that is singular enough, and which is with his [lit., her] young? i. e., the constel

made no better when the cock is regarded as lation of the Bear with the three stars forming 14

speculator et præco aurora, as ales dici nuntius

(Prudentius), or as a weather-prophet (after Citall, which are regarded as its children ( cero, de divin. II., 26), and the reins are supin Arab. nija); see on ch. ix. 9. The evening posed to be mentioned because of their power star (vesperus, Vulg.) is far from being intended, of foretelling the weather and presaging the fuand equally so the comparatively unimportant ture. Still more singular and opposed to the constellation Capella (Eichhorn, Bibliothek, Vol. context is the rendering of the LXX.: Tis du VII., p. 429).

κεν γυναικι υφάσματος σοφίαν και ποικιλτικών επισVer. 33. Knowest thou the laws of hea thum [And who has given to woman skill in ven ? i. e., the laws which rule the course of weaving, or knowledge of embroidery]? They the stars, the succession of seasons and periods, seem to have read in the first member niin, in annual and diurnal, etc., (comp. Gen. i. 14 seg.; viii. 22).-Or dost thou establish its domi- |

9;; the second nidin, "embroidering women," or nion over the earth ? i. e., dost thou ordain | niew, to embroider."

2 ,מזלוֹת with מזרוֹת identification of

Ki
.
xxiii
.

T:-T

Ver. 37. Who numbers the clouds in they had been driven out of the nests by the pawisdom.-790 as elsewhere the Kal: “to rent birds ; but this belief in the ravens' want number” (chap. xxviii. 27). And the bottles of affection to its young is entirely without of the heavens-who inclines them-i, e., foundation. To the fact of the raven being a who causes them to be emptied. to pour out common bird in Palestine, and to its habit of their fluid contents. The comparison of the flying restlessly about in constant search for clouds laden with rain. to bottles, or pitchers food to satisfy its voracious appetite, may peroccurs frequently also in Arabic poets (see haps be traced the reason for its being selected Schultens on the passage). [E. V. - Who can by our Lord and the inspired writers as the esstay the bottles of heaven?” which is less suit- /pecial object of God's providing care.” Smith's able to 3'ün, and to the context. Jerome, ta- |

ne ta. Bib. Dict. Art. “ Raven.”'l

Chap. xxxix. 1-4: Propagation and increase king yaj to mean "harps," renders uniquely: of the wild goats (rock-goats, ibices) and stags. et concentrum cælorum quis dormire faciet?]

Ver. 1. Knowest thou the time when Ver. 38. When the dust flows together the wild goats bear? observest thou the into a molten mass. Pyya, “ fụsed, solid

travail of the binds ?-Shin Inf. Pilel of metal," a word which is to be explained in accordance with ch. xxxvii. 18 (not in accordance 5011, “to be in labor,” wcívelv (comp. the Pulal with ch. xxii. 16). mp3 here, as in 1 Kings xxii. in ch. xv. 7), here the object of nown, to which 35, to be rendered intransitively: “ When the verb the influence of the 7 before myt' in the dust pours itself," i. e., when it flows, rung, as

first member extends. it were, together. In respect to D'221, "clods," |

| Ver. 2. Dost thou number the months comp. ch. xxi. 33.

which they (must) fulfil; i. e., until they 6. Continuation and conclusion. d. Questions bring forth, hence their period of gestation. respecting the propagation and preservation of The point of the question can scarcely be that wild beasts as objects of the creative power and Job could have no knowledge whatever of the wise providence of God. Chap. xxxviii-xxxix. 30. matters here referred to, but that he could have a. The lion, the raven, the wild goat, the stag, no such knowledge as would qualify him to and the wild ass: chap. xxxviii. 39—xxxix. 8. I

stand toward these creatures at such a time in Ver. 39. Dost thou hunt the prey for the the place of God; or, as Carey expresses it : lioness, and dost thou appease the cra “Can you keep an exact register of all this, and

8 of the young lions ?-Respecting the exercise such providential care over these crealion's names, 8939 and 792, comp. on ch. iv. tures, the mountain goats and hinds, as to pre

serve them from dangers during the time of ges11. “To appease (lit. to fill) the craving”

tation, and then deliver them at the proper pe(77'47), means the same as “to fill the soul”

riod ?” —E.]. In the second member nants, (UD) 9), Prov. vi. 30. Ver. 40. When they crouch in the dens.

with full-toned suffis, is used for 1N?; comp. On niu comp. Ps. x. 10. On nijiyo lustra,

Ruth i. 19, and Gesenius, 291 [89], i, Rem. 2. comp. Ps. civ. 22. In respect to nap in b,

[Green, % 101, 9].

Ver. 3. They bow themselves (comp. 1 comp. jo, used elsewhere in the sense of

Sam. iv. 19), they let their young ones

break through (lit. “cleave;" comp. ch. xvi. o thicket,” Ps. X. 9; Jer. xxv. 38. On 378-1a, 13), they cast away their pains ; i. e., the which gives the object of the “crouching and fruit of their pains, their fætus, for this is what “sitting" (or “ dwelling"], comp. xxxi. 96.

san here signifies, not the after-pains, as Hirzel Ver. 41. 'Who provides for the raven its | prey, when its young ones cry unto God and Schlottmann think. Comp. sivbau ódiva swander without food ?- The interrogation

| edere fætum, in Euripides, Ion 45; also exproperly extends over the whole verse, not, as in amples of the same phraseology from the Arabic E. V., over the first member only, which makes

in Schultens on the passage. It will be seen the remainder of the verse meaningless.-E.). further that 073000 (instead of which Olshau121, "to prepare, to provide,” as in ch. xxvii.

sen needlessly conjectures 7207an after chap. 16 seq. ' “when,” as in ver. 40 a. The ravens are introduced here, as in the parallel pas- | XX1,

| xxi. 10) forms a pıronomasia with an hon. sages, Ps. cxlvii. 9; Luke xii. 24, as objects of

1 Ver. 4. Their young ones become strong God's fatherly care, rather than any other de-(077, lit. "to grow fat," pinguescere), grow up scription of birds, because they are specially no- in the desert. -723=rina, or 77702, as often ticeable among birds in search of food, by rea- in the Targ. sa meaning more suitable to the son of their hoarse cries. Observe moreover the context than that of E. V. “ with corn"). They contrast, which is surely intentional between go away, and return not to them; i. e., to the mighty monarch of the beasts, which in ver. 39 seg. is put at the head of beasts in search of the parents. 10? however might also be exfood, and the contemptibly small, insignificant, plained after ch. vi. 19; xxiv. 16 as Dat. comand uncomely raven. [“ Jewish and Arabian modi: sibi=sui juris esse volentes (Schultens, Dewriters tell strange stories of this bird, and its litzech). eruelty to its young; hence, say some, the Vers. 5-8. The wild ass, introduced as an exLord's express care for the young ravens, after ample of many beasts, the life of which is cha

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racterized by unrestricted liberty, defying and Renan, Rodwell, Conant, Fürst, Smith's Blb. mocking all human control and nurture.

Dict. Art. “Unicorn"), etc., to understand the Ver. 5. Who hath sent out the wild ass buffalo or wild ox [bos bubalus) to be intended, free, and who hath loosed the bands of seeing that this animal is still quite common in the fugitive?—The words X79 (Arab, fera; Palestine, and that here a contrast seems to be comp. above ch. vi. 5: xi. 12: xxiv. 5) and giny intended between this wild ox and the tame spe

cies (see ver. 10). But this particular bufalo denote one and the same animal, the wild ass or

of Palestine is an animal which is not particuonager (the ovos dyploc of the LXX., the “ Ku

larly strong, or characterized by untamable lan” of the eastern Asiatics of to-day), which is

wildness, as is shown by the fact that it is frecharacterized by the first name as the “gwift

quently used in tilling the land (RUSSELL, Narunner,” by the latter (which in Aramaic, and

turgesch. von Aleppo, II. 7) [Thomson's Land and particularly in the Targum is the common

the Book, I. 386, 387). "The HOVOKÉ PWS of the name), as the “shy, fleeing one." As to the

LXX. [E. V.: “unicorn"] (of which the Talmu. predicate accusative "ven, “free, get loose,” | comp. Deut. xv. 12; Jer. xxxiv. 14. As to the

dic wp is a mutilated form, and the pivoképws second member, comp. ch. xxxviii. 31.

of Aquila and Jerome is a misunderstanding) Ver. 6. Whose home mit. “house "7 I points to an animal which is, if not always, yet have made the desert, and his abode the

often, represented as having one horn, i. e., as

| being armed with one horn on the forehead, consalt-steppe.—The word “salt-steppe" (ansa) sisting of two which have grown together. Such which is here used as parallel to “waste, de an animal seems in ancient times to have been sert” (1707, ch. xxiv. 5 6), stands in Ps. cvii. somewhat common in Egypt and South-western 34 as the opposite of '99 YOX (comp. Judg. ix. Asia, the same being a species nearly related to 45, where mention is made of sowing a destroyed the oryx-antelope (Antil. loucoryr) of to-day. city with salt). On the preference of the wild It is represented on Egyptian monuments, now ass for saline plants, and on his disposition to

with two horns, and now with one. It is de take up bis abode in salt marshes, comp. Oken,

scribed by Aristotle and Pliny as a one-horned, Allg. Naturgesch. Vol. VII., p. 1230.

cloven hoof (Aristotle, Hist. Anim. II. 1; De Ver. 7. [He laughs at the tumult (E. V.

Partib. Anim. III. 2; Pliny, Hist. Nat. XI. 106); “ multitude,” but the parallelism favors “ tu

and in all probability it has been again discomult”) of the city), the driver's shouts he

vered recently in the Techiru, or the Antil. hears not; i. e., he fees from the control of the

Hodgsonii of Southern Thibet (Huc and Gabet, drivers, to which the tamed ass is subjected.

Journeyings through Mongolia and Thibet, Germ. On nixum, comp. ch. xxxvi. 29.

Edit., p. 323; see the passage quoted in Delitzsch,

II., p. 334, n. 2). The name on in the passage Ver. 8. He ranges through the mountains

before us is all the more suitably applied to such as his pasture.-So according to the reading

| an animal of the oryx species, in view of the 747(Imperf. of hin, investigare), which is at.

fact that the corresponding Arabic word still tested by almost all the ancient versions, by the signifies a species of antelope among the SyroLXX, Vulg., Targum. The Masoretic reading | Arabians of to-day, and that this same oryx-fa798 is either (with the Pesh. Le Clerc, etc.) to mily embraces sub-species which are particube taken as a variant of 74A, abundantia, or as a larly wild, largely and powerfully built, and al. derivative of y, with the meaning, “that most bovine in their characteristics. Accordwhich is searched out” (investigatum, investiga- ingly, Luther's translation of the word by “unibile). But the statement that “the abundance corn,” in this passage, and probably in every of the mountains is the pasture of the wild ass". other where DX7 occurs in the Old Testament, would be at variance with the fact in respect to

supported as it is by the LXX., might be justified the life of these animals, which inhabit the bare

without our being compelled to understand by mountain-steppes (comp. Oken in the work cited

this “unicorn" & fabulous animal like that of the above). On the other hand we should expect the

Perso-Assyrian monuments, or of the English normal form 79!, following the analogy of such

royal coat-of-arms. Comp. on the subject S. words as Dap' to have an active rather than a Bochart, Hierozoicon, II. 335 seq.; Rosenmüller, passive signification. 74° however can scarcely | Bibl. Alterth. IV. 2, 288 seq.; Lichtenstein, Die mean “circle, compass,” [E. V.“range ”] here

Antilopen, 1824; Lewysohn, Zoologie des Talmud, (Hahn).

1858, 146, 174; Sundewall, Die Thierarlen des B. The oryx and ostrich : vers. 9-18.

Aristoteles, Stockholm, 1863, p. 64 seq.; also KoVer. 9. Will the oryx be pleased to

ner's Zeitschr. für allgem. Erdkunde, 1862, II., serve thee? — O'?, contracted from ON?

H. 3, p. 227, where interesting information is

given respecting the researches of the English(comp. the full written form O'X?, Ps. xcii. man, W. B. Bailie, touching the existence of a 11), assuredly denotes not the rhinoceros one-horned animal still to be found in the regions (A., Vulgate) [Good, Barnes), because the of Central Africa, south of the Sea of Tsad, difanimal intended must be one that was common fering both from the rhinoceros and from the in Western Asia, and especially in the regions | unicorn of the British coat-of-arms, which is of Syria and Palestine. Comp. the reference to probably, therefore, an African variety of the it in Ps. xxii. 22 [21]; xxix. 6; Deut. xxxiii. oryx-antelope, and possibly the very same va17; Isa. xxxiv. 7. It would be more natural, riety as that represented on the old Egyptian with Schultens, Gesenius, De Wette, Umbreit, monuments. [See Robinson's Researches in PaHirzel (Robinson, Noyes, Carey, Wordsworth, lestine, III. 306, 563; Wilson, Lands of the Bible, II., p. 167 seq.; and the remarks of Dr. Mason, which is more mild in disposition, and is, in of the Assam Mission, in the Christian Review, particular, more affectionate and careful in the January, 1856, quoted by Conant in this verse.] treatment of its offspring—that the predicate Will he lodge [lit. "pass the night,” yo?] at|

177on, pia, with its double meaning, refers

| (which Delitzsch accordingly translates storchthy crib?—lit. “over thy crib” [hence box

* fromm [stork-pious), pia instar circonia). This cannot be, as defined by Gesenius, “stall, sta- lis evident from the description which follows. ble''], for the crib being very low, the cattle of Ver. 14. Nay, she abandons her eggs the ancients in the East reached over it with the head while lying beside it. Comp. Isa. i. 3 and

to the earth.—'? here “nay, rather," as in Hitzig on the passage.

chap. xxii. 2. The subj. of yn is the D'J37 of Ver. 10. Dost thou bind the oryx to the ver. 13, construed here as Fem. Sing. The same furrow of his cord?-i.e., to the furrow

construction obtains in the following verbs (Ew. (comp. chap. xxxi. 38) which he raises by means |

| 8318 a). of the ploughshare, as he is led along by the Ver. 15. And forgets that the foot can cord. Or will he harrow the valleys (Ps. crush them.-NOVni, simply consecutive, and lxv. 14) after thee (1998), i. e., while follow- hence present; comp. chap. iii. 21. On the ing thee, when thou seekest to lead him in the sing. suffix in 7711A, referring to the eggs, see act of ploughing (rather, as in the text, harrow

Gesenius, % 146 18 1437, 3. The fact here deing, 770, to level].

scribed, to wit, that the mother ostrich easily Ver. 11. Wilt thou trust him because forgets her eggs, at least while she is not yet his strength is great ?-i. e., will the great through with laying them, as well as in the bestrength which he possesses awake thy confi. ginning of the period of incubation, and that she dence, and not rather thy mistrust? On 2???

leaves them unprotected, especially on the ap

proach of hunters, is true of this animal only in “labor” “wilt thou commit to him thy labor",

nit to him thy labor”]; its wild condition. In that state it shares these in the sense of the fruit of labor, the product of

and similar habits, proceeding from excessive tilling, comp. Ps. lxxvii. 46 : cxxviii. 2. The wildness and fear of man. with many other verse following is decisive in favor of this in- birds a

is in- birds, as, e.g., the partridge.
re

In its tamed terpretation of the verse before us; otherwise condition, the ostrich watches over its young the word might, in accordance with Gen. xxxi.

very diligently indeed,-and, moreover, shows 42, denote the labor or the toil itself.

nothing of that stupidity popularly ascribed to Ver. 12. Wilt thou trust to him that he

it, and which has become proverbial (to which bring home thy sowing?-Respecting '? as ver. 17 alludes). Comp. the Essay 'entitled : exponent of the object, see Ewald, & 336, 6. Die Zuchtung des Straussen als europäisches Haus

1, if we adhere to it, with the K'thibh, is used thier, in the Ausland, 1869, No. 13, p. 306. The in the transitive sense, as in chap. xlii. 10; Ps. opi

10. Do Topinion moreover, partially circulated among lxxxv. 5. The K'ri, however, substitutes for it

the ancients, that the ostrich does not at all inthe Hiphil, which, in this sense, is the form

cubate its eggs, belongs to that class of scientific more commonly used. And that he gather

fables which, as in the case of those strange ani

mals the basilisk, the dragon, the unicorn, etc., (into) thy threshing-floor.-771 is probably have been incorrectly imputed to the Old Testalocative (=7913). It may possibly, however, ment. The verse before us furnishes no support be taken as accusative of the object per synecdo whatever to that opinion. [See Smith's Bib. chen continentis pro contento (threshing-floor Dict., Art. “Ostrich." "The babit of the ostrich fruits of the threshing-floor, yield of the har-| leaving its eggs to be matured by the sun's heat vest), as in Ruth iii. 2; Matt. iii. 12.

is usually appealed to in order to confirm the Vers. 13-18. The ostrich (lit. the female os- | Scriptural account, .she leaveth her eggs to the trich) introduced as an example of untamable earth;' but this is probably the case only with wildness from among the birds. The wing the tropical birds; the ostriches with which the of the (female) ostrich waves joyously. - Jews were acquainted were, it is likely, birds D'33, lit. " wailings, shrill cries of mourning” of Syria, Egypt and North Africa ; but even if plur. abstr.) is a poetic designation of the os

they were acquainted with the habits of the trotrich here, or of the female ostrich, noted for its

pical ostriches, how can it be said that she forpiercing cries. So correctly the Vulg., Bochart,

getteth that the foot may crush' the eggs, when and almost all the moderns. The Targ. arbitra

they are covered a foot deep or more in sand ? rily understands the bird designated to be the

We believe the true explanation of this passage “mountain-cock.” Kimchi and Luther the pea

is to be found in the fact that the ostrich decock” (and so E. V.: “Gavest thou the goodly

posits some of her eggs not in the nest, but

around it; these lie about on the surface of the wings unto the pea-cocks ?"] As to Oy), “to sand, to all appearance forsaken; they are howmove itself joyously,” comp. chap. xx. 18; also

ever designed for the nourishment of the young the Homeric expression, ayaleovat attepúyecouv. birds, accora

birds, according to Levaillant and Bonjainville Is it a pious pinion and plumage?-i. e., I (Cuvier, An. King. by Griffiths and others, viii. is the wing of this bird, the waving of which | 432),” and see below on ver. 16]. is so powerful and wonderfully rapid, a pious Ver. 16. She deals hardly with her one, productive of mild and tender qualities, young, as though they were not hers; lit. like that of the stork? For it is to that bird— ' for not to her” (i. e., belonging to her) which in its build resembles the ostrich, but D'???, lit. "he deals hardly;' which, bearing in

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