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17 Ver. 20. Thou overpowerest. DELITZSCH: “Thou ix. 5, 6) to all things in the world above. There may, perseizest him, "from an Arabic usage. The other rendering, haps, be meant the supposed state in Sheol, according to the though the verb occurs but in two other places, xv. 24 and dark view taken x. 22, as though Job had fallen back to that Ecclesiastes iv, 12, gives a clear sense, and is to be preferred gloomy conception, unrelieved by the hope that gleams out for its harmony with the figures of the context.

in some of the verses above. 18 Ver. 22. It reminds us of the wailing ghost in Homer. 19 Ver. 22. Within him. Literally, by him, upon him, Job could hardly have believed it as a fact, and yet he seems here to have indulged the imagination of the body retaining very near to him. The second liny, though a repetition feeling in the grave, and the soul, or life, in some way, sym- of the one above, may be regarded as including both ideas. pathizing with it. It may be regarded, too, as an intensive It is that thought of continued being referred to, INT. THEISM, expression of the dead man's indifference (seo Ecclesiastes pa. 3.

CHAPTER XV.

1 Then answered Eliphaz the Temanite and said,

4

A wise man, shall he utter windy lore?
And with a rushing tempest fill his soul?,-
Contending still with speech of no avail-
With words that do no good ?
Nay more, thou makest void the fear of God,
Confession to Him ever holding back.
For 'tis thy sin that rules: thy mouth,
And thou thyself dost choose the crafty tongue.
I judge thee not; 'tis thine own mouth condemns ;
Against thee thine own lips do testify.
Art thou the man who first was born?
Before the hills wast thou brought forth ?
Eloah's secret counsel hast thou heard ?
And kept (its) wisdom to thyself alone?
Tell us—What dost thou know that we know not?
What insight hast thou, we have not the same ?
The grey haired-yea, the very old are ours-
One full of days, beyond thy father's years.

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1 Ver. 2. Tempest. O'p. Literally the East wind, 3 Ver. 5. Rules, or guards thy mouth. 80

RASCHI, followed by SCALOTTMANN and DILLMANN. The sub(Furus), but used for any violent blast (110g. xii. 2; Isaiah ! ject being general, the gender makes no difference. xxvii. 8, D7 DIO “in the day of the East wind). In 4 Ver. 8. (Its) wisdom: The deep wisdom of God, as

spoken of xxviii. 23-27, wbich man cannot find. the first clanse, as HELLIGSTEDT says, there is the idea of in

6 Ver. 10. V means the hoary; WW', one still older, anity: in the second, of vehemence, 2 Ver. 2. His soul. 103. Ewald takes this literally, and D' Ya (like the Arabic), one still older-as old

as Job's father would have been. the belly, or stomach, as opposed to the heart. The Hebrew, however, as well as the Arabic word, is figurative of the most o Ver. 11. So gently. 08. The older versions and interior department of the soul; as in the phrase 100 7707

commentators made this a root, and gave it generally a bad Prov. xviii. and xxvi. 22. Same phrase Prov. xx. 27. Comp. sense, supposed to come from the idea of involving, corering Heb, iv. 12,

I-like the Syriac. Hence our E. V. renders it a secret thing

Why does thy heart so carry thee away?
What means this quiverings of thine eyes ?
That thou should'st turn again thy rage on God,
Whilst pouring from thy mouth such words'' as these?
Say, what is mortal man that he be pure !
Or one of woman born" that he be righteous ?
For lo, His Holy Ones He trusteth not;
The very Heavens lack pureness in His sight,
How much more man, the abhorred,” the all defiled I
Yes, man who drinketh in, like water, his iniquity.

20

I'll show thee now the truth; give heed to me;
And that which I have seen will I report ;-
What sages clearly have made known to us,
And kept not back-truths from their fathers learned ;
The men to whom alone the land was given ;
With whom had never mingled alien' blood.

[AND THUS THEY SAY.]
“The bad man sorely travailsł4 all his days,
The numbered"5 years that for the bandit wait.16
A sound of terrors ever fills his ears ;
And then, when most secure, the invader comes.
He has no hope from darkness to return,
And for the sword, he watches18 evermore.
For bread he wanders, saying still—O, where!
A day of darkness, well he knows, is ready to his hand.

23

(come horror, or mystery). VULGATE: verba prava. Modern 10 Ver. 20. Walt; VP , are hidden, laid up (see xiv. commentators, more correctly, make it from Ox, or AMX, 13), reserved. So EWALD, whom the translator has followed denoting something gentle, whether of sound or motion,- in genge. There is, however, another rendering which has

some claim, and which makes it an independent clause: the onomatopic, at, at, light moving. The preposition added

fewness of his years are hidden-unknown to the bandit. In makes it an adverbial pbrase. See Isaiah viii. 6, “ the waters

the other 720p is the time how long. af Shiloh," Or? D'1777, that flow so gently. In this se

17 Ver. 21. Invader. 7710, literally waster or decond clause Eliphaz may have meant thus to characterize bir own speech, referring probably to the opening words iv. I stroyer, but most commonly used of an inrading host. 2. 3. 4. It is certainly not descriptive of the style they soon 18 Ver. 22. Watches. It is in form strictly the pasadopted,

sive participle P3 for 193, but it makes an intensive exi Ver. 12. Thy heart. The feeling it must mean here, pression in wharever way we take it. “ Watched for the though as more usually denotes mind.

sword "--preserved for it, auf bewahrt, EWALD. DELITZSCH & Ver. 12. Quivering. The word Di, or, as in

and ZÖCKLER, " selected," ausersehen. E. V., “waited for of Arabic and Syriac ip, is generally rendered to wink; but

the sword." CONANT. " destined." The idea among them all here seems to denote that rapid, nervous, moving of the eye

is that he is to die by the sword-kept for that death and no which is the sign of irrepressible agitation. The rendering, Talling the eye, as of anger or defiance, seems too harsh.

other. In this rendering the preposition X makes a diffiVer. 13. Thy rage; 771), see Jud, viii. 3; Isa. xxv. culty, unless it be meant that the sword is watching for hin, 4: XXX, 28; Zech. vi. 8; Prov. xvi. 32; xxix. 11. EWALD,

looking towards him. The same idea, however, inay be ob

tained, and even more vividly, by taking another. view of 19 Ver. 13. HIERONYMUS: hujuscemodi sermones.

the word. The Vulgate renders it circumspectans undique 11 Ver. 14. Of woman born. Eliphaz here, as Job

gladium, as though they had read the active participle 7703. riv, 1 and 4, seems to connect the being born of woman with the generic impurity--the erbsünde, or hereditary depravity. It may, however, be defended, without any textual change. 19 Ver. 16. The abhorred. Exasperated by Job's re

by regarding "193 here as we take 1947', Isaiah liji, 3, in fusal to make the demanded confession, Eliphaz goes much beyond the corresponding language used by him, iv. 19. the phrase 91 997, literally, lenonon of pain; rendered, There is a mingling of commiseration in that passage. Here it is the blackest painting lacking the tenderness or Paul. acquainted with grief, knowing pain-pain knowing him. The

13 Ver. 19. Alien blood, The Arabian claim of wis construction is not exactly the same, but so near that one dom for purity of blood. See this well explained by DELITZSCH. pa sage strongly suggest

pa"sage strongly suggest the other. UMBREIT gives it this Bee remarks on the conjecture of MERX, INT. THEISM, pa. 11.

active rendering: und ängstlich schaut er nach dem Schwerte, 14 Ver. 20. 5 Sinns from 1977, a very strong word—tor.

and compares it with Cant. iij. 8, 2007 710x sa, liter

ally, all held of the sword,—that is, all holding the sword. Roted, 16 Ver. 20. Numbered years. In such a connection

Such a construction of a passive verb or pa ticiple with an NDDO denotes fewness, Numb. ix. 10; Deut. xxiii. 6.

object, direct or indirect, is common in Greek.

With.

24 Anguish and trouble fill him with alarm ;

They overpow'r him like a chieftain'' armed.”
25 For that against the Strong, his hand he stretched,

And proudly the Omnipotent defied —
Running upon him with the stiffened neck,
And with the thick embossments of his shield, -
For that his face he clothed in his own fat,
And built the muscle thick upon his loin, -
So dwellsa he in the ruined holds,
In houses uninhabited,
Fast hastening23 to become mere rubbish” heaps.
Nor wealth he gets, nor do his means endure ;
Nor shall his substance in the land extend.
From darkness nevermore shall he escape;
The scorching25 flame shall wither up his shoots ;

In God's hot anger doth he pass away.
31 Let him not trust in evil; he's deceived ;

For evil still shall be his recompense ;
32 Before his26 time is it fulfilled,

His palm no longer green;
33 As shaketh off the vine its unripe grapes,

Or as the olive casts away its flower.
For desolate the gathering of the vile,

And fire devours the tents of bribery;
35 Where misery is conceived, and mischief born;

And where the inmost thought deception" frames. 19 Ver. 24. Like a chieftain armed. This rend other sin of so different a character, represented in language

phasis
,
but a climax in the divine names
,אל שרי and אֵל ,

ined in. Whether as a lo.

ering comes easy, if we regard 172, occurring only here, figurative of pride, and insolent outward prosperity. DE.

LITZSCL and others make all of vers, 25, 26, 27, 28, the prodoas simply another orthography for the more frequent 117')

sis, and commence the apodosis, or consequence, with A spear (liquid for ). In this view compare it with Prov. Toy', he shall not be rich, in the 29th : " Because he stretched,

etc., and ran--and corered--and abode in dexolate citiestherevi. 11, 12 U'x, man of shield.

fore, he shall not be rich." The latter part, at least, seems very 20 Ver. 25. The strong. There is not only an em- ancom

unconsequential. The objection to the other view is anowered by the fact that the conjunction may be truly oor tersire, and yet retain the consequential sense which it so

frequently has,-connecting, indeed, but as a logical, instead as used here. The translator has attempted to preserve this of a mere eventual following. Whether this is so, in any in the etymological significance of 58. Defied: mini su

case, is to be determined by the context, which here cer

tainly seems greatly to favor it. As conrersire, it simply perbivit, contumax est. Ver. 26, with stiffened neck. Com.

makes the tense following take the form of the preceding. pare Psalm lxxv. 6.

and such is the nature of conditional clauses in all languages 21 Ver. 27, Muscle thick upon his loin. The

tbat the question of absolute times becomes a matter of indirword muscle as hero used, is an accommodation to the sense.

ference as compared with the fact of the consequential relaSuct or tallow would have been nearer to the Hebrew 129,

tion. They may be in the past, or in the present, or in the

aorist: He made, etc.-therefore he durelt: Or, he corers, and but they would have been unpoetical to an English par, be therefore dicells. The English may be brought very dear sides making something like a tautology. 139 (prima), is this llebrew idiom by using a lighter transition particle than

therefore: He stretches out-he covers-so dirells he, etc. the Greek Tunedý, the covering or enveloping folds of fat ge- 23 Ver. 28. Fast hastening. The word inun nerally, stéap (2777), though sometimes the meanings seem has given commentators unnecessary trouble. DELITZSCI Jeversed. The Greek Mean evidently means the enveloping renders it appointed, CONANT, destined, which is better. The fat, Soph, Antig, 1011. See President Woolsey's clear note primary idea of the word is near futurity, something imupon the passage. Both fignreg here represent a man pros- pending-promptus, paratus (701). The Hithpahel is not pering, proud, and wanton-growing fat and lusty.

passive, but reflex and intransitive. * 22 Yer. 28. So dwells he. The translator has given | 24 Ver. 28. Rubbish heaps, 07. See Lea. Xxxviii. Now" here a consequential sense, though in opposition to .

to 26: D'yi oy, grisa-groun heape. DELITZSCH, DILLMANN, UMBREIT, ZECKLER, and others. DE * Ver. 30. Scorching flame, nanh0, an intensive WETTE agrees with it in substance, in his r-ndering darum bewolinet. It is consistent, too, with EWALD'S rendering of

word; see Cant, viii.,6; Ezek. xxi. 3. 2, ver. 27, as making a protasis (Though he has chuired, or

20 Ver. 32. 131' x 2: Its day not yet; or prematurely. if he has covered (Hab er sein Gesicht mit Fott bedeckt). Ro

27 Ver. 35: Is conceived. The verbs are in the infini. Benmilller, too, makes this inhabiting desolate cities A pun

tive active, to conceire, etc., but they are best rendered pasishment, and, therefore, a consequence. The great difficulty sively. Literally, at the conceiring, etc. Comp. Ps. vii. 15. in the other view is the making this dwelling in ruined

28 Ver. 35. Deception; 122: not self-deceit, as DEcities, fast going to decay, one of the ball man's sins, all tho

T : more out of congruity, too, by coming so directly after that LITZsca and ZÖCKLER tak it. That is too artificial.

CHAPTER XVI.

1 Then answered Job and said :
2 Of things like these, abundance have I heard.

Wretched consolers, surely, are ye all.
3 Is there an end at last of windy words ?

Or what emboldens' thee to answer still ?
Thus could I, also, speak as well as you;
If only your soul were in my soul's stead,
I too against you could array’ my words,
Against you shake my head in scorn.
Thus with my mouth,' I too could strengthen you,
Whilst my lip solace held you (from despair)
Though I should speak, my grief is not assuaged ;
If I forbear, what (pain)" from me departs ?
Ah surelys now He hath exhausted me.
Yes, thou hast made my household? desolate,
And shriveled up my skin-a sight to see.
My leanness (as a witness) rises up,
And answers to my face.

[A PAUSE.]
9 His anger rends," so fiercely it pursues.

He gnashes at me with his teeth.

It is my enemy;-on me he whets his eye.
10 (See how) they gape upon me with their mouths.

I Ver. 3. Emboldens. This sense of 73'92' is deter- | hold, because of its numbers: my domestic congregation.

The sudden change of person increases the pathos. mined by vi. 25, 1 Kings ii. 8 (Niph.), and Mic. ii. 10, with

8 Ver. 8. And shriveled up my skin. E. V. out going to the Arabic.

gives the same idea: “hath filled me with wrinkles." Thig 9 Ver. 4. Array,

n ox. The word on Hiphil meang | rendering of M D agrees with the VULGATE, and DELITZSCH more than simply jrining. It denotes association in bands (fadus junxit), or a concert of speech and action between

returns to it after it had been generally abandoned by the his assailants.

commentators. The word is common in the Syriac, where

this sense of wrinkling is constant. See how it is invariably Ver. 5. Thng with my month. E. V. inserts the

used in the Peschito Version of the Old Testament-Deut. adversative word but, giving a different turn to the sense: 1

xxxiv. 7 (Moses' face was not wrinkled), Ezek. vi. 9; XX. 53. as though he had said: 0, no; instead of, that I would have

9 Ver. 8. A sight to see. Literally it is for a witness or a signstrengthened you. There is, however, nothing that war

ecce signum. The accompanying action would probably be rants it. The style is direct, seemingly ironical, but full of

Job's showing them his emaciated countenance. pathetic reproach. The emphasis of the first clause is on

10 Ver. 9. His anger rends. By most commentators month: with my mouth merely, and not from the heart. The

the language here and in some of the verses below is used in game idea in the second clause in nov 7'). The words in

reference to God. It is, however, not easy to believe that brackets, or something like them, are but the complement

this is wholly so. Rischi says, without any seeming doubt of the idea. Three passages, Prov. xxiv. 11; Ps. lxxviii. 50;

0," The enemy here is Satan;" Job xxxiii, 18, to cite no others, place the meaning of ywny

Mine encyny sharpens his cye at me. Job must have had some bere beyond doubt. In the first it is a holding back from

idea of a great persecutor who was not God, and who is slaughter (rescuing); in the second, from death; and in the spoken of in the Prologue. Or the two ideas may perhaps third, from corruption. The word thus gets, even when be mingled. Beginning to complain of God, as usual, tho standing alone, the general sense of delivering or saring.! mind turns to this other adversary. Or it may be supposed COSANT comes nearest to this by rendering uphold. DE that the imagination, in his half-maddened state (see ReLITZSCH, to soothe (lindern), is without authority.

marks on ix. 35), brings up before him tho appearance of a 4 Ver. 6. What (pain) from me departs ? Lite furious mocking fiend, and then the picture takes the plural rally, tchat gocth from me! but the reference to his unless form. It is a company of fiends: They gape upon me rrith their ened sorrow is evident.

mouths; and that brings out the language of ver. 11 : God 5 Ver. 7. Ah, sarely now. The pathetio participle hath delivered me unto the eril one; he hath cast me off into the

hands of the wicked, or the malignant; the word y being 6 Ver. 7. Made desolate, 'X977 demauds a stronger used very much as the New Testament uses à trovnpós. Some

of this language may have reference to his human accusers, sense here than weary.

such as the second and third clauses of ver. 10; but the 1 Ver. 1. Household. So CONANT and Delitzsch other view is more in accordance with his frenzied state, It may be my clan or tribe, but here it is used of his house. I or all these thoughts may be regarded as mingled together,

א הצר ,on the matter

11

12

With scorn they smite me on the cheek ;
As one, against me do they fill their ranks.
Unto the evil one hath God delivered me;
Into the hands of the malignant"? hath he cast" me forth.
I was at ease, and he hath shattered me;
Seized by the neck, and dashed” me to the ground;
Then raised me up, and set me for bis mark.
His archers compass me about;
He cleaves my reins-he spareth not;
He pours my gall upon the earth.
He breaketh me with breach on breach ;15
He runs upon me like a man of war.

14

15

I have sewed sackcloth on my skin ;
My horn have I defiled with dust;
My face with weeping is inflamed ;
And on my eyelids rests the shade of death.
For no wrong16 I had done;
My prayer, too,-it is pure.
Earth cover! not my blood;
Nor let my cry find place (where it may rest).

[A pause.]
Even now, behold! My witness18 in the Heavens,–
Yea, my Attestor in the heights above !
My friends—'tis they who scorn ;
Whilst unto God mine eye is dropping (tears),
That He himself would plead for man with God,

19

21

11 Ver. 10. Fill their ranks. By this rendering the 18 Ver. 19. My witness. This pathetic and solemn

appeal to the Witness in the Heavens furnishes strong evi. nearly related Hebrew and Arabic senses of Xho are com- dence that Job.co

dence that Job could not have had God in view in any of the bined.

harsh language which so marks this chapter. 12 Ver. 11. Malignant. So 'yon may be rendered,

19 Ver. 21. That He himself. There can be no other whatever application is given to it. 13 Ver. 11. Cast me forth; 07, once occurring, but

subject for 11 than God, however strange the aspect it

seems to give the sentence. Such is the view entertained having clearly the sense of the Arabic øn), precipitem dedit. | LXX polye.

by the best commentators, though some of them, like DE14 Ver. 12. Dashed. YOYD, dashed in pieces--a very

LITZSCH, give the verb the sense of deciding (COXANT: do jus

tice to), instead of the truer sense of arguing, pleading for. strong word. The context shows the action intended. The The pure, unmodified idea of the Hiphil is that of ar puing, view we may have of this awful language, as spoken of God reasoning, contending in words; but whether for or against is or Satan, does not affect the correctness of the translation. to be determined by the context and the subject matter. It

15 Ver. 14. Breach on breach. It can hardly be may mean the arguing of a mediator, an arbiter, or an advodoubted that the reference here is to the calamity after cate. The places in Job that are decisive of the meaning calamity that Satan brought upon Job as told in the Pro here are ix. 33: There is no arbiter between us; xiii. 3: where logue. It is certainly uncritical to suppose that Job's great ndin is equivalent to “speaking to, or pleading with the enemy is wholly lost sight of in the subsequent chapters. Nothing, too, could be more undramatic.

Almighty;" xiii. 15: "I will defend my ways ( plead my couse) 16 Ver. 17. For no wrong I had done. Compare

before Him." Again, the preposition Dy in this place modithe precisely similar construction Isai. liii. 9, Donas Sy,

fies it to the same sense as in chap. xxiii. 7. It is true that badly rendered: "because he had done no wrong "-rather: there the form is Niphal 1o y ndi], but that only gives it a for no wrong he had done. 17 Ver. 18. Cover not my blood. There seems cer

middle or deponent bearing, without affecting the general tainly here the idea of the murderer and the pursuing

| idea. It denotes, in the Niphal, muul pleading, reasoning avenger of blood. Can Job mean to speak of God in this

together as in Isaiah i. 18. The present passage, and Job way? or does he not rather intend the Evil One, by whose

xxiii. 7, are the only ones where we find the verb connected idea he seems haunted, whatever might have been the mea

with DV, which seems consistent only with the sense of arBure of his knowledge of such a being. In the Prologne,

guing or pleading for. The idea of arguing against would here Fatan appeary as his murderer-the same who is called

be certainly much out of place. Deciding for" (DELITZSCH), avpw TÓKTOVos, John viii. 441 homicide from the beginning

or "doing justice to" (CONANT), do not differ much from the idea the old murderer who blew the human race. There seems

of arguing for, but they unnecessarily mar the pathos of the to be something of the same cry against him, xix. 25. It is implied in the words: I know that my Goel (my arenger), my

passage, whilst DELITZSCH's rendering, "against God," instead of uith God (DV), seems entirely

V), seems entirely upwarranted. It may preRedeemer liveth--my nearest of kin. The language immediately Buggests the cry of Abel's blood.

sent a difficulty to the Rationalist, this "pleading of God

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