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النشر الإلكتروني


1. Is not man's life a warfare on the earth ?

His day, the hireling's day?
As gasps the servant for the shadow's turn,
As longs the toiler for his labor's end,"
So am I made the heir to months of wretchedness,
And nights of pain they number out to me.
When I lie down I say:
How long till I arise, and night be o'er ?

Then am I full of tossings till the dawn.
5 My flesh is clothed with wormsø and clods of earth,

My leprous skin heals up and runs again.
6 My days are swifter than the weaver's dart,

They pass away without a gleam' of hope.
Remember that my life is breath ;

Mine eye shall not again behold the good.
8 The eye that sees me now shall look on me no more;

Thine eye shall seek me, but I shall be gone.S
As fades the cloud, and vanishes away,
So one goes down to Sheol, never to ascend.
No more to his own house he cometh back,
The place that knew him knoweth him no more.


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eagerness, which is here it occurs in the Pull form 7.733

I Ver. 2. Labors end; Merces, reward, is sometimes, precisely. something very glorions and mighty was in the

mind of the prophet, leading him to use the expression. It the ellipsis to yo, work; but end suits better here.

is quite evident, however, that in Job xvii, 18: “THEY shall ? Ver. 3.5 139. Number out; the active used for

thrust him out from light to darkness," as also in Job xxxiv.

20, and Ps. xlix. 15, the evil or fearful agents are in the the passive, say the grammarians: but that explaing no thoughts. See Glassius Phil. Sacra., 817. thing. There must be a reason for the idiom. Compare Job & Ver. 4. How Long. When shall I arise expresses is. 19; xviii, 18; xix. 26; xxxiv. 20; Ps. xlix. 15. In these

I eagerness, which is not wanted here. How long. See the and similar cases, it will be seen that the real or supposed acent is something fearful, or repulsive, as in Job xix. 26.

Ver. 4. Be o'er, be gone ; 770 for full form 7739There is a kind of superstition in it; an aversion to the menttion of the name, as the Greeks feared to speak the name of verbal noun from 70). the Furies. As remarked in note on vi. 23, Job seems to be

6 Ver. 5. Worms; 797. Many commentators would haunted by the thought of invisible tormentors, as he had good reason to think from what is said in the introductory render it rottenness; but there is no need of departing from narrative, and as appears in the terrible language of ch. xvi. the usual sense. 9, 10. This fearful allusion appears, Ps. xlix. 15, XX: Ver. 5. Heals up; the Arabic sense of ya suits no byxois,“ Like sheep they put or thrust them (the

well here, to return, hence to be restored. DX -- Dop.

See Ps. Iviii. 8. This is the interpretation now given by ericked) into Sheol"-stabulant in Orco. The idiom passeg most commentators, into the Greek of the New Testament, Luke xii. 20: TNV - 7 Ver. 6. Gleam of hope. Dox the least particle, x my gou arratTOVOLV áno gou-" they demand thy soul of thee." Who are they? Fiends, evil beings, said the old in

the very extremity ; hence used as a negative to denote total terpreters: “they will come after thee," No good reason

privation-all gone. can be given why it is not the true interpretation. In some

mal 8 Ver 8. I shall be gone. Compare remarks in the 28 this reagon does not appear go evident. It may be Introductory Argument, p. 5: The pious soul's despondent reverepce or admiration rather than shuddering fear. As grief at the thought of bidding farewell to God. Here tho in Isaiah Ix. 11, the glorious description of the New Jeru converse idea. malem ; " Thy gates shall stand open day and night'-liter

19 Ver. 11. Let me speak; 77727X. Paragogic fually: they shall keep them open." Instead of passive, it is

ture: Language of entreaty. the piel, most intensely active, n700. Who are they? The

10 And moan, n'w, to make a low murmuring sound holy sogels, or warders of the New Jerusalem. If not this -talk to ones-self.



I said, my bed shall comfort me;
My couch shall lighten my complaint. 11
'Tis then thou scarest me with dreams,
To fill me with alarm from visions dire.
So that my soul even strangling would prefer,–
Death, rather than these bones!
I loathe the sight, I would not thus live on.is
O let me then alone; my days are vanity.
For what is man that thou should'st make him of so great account?
That thou should'st set thy heart upon him ?
That thou should'st visit him each morning as it comes,
And try him every moment?
How long wilt thou not look away from me ?
Nor leave me till I draw my laboring! breath.
Watcher of men, if I have sinned what can I do to thee?
That thou should'st set me for thy mark;
That I should be a burden unto thee 215
Why not lift up (the burden of] my sin,
And put away all my iniquity ?
For soon shall I lie down in dust
And thou shalt seek me but I shall not be.

11 Ver. 13, Taken from Dr. CONART's Version, which is often 14 Ver. 19. The rendering usually given is the literal one: rhythmical, although he did not aim at making it such. and its correctness is put beyond doubt by the Arabic usage

12 Ver. 15. These bones. So CONANT, DAVIDSON, and (800 Hariri, Seance xv., pp. 164, 167, De Sacy's Ed.) It de most modern commentators.

notes impatience: Let me have time to swallow. The version 13 Ver. 16. The meaning of this verge has been much dig. here adopted is merely a substitution of another expression cussed. The old rendering “I would not live always" seems giving the same idea. It is one of the very few cases in too sentimental when unqualified. SCHLOTTMANN and others | which the translator has thus attempted to modernize. take from it the idea of suicide. I loathe life; I will not

16 Ver. 20. Burden unto thee, We follow DELITZSCL live. But this is repulsive. The version given exactly suits the condition of the sufferer,

here, who adopts the Jewish traditional reading of why.


1 Then answered Bildad the Shuhite and said :


How long wilt thou speak thus ?
And like a mighty wind pour forth thy words ?
The God above-does He in judgment err?
The Almighty One-does He pervert the right ??
If so it be thy sons have sinned,
And He hath given them up to their own wickedness.
If thou thyself should’st early seek to God,
And to the Almighty make thine earnest prayer-
If thou thyself wert right and pure,
Then surely would He wake for thee,
And make secure thy home of righteousness.


1 Ver. 3. The God above; the Almighty one. I have been changed, as is usual in the second member of the

parallel. The idea most earnestly depreciated is that of The emphasis here is on the divino names, 78 and The emphasis here is on the divino names, 28 and '70.

10: Omnipotence perverting justice,or might making right. Had it been on the idea of perversion (11") the verb would ) ? Ver.5. Suppllant prayer. Intensive form jnnn.

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Ask now the generation gone before.
Yes, of their fathers set thyself to learn.
[For we are but of yesterday, and nothing know;
So like a shadow are our days on earth).
Will they not teach thee, speak to thee,
In parables' of deep experience ?
Grows high the reed except in marshy soil ?
Or swells the flag, no water near its root?
In its rank greenness, as it stands, uncut,
It drieth up before all other herbs.
So are the ways of all who God forget.
So perishes the hope of the impure.
His confidence reveals its worthlessness ; 5
His trust,-it is a spider's web.
He leans upon his house, but it abideth not;
He grasps it, but it will not stand.
Or like the herb so green before the sun,
Whose shoots go forth o'er all its garden bed;
Hard by the fountain? do its roots entwine;
Among its stones it looketh everywhere.
If one uproot him from his place,
It strait disowns him ;& thee I've never seen.
Lo this the joy of his brief way.
('Tis gone), but (like it) from the dust shall others spring.

Lo, God the upright never casts away;
Nor takes He by the hand the men of evil deeds.
(Wait then) until He fill thy mouth with joy,
Thy lips with jubilee.
Thy haters shall be clothed with shame
While tents of evil men are seen no more.

Ver. 10. In parables. Dis is more poetical than | used just above, would bo consistent with pn, hope ; for 0'727, and more sententious : sayings, adages, apologues,

the primary idea there is extension, drawing out (hopo as a parables, (Dywin comparisons; suggesting the tropical language of the reed, the flag, and the spider, that immedi

line or thread); but 507 has no such figure. It denotes

confidence as derived from the ideas of strength, thickness, reately followg. Das, from their heart: denoting here, as

sistance, support, and hence it is used for stultitia folly, brute is most common in IIebrew, understanding, esperience, rather

confidence, stubbornness. What is meant to be said here is, tban feeling. The literal rendering would give to the modern

that this confidence fails; it is seen to be vile and worthless. Teader a false idea. Hence the paraphrase.

Non placebit, as Hieronymus says. It disgusts instead of * Ver. 11, Grows high, 7x)'; proudly, gloriously. strengthening. It cannot be objected that it is applied to the 5 Ver. 14 The well established sense of MJ is fastwire be well established sense of MD is fastidire, plant, for the person figured is kept in view, and the m

phor is mixed. Such failure of confidence is exactly exto loathe, with 3 when taken transitively. Intransitively, pressed by the same word (in Niphal) Ezek. XX. 43 ; xxxvi. to be disgusting, or, when used of a thing, to disgust; Ezek. 31: “And ye shall become disgusted in your own sightxvi. 47; Ps. xcv. 10; Niph. Ezek. xx. 43; xxxvi. 31 ; Hiph, Ps. cxix. 158 ; cxxxix, 21 ; see Gesenius. Thus viewed, it

(DJ's. Onopli) because of your evil, - wip' dood. would be literally, his confidence (1503) disgusis, like the

6 Ver. 15. Grasps it. The figure is kept. The spider

breaking through the meshes of his web. sense Hieronymus gets, only he renders 40 recordia--nonplacehit ei vecordia sua. It becomes, or shoes itself worth

1 T Ver. 17. For the justification of this rendering, see Cant. less to him. This is the idea viven in the version above. The liv. 12, and notes of ZOCKLER and DR. GREEN on that passage. View which regards it as another form of Yp - Y P (to & Ver. 18. See vii. 10: Ps. ciii. 16. The speaker enters so cat) seems arbitrary. Besides it would produce an incon. | into his figure that he personifies the plant. Hence the per gruity of metaphor. ;The figure of cutting, if it had not been sonal him is to be preferred to the impersonal it.


1 Then answered Job and said:



Most surely do I know that so it is.
For how shall mortal man be just with God?
Be it His will to call him to account,-
For one in thousand of his sins no answer can he make.
Most wise in heart, most strong in might!
Who braves him with impunity ?



'Tis He that moves the mountains and they know it not ;
Who overturneth them in His fierce wrath ;
Who makes the earth to tremble from its place,

Its strong foundations rock.
'Tis He who bids the sun, and it withholds its rays;

Who sealeth up the stars;
Who bent the heavens all alone,
And walks upon the mountain waves ;
Who made the Bear, Orion, and the Pleiades, -
The hidden constellations of the South;
Who doeth mighty works—unsearchable,-
And wonders infinite.




Lo! He goes by me, but I see him not ;
Sweeps past, but I perceive him not;
See! He assails ; then who shall turn him back ?
Or who shall say to Him, what doest thou ?
(Vain check!) Eloah turns not back His wrath
Until the boldest aids go down beneath His hand.


How, then, can I reply?
And choose my words in controversy with him ?
I could not plead it, even were I just;
But to my Judge must supplication make.
If I had called, and He had answered me,
I could not trust that He had heard my voice,


1 Ver. 5. That moves. A contrast evidently is in- , there are no conspicuous constellations visible to our hemise tended between pinys and the stronger word 7977. The phere.

* 4 Ver. 11. Sweeps past. Davidson's rendering of that first is the gentler and more gradual change, imperceptible though powerful (they kenow it not). See ch. xiv. 18. Hence mysterious word 7207'. See how the infinitive is used, Isa. its other sense of growing old, which it has in Hebrew as

xxi. 1. well as in Arabic. The other word denotes something sud.

6 Ver. 13. Boldest aids. 2779 . Rahab is used den and violent.

here and elsewhere, for any one, or anything, proud or fero

cious. See Isa, li.9; Ps. Ixxxvii. 4; Ixxxix. 11; Isa. xxx. 7, etc. 9 Ver. 8. Who bent. The reference is to the work of

When used as a personification it is thought to mean Egypt, creation, though regarded as a work still continuing. It is

It may mean here Satan, of whom, as several passages show, phenomenal language; the mighty force required to bend

aside from the Introduction, Job seems to have had some idea that strong arch, and keep it bent. Er neigt den Himmel ganz alleint: UMBREIT. In Pg. xviii. 10, the figure is that of

as his great enemy-the Devil and his allies. bowing, or bending down the heavens to descend.

• Ver. 15. My judge, ODWD, an unusual Poel form. 8 Ver. 9. Hidden constellation. Hebrew, cham- Bo UMBREIT, CONANT, DELITZSca, et al. Gesenius: Adversary, bers. The reference is to the southern celestial spaces, where | litigator, Davidson: Assailant.

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Speak I of strength ? A strong one !10 Lo! how strong!
Speak I of right? who sets for me a time?
If I claim righteousness, my own words prove me wrong;
Should I say I am pure, He'd show me still perverse.
I pure!!! I would not know myself;

I should reject my life.
'Tis all the same, and therefore do I say it ;
The pure, the wicked, He consumes alike.
Comes there the pestilential scourge that slays so suddenly !
He mocks the trial of the innocent.
Earth is abandoned to the wicked's hand;
The faces of its judges doth He veil. 18
If not, who is it then, (the cause and source of all)?


My days are swifter than the post;
They flee apace; they see no good;
As sweeps the light papyrus bark,
Or as the eagle dashes on its prey.
When I resolve, my mourning I'll forget,
Cast off my look of sorrow, smile" again,
Then, with a shudder, I recall my woe;
So sure am I Thou wilt not hold me guiltless.
Yes, I am wicked; (be it so);
Why labor then in vain ?
Even should I wash myself in water pure as snow,

And cleanse my hands in lye;
Then would’st thou plunge me in the ditch ;
So that my very garments should abhor me.


For He is not a man like me, that I should answer him.
In judgment, then, together might we come.

I Ver. 17. He who. 7 here, besides its meaning ag passage. Job has no false humility. He is utterly in the & relative, also shows a reason, like the Greek os, and thos dark, and almost maddened by his sharp sufferings. God Latin qui = quia, or quoniam. There may be an anthro- seems to him to be dealing very hardly with him; and he popathic reference to the tumult of the storm or whirlwind. must say it though doing his best to preserve reverence. Not hear me, since he is the very one who overwhelms, etc.

11 Ver. 21. I pure! X an, in the 21st verse, differs 8 Ver. 18. Catch-2017, take back, recover.

neither in force, nor in construction, from the same expres-. 9 Ver. 18. Exceeding bitterness. D : in

sion in the 20th; yet a number of commentators, EWALD, tensive plural-bitternesses, amaritudines, like yox beati

SCHLOTMANN, DAVIDSON, DELITZSCH, et al., make the second a

positive, instead of a conditional declaration : "I am in notudines.

cent," said emphatically: I'll say it though I die for it. This 19 Ver. 19. A strong one! The ascribing the latter is opposed to the spirit of the whole passage, which, though part of each of these clauses to God, by way of a supposed one of deep complaining, exhibits no defiance. Boddeu answer, as is done by DELITZSCH, DAVIDSON, EWALD, 19 Ver. 23. 102, trial telpaopós. The rendering wasting and others, is exceedingly arbitrary. The sense is better away (as though from DDD) adopted by DELITZSCH, EWALD, satisfied by the simpler construction, though a very pag- and others, is inconsistent with the idea of sudden slaying sionate and broken one. After the closest study of these ab (oxn) mentioned in the firyt clause. Especially is this rupt and exclamatory verses (19-22), it is difficult to find the case with UMBREIT'S rendering, allmähliger Verzehrung, anything better than what is substantially given in our gradual consumption. English Version, somewhat improved by Conant. It is a 18 Ver. 24. Doth he veil. That they may not see the wild, despairing utterance. There are, indeed, inconsisten- / right. cies in it, but the attempt to remove them only takes away 14 Ver. 27. 07253X1. A beautiful word. The sudden from the pathos, as well as the passionateness of the whole I lighting up of the face.

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