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النشر الإلكتروني

of the compass]. nix scarcely denotes the a. Respecting rain, dew, ice, and hoar-frost : lightning, as in ch. xxxvii. 3 seq. (Schlottmann), vers. 28-30. which is first spoken of in ver. 25, and then Vers, 28-29. Is there a father to the rain ? again in ver. 35, and to which the verb pr',

As this member, together with the following in“divides, scatters itself,” is less suitable than quires (through the formula 75777 ?) after a to the bright day-light (comp. ver. 13 seq.) male progenitor for the atmospheric precipitaIn respect to TD!?, se diffundere, comp. Ex. v. tions of moisture, so does ver. 29 inquire after 12; 1 Sam. xiii. 8. [According to the E. V. the the mother of ice and hoar-frost, for the formula light is the subject of both members: “By what iba p in 6 also refers to the agency of a moway is the light parted, which scattereth the

This variaeast wind upon the earth.” But this construc- ther, as well as the question in a. tion is less probable and suitable than that tion of gender in the representation is to be exgiven above, which recognizes the “light” as

plained by the fact that rain and dew come from the subject of the first member, and the east- heaven, the abode of God, while ice and hoarwind” of the second.-E.]

frost come out of the earth, out of the secret d. The rain-storm and the lightning considered womb of the waters (verse 8). — Sep in as divinely appointed phenomena which, while ver. 28 b are not “reservoirs of dew” (Gesethey inspire terror, are productive of beneficent results : vers. 25–27.

nius), for which the verb 7ļin would not be Ver. 25. Who hath divided a water- suitable, but drops (lit. balls, globules ; LXX. : course for the rain-torrent, i. e., conducted Büro) of dew, whether the root Saxo be assospecific portions of the thirsty earth. 900, ciated with 56a, volvere (which is the view comwhich of itself meang “flood, torrent of waters; monly held), or with the Arab. agal, retinere, colin general, is used here of a down-pouring be

ligere (so Delitzsch).

Ver. 30 describes more specifically the wonneficent torrent of rain [“ the earth ward direction assigned to the water-spouts is likened to derful process which takes place when water is

frozen into ice. an aqueduct coming downwards from the sky;"

The water hardens like Delitzsch], and hence in a different sense from

stone. xana, lit. "they hide themselves, e. g., Ps. xxxii. 6. The second member is taken draw themselves together, thicken” (a related erbally from chap xxviii. 26.

form is xp, whence nx??, curdled milk). Ver. 26. That it may rain on the land The same representation of the process of where no man is; lit. "to cause it to rain,” freezing as producing contraction or compresetc. The subject of nopny is of course God sion(a representation which in the strict who has been already indicated by ' in ver. that water on the contrary always expands

physical sense is not quite correct, seeing 25. That it should rain on a land of “no. in freezing-comp. Pfaff, in the work cited

(the construction as in ch. x. 22), i. e., on above, pp. 103, 189 seq.), was given above a land destitute of men, not artificially irrigated by Elihu, chapter xxxvii. 10, not however and tilled by men, is here set forth as a wise and without indicating in what sense he intended loving providential arrangement of God's. this compression, a sense which is by no means (“God lays stress on this circumstance in order incorrect; see on the passage. A similar intito humiliate man, and to show him that the mation is conveyed here by the second member: earth was made neither by him, nor for him." and the face of the deep cleaves togeRenan. “Man who is so prone to put his own ther, and thus constitutes a firm solid mass interests above everything else, and to judge | (continuum), instead of fluctuating to and fro, as everything from his own human point of view, in the Auid state. non as in ch. xli. 8 [17]; is here most strikingly reminded, how much wider is the range of the Divine vision, and how comp. the Greek < xeovai. God in the exercise of His loving solicitude re- B. Respecting the control of the stars, and of members even those regions, which receive no their influence upon earth : vers. 31-33. care from man, so that even there the possibility

Ver. 31. Canst thou bind the bands of of life and growth is secured to His creatures." the Pleiades ?- niny here not=amænitates, Dillmann)

as in 1 Sam. xv. 32, (E. V., "sweet influences,” Ver. 27 then states more definitely this benefi- referring to the softening and gladdening influcent purpose of God: to satisfy the wild and

ences of spring-time, when that constellation wilderness, (780I as in ch. xxx. 3) makes its appearance) but vincula (LXX.: dequóv; [“ the desert is thus like a thirsty pilgrim; it is Targ. '?'8 Gelpás) as appears from Top “to parched, and thirsty, and sad, and it appeals to bind,” and the parallel nigvis in b, and not God, and He meets' its wants and satisfies it," less from the testimony of all the ancient verBarnes), and to make the green herb to sions, of Talmudic usage, and of the Masora. It sprout; lit. “to make the place (the place of is to be derived accordingly by transposition going forth, xx, comp. ch. xxviii. 1) of the from 7)", " to bind” (comp. ch. xxxi. 36) not green herb to sprout."

from 17. The arranging of the stars of the 5. Continuation. c. Questions respecting the Pleiades (np's as in ch. ix. 9) in a dense group phenomena of the atmosphere and the wonders is with poetic boldness described here as the of the starry heavens: vers. 28-38.

binding of a fillet, or of a cluster of diamonds.


בְּ ( .משל

ix. 9.

In that

(See a similar conception copied out of Persian and confirm its influence (that of heaven, here poets in Ideler, Sternennamen, p: 147): - Or personified as a king; comp. Ewald, & 318 a) on loose the bands of Orion, so that this brilliant constellation would fall'apart, or fall down earthly destinies. non, “ dominion,” is confrom heaven, to which the presumptuous giant strued (with ?] after the analogy of the verbs is chained (comp. on ch. ix. 9). The explana

? 177,

. tion preferred by Dillmann is admissible, and

y. Respecting the Divine control of clouds and even perhaps, in view of the etymon of nidvin,

lightnings: vers. 34, 36. On ver. 34 b, comp. to be preferred to the one more commonly adopt- Ch. xxii. 11 6 (which is here verbally repeated). ed: "Or canst thou loose the lines [German On ver. 35 comp. Ps. civ. 3 ; xxxiii. 9. Zugseile, draw-lines, traces, the cords by which he is drawn up to his place, suggested by :]

8. Additional questions relating to the clouds,

and their agencies: vers. 36-38. of Orion (the giant suspended in heaven), and thus canst thou now raise, and now lower him in Ver. 36. Who put wisdom in the dark the firmament?” The reference of the passage clouds, who gave understanding to that to the Star Suhêl = Canopus (Saad., Gekat., which appears in the sky [Germ. Luftgebilde," Abulwalid, comp. also Delitzsch) is uncertain, atmospheric phenomena]; i. e., who has given and conflicts with the well-known signification to them an intelligent arrangement and signifiof Spa, which is also firmly established by ch. Ps. li. 8, dårk, hidden places," meaning here,

. , , Ver. 32. Canst thou bring forth the bright cloud-layers” (Eichhorn, Umbr., Hirz., Stickel, stars in their time (iny? as in ch. v. 26; Ps. Hahn, Dillmann, etc., by comparison with the civ. 27; cxlv. 15). The word ninie, to which Arabic snu, and its derivative nouns. such a variety of interpretations have been given, which already the LXX. did not understand, and case 'ply, from the Hebr. and Aram. 7300, "to accordingly rendered by uogovp6g [followed see,” (comp. 7! and nav?), signifies “apherein by E. V., “Mazzaroth”), seems to be pearance, phenomenon, form," here according most simply explained (with Dillmann) as a con- to the parallelism of the first member, “a form, tracted form of nina, from 1777, splendere, and phenomenon of the atmosphere, or the clouds.' to mean accordingly “the brightly shining, bril. It can scarcely mean (the rainbow being cerliant stars,” in which case we may assume the tainly called m?, Gen. ix. 13)an appearance planets to be intended, particularly such as are

of light, fiery meteor” (Ewald, Hahn), or “the pre-eminently brilliant, as Venus, Jupiter, Mars, full moon,” (s0 Dillmann, at least tentatively, (comp. Vulg., "Luciferum”) [Fürst: Jupiter, the supreme god of good fortune]. The “ being assuming at the same time that ning refers to brought forth in their time" seems to suit better the dark phases of the moon). At all events the these wandering stars than 1.9., “the two explanation which refers both parallel exprescrowns,” the Northern and Southern (Cocceius, sions to phenomena of the cloud-heavens is the Eichhorn, Michaelis, Ewald, by comparison with only one suited to the context (as was the case with 773) [these constellations being, as Dillmann ob- the meteorological sense of “gold” in chap. jects, too obscure and too little known), or the xxxvii. 22 ; whereas on the contrary the intertwelve signs of the Zodiac (so the majority of pretation long ago adopted by the Vulg., the 2d moderns, on the basis of the very precarious Targ., and many Rabbis (and E. V.] and recently identification of nini with nisip, 2 Ki. xxiii. Wordsworth, Schlottmann, Renan], according to

by Delitzsch (Gesenius, Noyes, Conant, Barnes, 5), or the twenty-eight stations (Arab, menazil) which nino means “the reins,” or “entrails," of the moon (80 A. Weber, in his Abhandlung über die vedischen Nachrichten von den naxatra, oder (comp. Ps. Ji. 8 [C]), and "!! the “cock” (as Mondstationen, 1860), or, finally, any prophetic as the weather-prophet kar soxív among anistars whatever, astra præsaga, præmonentia (Ge- mals,” Delitzsch : while Gesenius, Schlottmann, genius, who refers the word to 773 in the Arabic Noyes, Conant, Wordsworth, Renan, as also E. signification). — And guide the Bear (lit., V., render by "heart, intelligence"] yields a “the she-bear," ugoy, comp. ch. ix. 9) together meaning that is singular enough, and which is with his [lit., her] young? i. e., the constel- made no better when the cock is regarded as lation of the Bear with the three stars forming (Prudentius), or as a weather-prophet (after Ci

speculator et præco aurora, as ales diei nuntius its tail, which are regarded as its children (D??? cero, de divin. II., 26), and the reins are supin Arab. nij?); see on ch. ix. 9. The evening posed to be mentioned because of their power star (vesperus, Vulg.) is far from being intended, of foretelling the weather and presaging the fu. and equally so the comparatively unimportant ture. Still more singular and opposed to the constellation Capella (Eichhorn, Bibliothek, Vol. context is the rendering of the LXX.: Tiç čow VII., p. 429).

κεν γυναικί υφάσματος σοφίαν και ποικιλτικήν επισVer. 33. Knowest thou the laws of hea- rhum [And who has given to woman skill in ven? i. e., the laws which rule the course of weaving, or knowledge of embroidery]? They the stars, the succession of seasons and periods, seem to have read in the first member niio, in annual and diurnal, etc., (comp. Gen. i. 14 seq;; the second nidin, "embroidering women," or viii. 22).-Or dost thou establish its dominion over the earth ? i. e., dost thou ordain niby, "to embroider.”

first member extends.

Ver. 37. Who numbers the clouds in they had been driven out of the nests by the pawisdom.-790 as elsewhere the Kal: “to rent birds; but this belief in the ravens' want number” (chap. xxviii. 27). And the bottles of affection to its young is entirely without of the heavens-who inclines them-i, e.,

foundation. To the fact of the raven being a who causes them to be emptied, to pour out

common bird in Palestine, and to its habit of their fluid contents. The comparison of the flying restlessly about in constant search for clouds, laden with rain, to bottles, or pitchers food to satisfy its voracious appetite, may peroccurs frequently also in Arabic poets (see haps be traced the reason for its being selected Schultens on the passage). [E. V. · Who can by our Lord and the inspired writers as the esstay the bottles of heaven?” which is less suit- pecial object of God's providing care.” Smith's able to Jun, and to the context. Jerome, ta

Bib. Dict. Art. “ Raven.”]

Chap. xxxix. 1-4: Propagation and increase king:5p3 to mean "harps,” renders uniquely: of the wild goats (rock-goats, ibices) and stags. et concentrum cælorum quis dormire faciet?]

Ver. 1. Knowest thou the time when Ver. 38. When the dust flows together the wild goats bear? observest thou the into a molten mass. Přid, “fụsed, solid metal," a word which is to be explained in ac

travail of the hinds ?_5517 Inf. Pilel of cordance with ch. xxxvii. 18 (not in accordance Son, “to be in labor,” üờivelv (comp. the Pulal with ch. xxii. 16). mp3 here, as in 1 Kings xxii. in ch. xv. 7), here the object of navn, to which 35, to be rendered intransitively: "When the verb the influence of the ? before not in the dust pours itself," i. e., when it flows, runs, as it were, together. In respect to D'O??, "clods,"

Ver. 2. Dost thou number the months comp. ch. xxi. 33.

which they (must) fulfil; i. e., until they 6. Continuation and conclusion. d. Questions bring forth, hence their period of gestation. respecting the propagation and preservation of [The point of the question can scarcely be that wild beasts as objects of the creative power and Job could have no knowledge whatever of the wise providence of God. Chap. xxxviii-xxxix. 30. matters here referred to, but that he could have a. The lion, the raven, the wild goat, the stag,

no such knowledge as would qualify him to and the wild ass: chap. xxxviii. 39—xxxix. 8. stand toward these creatures at such a time in

Ver. 39. Dost thou hunt the prey for the the place of God; or, as Carey expresses it; lioness, and dost thou appease the cra- “Can you keep an exact register of all this, and ving of the young lions ?—Respecting the exercise such providential care over these crealion's names, x?? and yo, comp. on ch. iv. tures, the mountain goats and hinds, as to pre11. “To appease (lit. to fill) the craving” tation, and then deliver them at the proper pe

serve them from dangers during the time of gesmeans the same as “to fill the soul" riod ?”—E.]. In the second member nanas, (U9) »), Prov. vi. 30.

with full-toned suffix, is used for ip??; comp. Ver. 40. When they crouch in the dens. On iniwn comp. Ps. x. 10. On nijiyo lustra,

Ruth i. 19, and Gesenius, & 91 [889], i, Rem. 2. comp. Ps. civ. 22. In respect to

[Green, % 101, 9]. in 6,

Ver. 3. They bow themselves (comp. 1 comp. jo, used elsewhere in the sense of Sam. iv. 19), they let their young ones

break through (lit. “cleave;" comp. ch. xvi. o thicket,” Ps. X. 9; Jer. xxv. 38. On 7-in?, 13), they cast away their pains, i. e., the which gives the object of the “crouching and fruit of their pains, their fætus, for this is what “sitting" (or "dwelling''], comp. xxxi. 9 b.

yan here signifies, not the after-pains, as Hirzel Ver. 41. Who provides for the raven its prey, when its young ones cry unto God, and Schlottmann think. Comp. pípa ódiva-= (wander without food ?—The interrogation edere foetum, in Euripides, Ion 45; also properly extends over the whole verse, not, as in amples of the same phraseology from the Arabic E. V., over the first member only, which makes in Schultens on the passage. It will be seen the remainder of the verse meaningless.—E.]. further that runson (instead of which Olshau1°???, “to prepare, to provide,” as in ch. xxvii.

sen needlessly conjectures ojoson after chap. 16 seq. ' “when,” as in ver. 40 a. The ravens are introduced here, as in the parallel pag- xxi. 10) forms a paronomasia with oignhun.

Ver. 4. Their young ones become strong sages, Ps. cxlvii. 9; Luke xii. 24, as objects of God's fatherly care, rather than any other de cobre, lit. “to grow fat,” pinguescere), grow up scription of birds, because they are specially no- in the desert. -773=rına, or 1702, as often ticeable among birds in search of food, by rea- in the Targ. (a meaning more suitable to the son of their hoarse cries. Observe moreover the context than that of E. V. “ with corn"]. They contrast, which is surely intentional between go away, and return not to them; i. e., to the mighty monarch of the beasts, which in ver. 39 seq. is put at the head of beasts in search of the parents. In however might also be exfood, and the contemptibly small, insignificant, plained after ch. vi. 19; xxiv. 16 as Dat. comand uncomely raven. ["Jewish and Arabian modi : sibi=sui juris esse volentes (Schultens, Dewriters tell strange stories of this bird, and its litzech). eruelty to its young; hence, say some, the Vers. 5-8. The wild ass, introduced as an exLord's express care for the young ravens, after ample of many beasts, the life of which is cha

,(מלֵא חַיָה)



It is de

racterized by unrestricted liberty, defying and Renan, Rodwell, Conant, Fürst, Smith's Blb. mocking all human control and nurture.

Dict. Art. “Unicorn”], etc., to understand the Ver. 5. Who hath sent out the wild ass buffalo or wild ox [bos bubalus) to be intended, free, and who hath loosed the bands of seeing that this animal is still quite common in the fugitive ?—The words *79. (Arab, ferâ; Palestine, and that here a contrast seems to be comp. above ch. vi. 5; xi. 12; xxiv.5) and nine intended between this wild ox and the tame spe

cies (see ver. 10). But this particular buffalo denote one and the same animal, the wild ass or lan” of the eastern Asiatics of to-day), which is wildness, as is shown by the fact that it is freonager (the dvoç åyploç of the Lxx., the “ Ku- of Palestine is an animal which is not particucharacterized by the first name as the “swift runner," by the latter (which in Aramaic, and quently used in tilling the land (RUSSELL, Naparticularly in the Targum is the common turgesch, von Aleppo, 11. 7) [Thomsor's Land and name), as the “ shy, fleeing one.” As to the LXX. [E. V.: "unicorn”] (of which the Talmu

the Book, I. 386, 387]. The μονοκέρως of the predicate accusative pon, “free, set loose," comp. Deut. xv. 12; Jer. xxxiv. 14. As to the

dic op is a mutilated form, and the pivoképus second member, comp. ch. xxxviii. 31.

of Aquila and Jerome is a misunderstanding) Ver. 6. Whose home [lit. “house”] I points to an animal which is, if not always, yet have made the desert, and his abode the often, represented as having one horn, i. e., as

being armed with one norn on the forehead, consalt-steppo.—The word “salt-steppe” (onko) sisting of two which have grown together. Such which is here used as parallel to “waste, de- an animal seems in ancient times to have been sert” (1737y, ch. xxiv. 5 6), stands in Ps. cvii. somewhat common in Egypt and South-western 34 as the opposite of '?? V? (comp. Judg. ix. Asia, the same being a species nearly related to 45, where mention is made of sowing a destroyed the oryx—antelope (Antil. loucoryx) of to-day. city with salt). On the preference of the wild It is represented on Egyptian monuments, now ass for saline plants, and on his disposition to with two horns, and now with one. take up bis abode in salt marshes, comp. Oken, scribed by Aristotle and Pliny as a one-horned, Allg. Naturgesch. Vol. VII., p. 1230.

cloven hoof (Aristotle, Hist. Anim. II. 1; De Ver. 7. (He laughs at the tumult (E. V. Partib. Anim. III. 2; Pliny, Hist. Nat. XI. 106); “multitude," but the parallelism favors“ tu. and in all probability it has been again disco. mult”) of the city), the driver's shouts he vered recently in the Techiru, or the Antil. hears not; i. e., he flees from the control of the Hodgsonü of Southern Thibet (Huc and Gabet, drivers, to which the tamed ass is subjected. Journeyings through Mongolia and Thibet, Germ. On nixon, comp. ch. xxxvi. 29.

Edit., p. 323; see the passage quoted in Delitzsch, Ver. 8. He ranges through the mountains before us is all the more suitably applied to such

II., p. 334, n. 2). The name oil in the passage as his pasture. So according to the reading

an animal of the oryx species, in view of the 7477 (Imperf. of hin, investigare), which is at

fact that the corresponding Arabic word still tested by almost all the ancient versions, by the signifies a species of antelope among the SyroLXX, Vulg., Targum. The Masoretic reading Arabians of to-day, and that this same oryx-fa798? is either (with the Pesh. Le Clerc, etc.) to mily embraces sub-species which are particu. be taken as a variant of an, abundantia, or as a larly wild, largely and powerfully built, and al. derivative of y, with the meaning, “that most bovine in their characteristics. Accord

(investigatum, investiga- | ingly, Luther's translation of the word by “unibile). But the statement that “the abundance corn,'

' in this passage, and probably in every of the mountains is the pasture of the wild ass” other where DX7 occurs in the Old Testament, would be at variance with the fact in respect to the life of these animals, which inhabit the bare supported as it is by the LXX., might be justified mountain-steppes (comp. Oken in the work cited this “unicorn” & fabulous animal like that of the

without our being compelled to understand by above). On the other hand we should expect the Perso-Assyrian monuments, or of the English normal form 778, following the analogy of such

royal coat-of-arms. Comp. on the subject S. words as DAP to have an active rather than a Bochart, Hierozoicon, II. 335 seq.; Rosenmüller, passive signification. 798? however can scarcely Bibl. Alterth. IV. 2, 288 seq.; Lichtenstein, Die mean “circle, compass,” įE. V. “ range "] here Antilopen, 1824; Lewysobn, Zoologie des Talmud, (Hahn).

1858, & 146, 174; Sundewall, Die Thierarten des B. The oryx and ostrich : vers. 9-18.

Aristoteles, Stockholm, 1863, p. 64 seq.; also KoVer. 9. Will the oryx be pleased to ner’s Zeitschr. für allgem. Erdkunde, 1862, II.,

thee? –0'?, contracted from DNY H. 3, p. 227, where interesting information is (comp. the full written form O'X?, Ps. xcii. man, w. B. Bailie, touching the existence of a

given respecting the researches of the English11), assuredly denotes not the rhinoceros one-horned animal still to be found in the regions (Aq., Vulgate). [Good, Barnes), because the of Central Africa, south of the Sea of Tsad, difanimal intended must be one that was common fering both from the rhinoceros and from the in Western Asia, and especially in the regions unicorn of the British coat-of-arms, which is of Syria and Palestine. Comp. the reference to probably, therefore, an African variety of the it in Ps. xxii. 22 [21]; xxix. 6; Deut. xxxiii. oryx-antelope, and possibly the very same va17; Isa. xxxiv. 7. It would be more natural, riety as that represented on the old Egyptian with Schultens, Gesenius, De Wette, Umbreit, monuments. (See Robinson's Researches in PaHirzel (Robinson, Noyes, Carey, Wordsworth, lestine, III. 306, 563; Wilson, Lands of the Bible,

which is searched out


II., p. 167 seq.; and the remarks of Dr. Mason, which is more mild in disposition, and is, in of the Assam Mission, in the Christian Review, particular, more affectionate and careful in the January, 1856, quoted by Conant in this verse.] treatment of its offspring—that the predicate Will he lodge [lit. "pass the night,” pomy] at 270 pia, with its double meaning, refers thy crib ?—lit. “over thy crib” [hence 5938 (which Delitzsch accordingly translates storch

fromm [stork-pious], pia instar circoniæ). This cannot be, as defined by Gesenius, "stall, sta- is evident from the description which follows. ble"], for the crib being very low, the cattle of Ver. 14. Nay, she abandons her eggs the ancients in the East reached over it with the to the earth.-? here “nay, rather,” as in head while lying beside it. Comp. Isa. i. 3 and Hitzig on the passage.

chap. xxii. 2. The subj. of aiyn is the bill of Ver. 10. Dost thou bind the oryx to the ver. 13, construed here as Fem. Sing. The same furrow of his cord?-i.e., to the furrow construction obtains in the following verbs (Ew. (comp. chap. xxxi. 88) which he raises by means

8318 a). of the ploughshare, as he is led along by the Ver. 15. And forgets that the foot can cord. Or will he harrow the valleys (Ps. crush them.-navn, simply consecutive, and lxv. 14) after thee (720x), i. e., while follow- hence present; comp. chap. iii. 21.

On the ing thee, when thou seekest to lead him in the sing. suffix in 7um, referring to the eggs, see act of ploughing (rather, as in the text, harrow-Gesenius, & 146 [8 143], 3. The fact here deing, 770, to level].

scribed, to wit, that the mother ostrich easily Ver. 11. Wilt thou trust him because forgets her eggs, at least while she is not yet his strength is great ?-i. e., will the great through with laying them, as well as in the bestrength which he possesses awake thy confi- ginning of the period of incubation, and that she dence, and not rather thy mistrust?

On y

leaves them unprotected, especially on the ap

proach of hunters, is true of this animal only in “labor" ["wilt thou commit to him thy labor”]; its wild condition. In that state it shares these in the sense of the fruit of labor, the product of and similar habits, proceeding from excessive tilling, comp. Ps. lxxviii. 46: cxxviii. 2. The

wildness and fear of man, with many other verse following is decisive in favor of this in- birds, as, e.g., the partridge. In its tamed terpretation of the verse before us; otherwise condition, the ostrich watches over its young the word might, in accordance with Gen. xxxi. very diligently indeed,—and, moreover, shows 42, denote the labor or the toil itself. Ver. 12. Wilt thou trust to him that he it, and which has become proverbial (to which

nothing of that stupidity popularly ascribed to bring home thy sowing?-Respecting '? as

ver. 17 alludes). Comp. the Essay entitled : exponent of the object, see Ewald, g 336, 6. Die Zuchtung des Straussen als europäisches Haus

if we adhere to it, with the K'thibh, is used thier, in the Ausland, 1869, No. 13, p. 306. The in the transitive sense, as in chap. xlii. 10; Ps. I the ancients, that the ostrich does not at all in

opinion moreover, partially circulated among Ixxxv. 5. The K'ri, however, substitutes for it the Hiphil, which, in this sense, is the form cubate its eggs, belongs to that class of scientific more commonly used. And that he gather mals the basilisk, the dragon, the unicorn, etc.,

fables which, as in the case of those strange ani(into) thy threshing-floor.-7771 is probably have been incorrectly imputed to the Old Testalocative (=7???). It may possibly, however, ment. The verse before us furnishes no support be taken as accusative of the object per synecdo- whatever to that opinion. [See Smith’s Bib. chen continentis pro contento (threshing-floor=Dict., Art. “Ostrich." "The babit of the ostrich fruits of the threshing-floor, yield of the har- leaving its eggs to be matured by the sun's heat vest), as in Ruth iii. 2; Matt. iii. 12.

is usually appealed to in order to confirm the Vers. 13–18. The ostrich (lit. the female os- Scriptural account, 'she leaveth her eggs to the trich) introduced as an example of untamable earth;' but this is probably the case only with wildness from among the birds. The wing the tropical birds; the ostriches with which the of the (female) ostrich waves joyously. - Jews were acquainted were, it is likely, birds D'???, lit. "wailings, sbrill cries of mourning"

of Syria, Egypt and North Africa ; but even if plur. abstr.) is a poetic designation of the os

they were acquainted with the habits of the trotrich here, or of the female ostrich, noted for its pical ostriches, how can it be said that she forpiercing cries. So correctly the Vulg., Bochart, getteth that the foot may crush' the eggs, when and almost all the moderns. The Targ. arbitra- they are covered a foot deep or more in sand ? rily understands the bird designated to be the .We believe the true explanation of this passage “mountain-cock.” Kimchi and Luther the "

is to be found in the fact that the ostrich de

peacock” (and so E. V.: “Gavest thou the goodly posits some of her eggs not in the nest, but

around it; these lie about on the surface of the wings unto the pea-cocks ?”] As to oby, “to sand, to all appearance forsaken; they are howmove itself joyously,” comp. chap. xx. 18; also ever designed for the nourishment of the young the Homeric expression, åyanaeodal trepúyecouv. birds, according to Levaillant and Bonjainville Is it a pious pinion and plumage ?-i.e., (Cuvier, An. King. by Griffiths and others, viii. is the wing of this bird, the waving of which 432),” and see below on ver. 16). is so powerful and wonderfully rapid, a pious

Ver. 16. She deals hardly with her one, productive of mild_and tender qualities, young, as though they were not hers; lit. like that of the stork! For it is to that bird

not to her” (i. e., belonging to her) which in its build resembles the ostrich, but pop?, lit.“ he deals hardly; ' which, bearing in


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