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Lo! He casts down; it never shall be built ;
He shutteth up; there is no opening.
The waters He withholds; the streams are dry;
He sends them forth, and they lay waste the earth.
With Him is power, eternal truth is His ;
To Him alike are known deceiver and deceived.
'Tis He that leadeth counsellors despoiled,
And makes the judges fools.
'Tis He who breaks the bonds of kings,
And binds their loins with cords.
Priests too He leadeth, stripped" (of sacred robes).
The long established" (thrones) He overthrows.
The trusted He deprives of speech,
And takes away the judgment of the old.
On nobles doth He pour contempt,
And renders weak the girdle of the strong.
Deep things from darkness He reveals ;
Tzalmaveth", world of shadows, brings He forth to light.
He makes the nations grow, and then destroys;
Extends their bounds, then lets them pass away.
Chiefs of the earth, of reason he deprives,
And makes them wander in a pathless waste.
They grope in darkness, where no light appears ;
He makes them stagger like a drunken man.


(D'793), though not exactly the same with that referred | in science-or dynamical energy. Soo Daniel xi. 38, 'yo to by the would-be philosopher Zophar above, or by Job 38, the god of forces. DELITZSCH renders 791n existhimself, xxviii. 23-25. It is two-fold: the wisdom of God in the processes of designing or adapting (172n, skill, dis

ence, and defines it as the real in contrast with what apcarnment), and the higher wisdom (

a n 29 v), which pears. Better to have rendered it being-that which truly is in the design of the designs.

is all that is, as God's truth. See Note to xxvi. 3. 8 Fer. 16. Power-eternal truth, There is no Ver. 17. Shiv, used collectively. Either literal, or as desire to find too scientific or too philosophical a meaning the phrase is used in Latin, captos mente, despoiled of reason. in Job; but these are the best renderings we can give to

See Ps. Ixxvi.: 35 x 15 Sinux. those contrasted words TV and noin. The latter is the 10 Ver. 19. SO DELITZSCH supplies the ellipsis. reality of things, that which makes them to be what they 11 So CONANT. are, their ideas, laws or principles as distinguished here 12 Ver. 22. This word Tzalmaveth, together with Sheol and from power or force, to use the word now such a great one | Hades, should have been naturalized in our English version.


1 Behold all this mine eye hath seen ;

Mine ear hath heard and understood it well.
2 What ye know I do also know;

In nothing do I fall below you.
3 For truly 'tis to Shaddai I would speak.

With God to plead—this is my strong desire.
But ye indeed !' forgers of lies are ye;

Physicians of no value are ye all.
5 O that you would be altogether still.

For that would surely be your wisest way.
Ver. 4. But ye Indeed. Force of Six.




But hear my pleading now;
O listen to the strivings of my lips.
For God,” will ye speak what is wrong?
And utter specious things in His behalf?
Dare ye His person to accept?
Is it for God, indeed, that ye contend ?
Say, is it well, that He should search you out ?
Or as man mocketh man, so mock ye Him?
Sure, He will make your condemnation clear ;(
If thus, in secret, partially ye deal.
Shall not His glory fill you with alarm ?
His dread? upon you fall ?
Pictures in ashes drawn, your maxims grave;
Your strong defences are but mounds of clay.

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; Ver. 7. For God. The Hebrew order is carefully ob- everything depends on the reading, whether y, or in ag served since the surprise is that such a thing should be done it is in the Keri. The Masoretic authority is in favor of the for God.

latter. So are the ancient Versions, Syriac and Vulgate. See 8 Ver. 7. Specious things. nan can hardly be the evidence most fully and fairly summed up by DELITZSCH, taken here in the sense of intended deceit.

who adopts the rendering that has prevailed in the Church. 4 Ver. 8. The English phrase, though now becoming ob In regard to the internal evidence, as he well says, nothing Bolete, is still understood from its Bible use, and is very ex could be more Job-like. See xiv. 14, 15; xix. 25. Job's lowpressive.

est despondency is generally the season when his strangely 6 Ver. 8. Here, too, the Hebrew order is preserved. The supported spirit mounts up to the strongest expression of contrast denotes surprise.

his never to be extinguished hope. 6 Ver. 10. The intensive double form, nisi nain, do

13 Ver. 19. Who then is HE? The one challenged notes strong and open conviction. Thus it furnishes the an-here would seem to be God, although commentators genetithesis to W D2 (in secret) in the second clause. Some- | rally do not thus regard it. If so, would properly be

exclamatory, rather than interrogatory: What kind of a thing of the kind seems intended. It suggests, too, the idea one! The view has some confirmation in what follows, (ver. of something almost prophetical of the conviction of Job's 20), nnlens we suppose an abrupt change of person, a thing friends, and their open condemnation, xlii. 7.

which indeed often occurs in Hebrew, but would not be de 7 Ver. 11. His dread. 13 stronger than 1787. cessary here. It explains, too, the language of the second 8 Ver. 12. . The rendering pictures here, may

clause. Some render this, " then shall I be silent and er be an accommodation, but it is in harmony with the

pire." But such a construction as VIINI WINX suggests etymological and general meaning of the root. SCHLOTTMANN: something conditional, as it is well rendered in E. V.: I I Eure Denksprüche sind Aschensprüche.

hold my peace, I shall give up the ghost." It looks as though 9 Ver. 13. Our E. V. is very happy here. Be still from me, Job shrunk from the challenge, but felt that he must utter which is the literal rendering, is opposed to our idiom. it or die. The VULG. seems to have had this view in its in10 Ver. 13. Literally: come upon me what may.

terpolation, veniat! Let him come-let him appear : Veniat: 11 Ver. 14. A climax: flesh and life. The literal rendering i quare tacens consumor. If the view be correct, then, there of the verse is clear. For the different views of its applica- would be an emphasis on in, expressed, it may be, in the tion see DELITZSCH.

tone, or BELKTLKWs, as the critics say, and which is here at 12 Ver. 15. I'll wait. In regard to this disputed verse,' tempted to be represented by capitals.





Far off withdraw thy hand from me,
Nor let thy terror fill me with alarm.
Then call thou ; I will make response ;
Or I will speak, and do thou answer me.
How many are my sins-my trespasses--
My errors—my transgressions? Let me know.
Why hidest thou thy face from me?4
Why hold me for thy foe?
A driven leaf would'st thou affright?
The withered chaff pursue ?
For bitter things against me thou dost write ;15 ,
And to my youthful sins, thou makest me the heir.
My feet thou puttest in the stocks,
And guardest all my ways,
Making thy mark" upon my very soles ;
Whilst he's (thus watched) in rottenness consumes;
Or like a garment which the moth devours.




11 Per. 24. DELITZSCH well says: "The bold confidence ex- of my feet.” This gives the exact idea, except in its failuro pressed in the question and challenge of ver. 23 (and he might | to represent the reflex, or Hithpahel, sense of no n , have said of ver. 19) is here changed to a sort of mournful

which DELITZSCH finds a difficulty, although he renders it. astonishment at God's not appearing, and his seeming to

like so many others, “ thou makest for thyself a circle around hold bim as an enemy without an investigation of his case."

the soles of my feet." It is not easy to see how he and others B Ver. 26. Thou dost write. DELITZSCH renders

get from the words the sense surrounding, or to set round. thou decreest, The literal sense is better as preserving the

The Hithpahel, like the Greek Middle, may be often rendered favorite Scriptural image of God's recording book.

by the addition of the personal possessive pronoun. Thus, 16 Ver. 26. Literally, make me inherit. Others render it,

Kal, Thou markest; lithpahel, thou makest thy mark-thy possess; but that loves the most impressive figure: the old

mark for thyself. This at once suggests the idea which our man heir to the young man's follies.

E. V. and Tremellius come very near expressing. It is, in 11 Ver. 27. Making thy mark. Here, as elsewhere

general, the owner putting his mark somewhere upon his sometimes, the most literal rendering gives the best clue to

beast, that he may know it, and, in this case, more specially, the meaning. The translator must express his surprise at

putting a inark upon the foot-as on the camel's hoof, for the way in which commentators have gone round and round

example, that he may track it when wandering in the desert. the idea without exactly hitting it. Most of them take it as

The VULGATE: vestigia pedum meorum considerasit, seems meaning " to set a bound about the feet," to prevent his going

suggested by this, and may itself have suggested Ewald's inbeyond it. So HEILIGSTEDT, HIRZEL, DILLMANY, SCALOTTMANN,

terpretation. The grievance Job complains of, in this case, CONANT, who cites them, and others. GESENIUS: circa ra

would be like putting such a mark upon an old worn-out cadices pedum meorum effodisti fossam, dug a trench around

mel, which, instead ofstraying, was unable to stand up. Thus thum." EWALD, citing Aben Ezra, held this view at first, but

Job represents the dealing with himsell, 80 watched, 80 afterward changed it for another. Ho rendere panni marked, and yet so belpless. It is in perfect harmony with dich rersicherst, makest thyself sure of, which is true as an

the complaint above, Thou guardest all my ways," and with inferential conclusion, but can, in no way, be taken as a

what is said about the driven lear," and "chasing the with

ered" chaff: it is all so useless, and therefore cruel. In this sense of Opninn. To get it, he goes a great way, and most

interpretation, there may, perhaps, be found a clue to the unnecessarily, to the Arabic chalcka, v.conjugation, lachakka ka sudden change of person in the next verve. ala, certus factus-a secondary Arabic sense, derived from an 18 Ver. 28. Whilst he. Job still has in mind the ani. older secondary Hebrew sense of the Pool, decrevit, legislarit:mal to whom his figure refers, but, at the same time, intendand then he compares it with tachakkama ala. Besides, tachaking himself, as one thus watched, and having a mark put kaka is not followed by ala, but by min. Everything in the upon his feet to track him if he straye, although he is a poor context goes to show that npn here, - ppn, has its pri

emaciated creature, without strength to move or stand. To

a Hebrew reader accustomed to it, this change (though the mary genge of marking. Tremellius renders it quite liter transition from the 1st person to the 3d is rare) would be felt ally: super radices pedem meorum imprimeris, and is followed as very touching. We can only supply it by an ellipais as by our English Version: "thou settest a print upon the heels I the translator has endeavored to do.


- Man of woman born;

Few are his days, and full of restlessness.
2 He comes forth like a flow'r, and is mown down;

Flees like a passing shadow-makes no stay.

I Ver.1. This may be supposed to be said after a brief pause. I we come nearer to the spirit of the original by leaving the

: Ver. 2. Flees. Heb. and flees. The frequent Hebrew passago unbound (agvverov), than by clogging it with our conjunction is often a mere breathing, a transition particle, heavy connective and. See the rendering of xiii. 23 us commerely indicating a going on of the thought. In such cases, pared with the original.

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For a tree there still is hope.
Cut down, it springs again ;
Nor do its suckers fail.
Though in the earth its root be old,
Its stump all dead and '(buried) in the dust;
From waters inhalation will it bud,
And send forth shoots like a new planted stem.
But man-he dies and fallen wastes away;
Man draws his parting breath, and where is he?
As fail the waters from the sea ;'
As wastes the flood and drieth up,-
So man lies down to rise no more ;
Until the Heavens be gone, they ne'er awake,
Nor start them from their sleep.

O that in Sheol thou would'st lay me up;
That thou would'st hide me till thy wrath shall turn, -
Set me a time, and then remember me.

Ah, is it so ? When man dies, does he live again!



.אתוֹ into אתי pathos of this by arbitrarily changing

8 Ver. 3. 77 : on this; SELKTIKWS; either by tone or or by the context. The particle 17 is the hinge on which gesture indicating that he means himself; as is shown by

the sentence opens. It may be taken two ways. Its forco

may be regarded as confined to its own clause locally, or, the sudden change of person. MERX wholly destroys the

with more reason, may it be supposed to rule the whole sen. tence; since DX is merely transitive, and here implies no

doubt. It is exclamatory, as well as interrogative. If a 4 Ver. 4. O could. The optative rendering here is not

man die, or when a man dies, ah, shall he live again! That, only according to the usual use of yn 2, but gives more

in English, might possibly be the language of doubt, though distinctly the ideg of inherited human devra vity, and conse much would depend upon contextual considerations. Or, quent disease, which here forces itself upon the mind of Job. take the other style of utterance (in English, we mean): Ah, On this account, it may be thought singular that it should is it so, when man dies, does he live again! This would corbe generally adopted by the more rationalizing commerta respond to the idea of the interrogative 17 influencing tho tors. There is here, says UMBREIT, the Oriental (!) idea of whole verse; OR being entirely subordinate. It is not the Erbsünde: but then he immediately qualifies it as usual despairing, nor even desponding, but an expression of wonby saying: “Not. however, in the sense of the subtile dog. der, rather, at the greatness of an idea striking the mind in matic definitions.”

some fresh and startling aspect. It is surprise, rather than Ver. 8. The supply of the ellipsis only gives the full

doubt, or the state of soui which Homer so naturally, as well meaning.

as vividly, represents, Iliad xxiii. 103. Achilles, like all the

other Greeks, believed in the reality of a spirit world, as 6 Ver. 10. van unites both these genees: fallen-wastes. distinctly held in his day; yet when the dream, or the apIt puts him in contrast with the fallen tree.

pearance of Patroclus, startles him with an unusually dear 7 Ver. 11. D' may mean any large collection of water. and vivid thought of it, he cries out:

8 Ver. 13. 51% denotes a turning. DELITZSCH, very happily: Till thine anger change."

"Ω πόποι ή ρά τις έστι και είν'Aΐδαο δόμοισιν • Ver. 14. “Ab, shall he live?" 77177. This

yuxņ kai eiów.ov; language is neither that of denial, nor of dogmatic affirma.

O wonder! Is there truly in that unseen world tion. Between these lie two states of soul: one of sinking

Both soul and form? doubt, the other of rising hope. It depends upon the tone and manner of utterance, whilst these, again, can only be! And so even the Christian believer might speak when the recalled to us by something in the structure of the sentence, i momentous thought comes suddenly before him with some other, namely age and removal. See Note ix. 5. P. Lxxxiv. 3, the Niphal is nged to express the longing of the soul for God and the services of his house. There it is

Then all the days appointed me I'll wait,

Till my reviving come.
Then thou wilt call, and I will answer thee;
For thou wilt yearn" towards thy handy work.
But now thou numberest my steps;
Thou wilt not set a guard" upon my sin;
(For) sealed, as in a bag, is my transgression bound,
And mine iniquity thou sewest's up.

Yes”—even the mountain falling wastes away;
The rock slow changes from its ancient's place;
The water wears the stones;
Its overflowings sweep away the soil;
So makest thou to perish human hope.



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Dew impresiveness. There is still another shade of the longing for the handy work which he had once so curiously idea, near akin to this feeling of wonder: When a man dies, | and marvellously made. das he live! That is: Is death really the way to life? Do we live by dying? See the quotation from Euripides, and

19 Ver. 16. Sy gives 10wn here an intensive sense. The the remarks in the INTRODUCTION ON THE THEISM, page 8.

connection only occurs elsewhere in Prov. v. 22, where it is In regard to the force of the context, there can be but little taken in bonam partem. In both cases, it has the sense of dogbt. There is certainly a rising of hope which has some.

guarding for the sake of preserving. The idea is that there how come in after the mournful language of ver. 12. This

is no need any more of guarding or watching over Job's sin, prompts the prayer preceding, in ver. 13; then there is the

| lest it should be lost, for it is sealed up-tied fast in God's exclamation; and then, as though from some inspiration it

fasciculus, or bundle (compare the same word, 173, ver. had given him, the strong declaration that he would wait 17. As used 1 Sam. xxv. 29. for the “bundle of life"). Such for this change, as involving something most desirable,

Beems to be the train of thought, and it makes clear A pasthough wholly unknown. Immediately follow words that wage which has been supposed to present no little difficulty Sem to rise to full assurance (ver. 15): "Thou wilt call,

in consequence of an apparent disagreement between its two and I will answer thee; thou will have regard to the work

clauses. The interrogatory rendering, ay given in E. V., and of thy hands." This force of the context is very clearly presepted by DELITZSCH. The mode of expression implies some elsewhere, is a forced help. The Vulgate regards 2 thing of a traditional knowledge, to say the least: Ah, is it as a prayer: Do not watch over my sins-parce peccatis So, as we have heard, To Opustovrevov--that saying rumored meis ; but that makes an unnecessary variance of construceverywhere? For surely Job must have heard it, or heard tion between the two clauses and the two verbo own of it. The Egyptians had it; see DIOD. 810. i. 61. According and 712n. The word OnT following gives a clue to the to the Rationalists themselves, the Persians and other transEuphratean nations must have had it long before the time

explanation. they ascribe to the book of Job. If the Vedas which MERX | 18 Ver. 17. Sewest up. Gesenius gives hou a seconquotes (see INT. THEISM, page 16) are as old as pretended, dary sense suggested by the Greek phrase Sódov pántel-some rumor of this idea must have crossed the Indus, and to sew fulsehood against my iniquity." This suits Ps. cxix. reached the land of Uz. The Greeks, we know, had it in the ante-Homeric times. There is good evidence, too, of its 69; but there it is y, against me, against the person, not having been entertained by the early Arabian tribes; as is against the sin, which would be an absurdity. It would be shown by passages in the Koran where the Infidels reply to

here, moreover, an unnecessary departure from the other Mohammed, saying: “When we are dead and have become

figures. dost and dry bones, how can we be revived? Why, this is just what we were threatened with, we and our fathers of | 14 Ver. 18. Yes, even the mountain. The ex. old; away with it; surely this is nothing more than fables of the ancient men." See Koran Surat. xxiii. 84, 85; xxvii,

pressive particl X, as it occurs in Job, often denotes a 69, 70 and other places.

kind of soliloquizing pause, It makes an emotional rather 1o Ver. 14. Reviving. 10:: General sense change,

than a logical transition, suggestive rather than adversative,

It may be supposed to refer to something thought, rather cicissitude, from that mysterious root 977). It is used in ) than expressed. What is the point of the comparisons that connection with XX warfare, time of military or other ser | here start up in the rice, x. 17. Here the change, naturally suggested by the

ing, partly soliloquizing Job? It is a question which comcontext, is release from Sheol, as from a warfare, when that

mentators have had difficulty in answering. The connective set time comes. There can hardly be a doubt, however, that

link would seem to be something suggested by the thought the use of the word here is suggested to Job by the verb

of deliverance from Sheol. ver. 15. But “ how long ! O Lord,

how long !" as the Psalmist so expressively says. The mind 07', which he had taken, ver. 7, to denote the regermi

of Job, beginning to fall back into its despondency, is led to

mental consideration of the slow changes of nature, and nation of the tree. This, of itself, would seem to settle it that the change in view is one of reviviscence, and the idea his breaking out with Six is a sort of angwer to the derives still farther aid from the use of the word. Ps. xc, 5, I thonght that had silently intervened : Ah, yes; God's times where the Kal is applied to the flower growing up in the

are long; the earth, too, and the heavens (see vers. 11 and morning, and Ps, cii. 27, where the Hiphil denotes the revi 12) are passing away. Yes, even the mountain falling viscence of nature in the new Heavens and the new Earth. crumbles to decay." The effect of this is to throw a shade As change, it is never change from life to death; and if that over his hope, until at the end of the chapter he seems to vere the meaning intended here, a more unfit word could have got almost wholly to his old despairing state. not be found.

15 Ver. 18. In the version given there is an attempt to 11 Ver. 15. wilt yearn, Joon: a word of great combine the two senses of pny so closely suggestive of each strength and pathos well rendered nearn hy Canan In!

| 16 Ver. 19. Wears the stones: the pebbles on the toined with : " pines, yea faints my son) for the conrts beach made round and smooth by the ablution of the waters. of ihe Lord." In Gen. xxxi, 30, it is used to describe Jacob's | It is a phenomenon suggestive, even to the most common intenga longing for home. And this is the word which, by | mind, of long duration. One might almost fancy it a descripa blessed anthropopathism, is used here to express God's tion of geological changes.

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