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the work of creation, receives its explanation | ber and greatness of such wonders as are set out of the depth of His great goodness and forth in this description for him who enters into mercy. When therefore we treat of God, of His the spirit of it. works and mysteries, we must do it with beseem- Chap. xxxviii. 39 seq. ; xl. 1 seq. CRAMER : ing modesty and reverence. If even the The volume of natural history [das Thierbuch] book of nature transcends our ability to deci- which God here writes out for us, should be a pher it fully, how much more incomprehensible genuine text-book to all the virtues.-STARKE: and mysterious will the book of Holy Scripture If animals, whether strong or despicable, great be for us.-VON GERLACH: The fundamental

or small, are embraced in God's merciful provithought of these representations which Goddential care, we can regard their need as a sihere puts forth is that only He who can create lent appeal to the goodness of the Lord, and in and govern all things, who superiatends every- this sense even the ravens cry to God when they thing and adjusts all things in their relation to cry out from hunger. each other, can also comprehend the connection Chap. xxxix. 27 seq. Vict. ANDREA: From of human destinies. Inasmuch however as fee- that which is here intimated (to wit, that other ble short-sighted man cannot understand and fa- animals must sacrifice their life, in order to thom the created things which are daily surround satisfy the blood-thirsty broud of an eagle) do we ing him, how can he assume to himself any part not see that the suffering of a simple creature of God's agency in administering the universe ? might in God's plan be designed to benefit other Chap. xxxviii

. 16 seq. von GERLACH: Of the creatures of God? ---So the death of a man may, particular subject here referred to (scientific through the terrifying effect which it has on discoveries in the natural world), it is true that others, often be a blessing to them. And how the later researches of mankind have accom- often is severe sickness, wholly irrespective of plished much, only however to reveal new depths the end which the suffering may have for the paof this immeasurable creation. In seeking to tient himself, a most effective school of sympathy, penetrate into the meaning of these words, we yea, of the most self-sacrificing love for all who surare not to dwell on the literal features of each round the sufferer. Very often such a sufseparate statement. It is a poetic and splendid ferer, if he diligently strives to exhibit in description of the greatness and unsearchable- his own person a pattern of resignation and ness of God in creation, from the point of view praise to God, has been a rich source of which men then occupied, a description which light and blessing for those who are round about retains its lofty internal truth, although the let him! How short-sighted it is therefore for the ter of it, regarded from the stand-point of our sick to complain that their life is wholly without present knowledge of nature no longer seems as that they are only a burden to those who are striking to us as the ancients. Indeed it may be about them, etc. In short the majesty of God has said that this more thorough investigation of na- only to question man, in order to bring into the tural laws has itself vastly increased the num- clearest consciousness his narrow limitations.

use,

Second Discourse of Jehovah (together with Job's answer):

To doubt God's justice, which is most closely allied to His wonderful omnipotence, is a grievous wrong, which must be atoned for

by sincere penitence :

CHAPTERS XL. 64XLII. 6.

1. Sharp rebuke of Job's presumption, which has been carried to the point of doubting God's justice:

CHAPTER XL. 6-14.
VER. 6. Then answered the Lord unto Job out of the whirlwind, and said :

7 Gird up thy loins now like a man:

I will demand of thee, and declare thou unto me. 8 Wilt thou also disannul my judgment ?

wilt thou condemn me that thou mayest be righteous ? 9 Hast thou an arm like God?

or canst thou thunder with a voice like Him ? 10 Deck thyself now with majesty and excellency,

and array thyself with glory and beauty.

11 Cast abroad the rage of thy wrath ;

and behold every one that is proud, and abase him. 12 Look on every one that is proud, and bring him low;

and tread down the wicked in their place. 13 Hide them in the dust together :

and bind their faces in secret. 14 Then will I also confess unto thee

that thine own right hand can save thee.

2. Humiliating exhibition of the weakness of Job in contrast with certain creatures of earth, not to say with God; shown

a. by a description of the behemoth (hippopotamus) :

VERS. 15-24. 15 Behold now behemoth,

which I made with thee;

he eateth grass as an ox: 16 Lo now, his strength is in his loins,

and his force is in the navel of his belly. 17 He moveth his tail like a cedar:

the sinews of his stones are wrapped together. 18 His bones are as strong pieces of brass ;

his bones are like bars of iron. 19 He is the chief of the ways of God :

He that made him can make his sword to approach unto him. 20 Surely the mountains bring him forth food,

where all the beasts of the field play. 21 He lieth under the shady trees,

in the covert of the reed, and fens. 22 The shady trees cover him with their shadow;

the willows of the brook compass him about. 23 Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not:

he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan in his mouth. 24 He taketh it with his eyes :

his nose pierceth through snares.

6. by a description of the leviathan (crocodile): CHAP. XL. 25—XLI. 26 [E. V. CHAP. XLI. 1-34). E.V. (Heb.] XLI. (XL) 1 [25] Canst thou draw out leviathan with a hook?

or his tongue with a cord which thou lettest down? 2 [26] Canst thou put a hook into his nose?

or bore his jaw through with a thorn ? 3 [27] Will he make many supplications unto thee?

will he speak soft words unto thee? 4 [28] Will he make a covenant with thee?

wilt thou take him for a servant for ever 5 [29] Wilt thou play with him as with a bird ?

or wilt thou bind him for thy maidens ? 6 [30] Shall the companions make a banquet of him?

shall they part him among the merchants ? 7 [31] Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons ?

or his head with fish spears ? 8 [32] Lay thine hand upon him,

remember the battle, do no more. [XLI.] 9 [1] Behold the hope of him is in vain :

shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him?

13 [5]

14 [6]

10 [2] None is so fierce that dare stir him up;

who then is able to stand before Me? 11 [3] Who hath prevented me that I should repay him?

whatsoever is under the whole heaven is mine. 12 [4] I will not conceal his parts,

nor his power, nor his comely proportion.
Who can discover the face of his garment ?
or who can come to him with his double bridle ?
Who can open the doors of his face?

his teeth are terrible round about. 15 [7] His scales are his pride,

shut up together as with a close seal. 16 [8] One is so near to another,

that no air can come between them. 17 [9] They are joined one to another,

they stick together that they cannot be sundered. 18 (10] By his neesings a light doth shine,

and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning. 19 [11] Out of his mouth go burning lamps,

and sparks of fire leap out. 20 [12] Out of his nostrils goeth smoke,

as out of a seething pot, or cauldron. 21 [13] His breath kindleth coals,

and a flame goeth out of his mouth. 22 [14] In his neck remaineth strength,

and sorrow is turned into joy before him. 23 [15] The flakes of his flesh are joined together:

they are firm in themselves; they cannot be moved. 24 [16] His heart is as firm as a stone;

yea, as hard as a piece of the nether millstone. 25 [17] When he raiseth up himself the mighty are afraid:

by reason of breakings they purify themselves. 26 [18] The sword of him that layeth at him cannot hold:

the spear, the dart, nor the habergeon. 27 [19] He esteemeth iron as straw,

and brass as rotten wood. 28 [20] The arrow cannot make him flee;

slingstones are turned with him into stubble. 29 [21] Darts are counted as stubble ;

he laugheth at the shaking of a spear. 30 [22] Sharp stones are under him:

he spreadeth sharp-pointed things upon the mire. 31 [23] He maketh the deep to boil like a pot;

he maketh the sea like a pot of ointment. 32 [24] He maketh a path to shine after him ;

one would think the deep to be hoary. 33 [25] Upon earth there is not his like,

who is made without fear. 34 26 He beholdeth all high things :

he is a king over all the children of pride.

3. Job's answer : Humble confession of the infinitude of the divine power, and penitent acknowledgment of his guilt and folly:

CHAP. XLII. 1-6. 1 Then Job answered the Lord and said : 2 I know that Thou canst do everything,

and that no thought can be withholden from Thee.

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.

3 “ Who is he that hideth counsel without knowledge ?"

therefore have I uttered trat I understood not;

things too wonderful for me which I knew not; 4 Hear, I beseech Thee, and I will speak :

I will demand of Thee, and declare Thou unto me. 5 I have heard of Thee by the hearing of the ear;

but now mine eye seeth Thee : 6 Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes.

2. First Division (Long Strophe): Severe censure of Job's presumptuous doubt respecting the

justice of the divine course of action: ch. xl. 1. That the omnipotent and infinitely wise ac- 6-14. tivity of the Creator in nature is at the same

Ver. 6. Then answered Jehovah Job time just, was in the first discourse of God af- out of the storm, etc.—This intentional repetifirmed for the most part only indirectly, or im- tion of ch. xxxviii. 1 is to show that God conplicite. Only once, in ch. xxxviii. 13-15, was

tinues to present Himself to Job as one who, if ihis aspect of His character expressly presented, not exactly burning with wrath towards him, and then only incidentally. The second dis- would bave him feel His mighty superiority. course of Jehovah is intended to supply what is that here also, instead of 7730 , ihu origiBrill lacking as to this point, to constrain Job nal text was openin, is evident from the Mafully to recognize the justice of God in all that lle does, and in this way to vanquish the last sorah itself. The absence of the art. 77. if it remainder of pride and presumption in his heart. originally belonged here, is by no means to be It accomplishes this end by a twofold method of explained, with Ramban, as designed to indicate treatment. First by the direct method of se

that the storm was no longer as violent as before. verely censuring the doubt which Job bad ut- |-Ver. 7 precisely as in ch. xxxviii. 3. tered as to the divine justice, and by vindicating right?-9877 stands in a climactic relation to

Ver. 8. Wilt thou altogether annul my God's sole and exclusive claim to the power requisite for exercising sovereignty over he uni- Job's "contending" (3) reproved in ver. 2. verse (first, and shorter part : chap. xl. 6-14). "To break” (791) God's right would be the Next by the indirect method of attacking his same as “to abolish, annul” the same (comp. pride through a lengthened description of two ch. xv. 4). Job was on the point of becoming proud monster-beasts, mighty creations of God's guilty of this wickedness, in that he sought to hand, which after all the amazing wonder which substitute what he assumed to be right, bis idea their gigantic power calls forth, are nevertheless of righteousness, for that of God, so that he only instruments in the hand of the Almighty, might be accounted righteous, and God unjust, and must submit, if not to the will of man, at (see the second member). least to the will of God, who crushes all tyran

Ver. 9. Or hast thou an arm like God? nous pride (second, and longer part: ch. xl. 15-Ox? interrogative, as in ch. viii. 3; xxi. 4; -xli. 26 [34]): This second part, which is xxxiv. 17. The “arm ” of God as a symbol of again divided into two unequal halves — the His power, comp. ch. xxii. 8; so also the "thunshorter describing the behemoth-ch. xl. 15-24, der-voice spoken of in the second member; the longer the leviathan, ch. xl. 25-xli. 26. comp. chap. xxxvii. 2 seq.-oy?, lit., “wilt, [E. V., ch. xli. 1-34], falls back on the descrip- canst thou thunder ? dost thou pledge thyself to tive and interrogative tone of the first discourse thunder ?” of God; in contrast with which however it is

Ver. 10. Then put on majesty and grancharacterized by an allegorizing tendency. It deur, as an ornament; clothe, deck thyself with directly prepares the way for Job's second and these attributes of divine greatness and sovelast answer, in which he renews the humble reignty (comp. Ps. civ. 1 seq. ; xxi. 6 [5). The submission which he had previously made, and challenge is intended ironically, since ii demands strengthens it by a peniient confession of his of Job that which is in itself impossible ; in like own sinfulness. The strophic arrangement of

manner all that follows down to ver. 13 (comp. this second discourse of Jehovah is comprehen-ch. xxxviii. 21). sively simple and grand, corresponding to the

Ver. 11. Let the outbreakings of thy contents, which are thoroughly descriptive, with wrath pour themselves forth.-1???, effuna massive execution. It embraces in all five Long Strophes, of 8-12 verses each, not less than three dere, to pour forth, to cause to gush forth, as in of which are devoted to the description of the ch. xxxvii. 11 ; Prov. v. 16. ninay, lit., "overleviathan in ch. xl. 25—xli. 26, [E. V., ch. xli.] steppings,” are here the overflowings, or outThese five Long Strophes include indeed shorter breakings of wrath; comp. ch. xxi. 30; and for subordinate divisions, but not, strictly speaking, the thought, particularly in the second member, regularly constructed strophes.—Against the comp. Isa. ii. 12 seg. The fact that Jehovah modern objections to the authenticity of the epi. ironically summons Job to display such manifessode referring to the behemoth and leviathan, tations of holy wrath and of stern retributive see above in the Introd. & 9, II. (also the notice justice against sinners, conveys an indirect, but taken of the peculiar theory of Merx in the Pre- sufficiently clea and emphatic assurance of the face!

truth that He Himself, Jehovab. guverns the

Xxxvi. 20.

For it is to this animal that

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world thus rigidly and justly; comp. above, ch. of Horace: Vis consili expers mole ruit sua, etc.). Xxxviii. 13 seq. Ver. 12. Look on all that is proud, and either misinterpreted as a plural (so the LXX.:

The name niona (which the ancient versions bring it low.-Tbis almost verbal repetition of ver. 11 6 is intended to emphasize the fact that impia), or kft untranslated, as a proper name at the moment when God casts His angry glance [Vulg., etc.]), in itself denotes, in accordance upon the wicked, the latter is cast down; comp. an intensive signification : "the great beast, the

with the analogy of other plural formations with Ps. xxxiv. 17 (16].--Andoverturn the wick colossus of cattle, the monster animal.” The ed in their place. Tån. hey., "to throw word is, however, a Hebraized form of the down,” or perhaps“ to tread down" (related to Egyptian p-ehe-mau, “the water-ox” (p=the, 797). In the latter case the passage might be ebe=ox, mau or mou=water), and like this compared with Rom. xvi. 20.—On ona “in Egypt. word (besides which indeed the hierotheir place" [="on the spot”], comp. chap. glyphic apet is more frequently to be met with),

and the Ital. bomarino, it signifies the Nile-horse, Ver. 13. Hide them in the dust altoge.

or hippopotamus. ther; i. e., in the dust of the grave (hardly in the wbole description which follows refers, as holes of the earth, or of rocks, as though Isi. ii. is most distinctly and unmistakably shown by 10 were a parallel passage).-Shut up fast the association with another monster of the Nile, (lit., " bind, fetter”) their faces in secret, i. the crocodile: not to the elephant, of which it

in the interior of the earth, in the darkness is understood by Thom. Aquinas, Oecolampadius, of the realm of the dead; pudo here substantially the Zürich Bib., Drusius, Pfeifer, Le Clerc, Coc

ceius, Schultens, J. D. Michaelis [Scott, Henry. =Sir. Comp. the passage out of the Book of Good' refers the description to some extinct Enoch x. 5, cited by Dillmann: kal tiv Oyev av- pachyderm of the mammoth or mastodon species. του πώμασον, και φώς μη θεωρείτω.

Lee, following the LXX., understands it of the Ver. 14. Then will I too praise thee, not cattle, first collectively, and then distributively). only wilt thou praise thyself (comp. ver. 8)

The correct view was taken by Bochart (Ilieroz. That thy right hand brings thee succor; ii. 705 seq.), and after him has been adopted i. e., that thou dost actually possess the power by the great majority of moderns. With the (the “arm,” ver. 9) to put thy ideas of justice following vivid description of this animal's way into execution with vigor; comp. the similar of living and form, beginning with the mention expressions in Ps. xliv. 4 [3] ; Is. lix. 18; lxiii. of his "eating grass (supporting himself on 6. This conclusion of the rebuke which Jeho- tender plants, the reeds of the Nile, roots, etc.), vah administers directly to Job's insolent pre- may be compared Herod. ii. 69-71; Pliny viii. sumption, as though he only knew what is just, 25; Aben Batuta, ed. Defrem iv., p. 426; among prepares at once the transition to the description the moderns, Rüppell: Reisen in Nubien, 1829, which follows of the colossal animals which are p. 52 seq.; and in particular Sir Sam. Baker in introduced as eloquent examples of God's infinite his travels, as in The Nile and its Tributaries, creative power, which for the very reason of its | The Albert Nyanza, etc. (See extracts from being such is of necessity united to the highest these works, with striking illustrations of the justice.

hippopotamus in the Globus, Vol. XVII., 1870, 3. Second Division: The descriptions of ani- Nos. 22–24) [Livingstone, Travels and Researches, mals, given for the purpose of humiliating Job p. 536): by showing his weakness, and the absolute Ver. 16. Lo now, his strength is in his groundlessness of his presumptuous pride. a. The description of the behemoth: Verses in b, a word found only here (derived from the

loins, etc.-pix as in ch. xviii. 7, 12. D'770 Ver. 15. Behold now the behemoth. Even root ng, “to wind, to twist,” which is conDillm., one of the most zealous opponents of the tained also in nih, “navel,” as also in unic, genuineness of the whole section, is obliged to “root”), cannot signify the "bones,” of which admit that the connection with what precedes mention is first made in ver. 18 (against Wetzby means of 1277 is an "easy" one. Moreover stein in Delitzsch), but the cords, the sinews and it is by no means one that is "purely external,” muscles, which in the case of the hippopotamus for the behemoth is brought to Job's attention (not, however, of the elephant) are particularly for the very purpose of illustrating the proposi- firm and strong just in the region of the belly. tion that no creature of God's, however mighty,

Ver. 17. He bends his tail like a cedar; can succeed against Him, can “with his right i. e. like a cedar-bough; the tert. comp. lies in hand obtain for himself help against Him” (see the straightness, firmness and elasticity of the ver. 14 b). This is clearly enough indicated by tail of the hippopotamus (which is furthermore the second member: which i have made short, hairless, very thick at the root, of only a with thee; i. e. as well as thee (Dy, as though finger's thickness, however, at the end, looking it were comparative, as in ch, ix. 26; comp. ch. therefore somewhat like the tail of the hog, but

xxvii. 18). Job is bid to contemplate his fel- not at all like that of the elephant). pan, inlow-creature, the behemoth, far huger and stead of being translated “he bends" (Targ.), stronger than himself, that he may learn how may possibly be explained to mean “he stiffens, insignificant and wenk are all created beings in stretches out (LXX., Vulg., Pesb.). - The contrast with God, and in particular how little sinews of his thighs are firmly knit togepresumptuous and proud confidence in external ther; or also "the veins of his legs" (by no things can avail against Him (comp. the passage means nervi testiculorum ejus, as the Vulg. and

15-24.

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