« السابقةمتابعة »
17 Ver. 20. Thou overpowerest. DELITZSCH: “Thou ix. 5, 6) to all things in the world above. There may, perseizest him, "from an Arabic usage. The other rendering, haps, be meant the supposed state in Sheol, according to the though the verb occurs but in two other places, xv. 24 and dark view taken x. 22, as though Job had fallen back to that Ecclesiastes iv, 12, gives a clear sense, and is to be preferred gloomy conception, unrelieved by the hope that gleams out for its harmony with the figures of the context.
in some of the verses above. 18 Ver. 22. It reminds us of the wailing ghost in Homer. 19 Ver. 22. Within him. Literally, by him, upon him, Job could hardly have believed it as a fact, and yet he seems here to have indulged the imagination of the body retaining very near to him. The second liny, though a repetition feeling in the grave, and the soul, or life, in some way, sym- of the one above, may be regarded as including both ideas. pathizing with it. It may be regarded, too, as an intensive It is that thought of continued being referred to, INT. THEISM, expression of the dead man's indifference (seo Ecclesiastes pa. 3.
1 Then answered Eliphaz the Temanite and said,
A wise man, shall he utter windy lore?
1 Ver. 2. Tempest. O'p. Literally the East wind, 3 Ver. 5. Rules, or guards thy mouth. 80
RASCHI, followed by SCALOTTMANN and DILLMANN. The sub(Furus), but used for any violent blast (110g. xii. 2; Isaiah ! ject being general, the gender makes no difference. xxvii. 8, D7 DIO “in the day of the East wind”). In 4 Ver. 8. (Its) wisdom: The deep wisdom of God, as
spoken of xxviii. 23-27, wbich man cannot find. the first clanse, as HELLIGSTEDT says, there is the idea of in
6 Ver. 10. V means the hoary; WW', one still older, anity: in the second, of vehemence, 2 Ver. 2. His soul. 103. Ewald takes this literally, and D' Ya (like the Arabic), one still older-as old
as Job's father would have been. the belly, or stomach, as opposed to the heart. The Hebrew, however, as well as the Arabic word, is figurative of the most o Ver. 11. So gently. 08. The older versions and interior department of the soul; as in the phrase 100 7707
commentators made this a root, and gave it generally a bad Prov. xviii. and xxvi. 22. Same phrase Prov. xx. 27. Comp. sense, supposed to come from the idea of involving, corering Heb, iv. 12,
I-like the Syriac. Hence our E. V. renders it a secret thing
Why does thy heart so carry thee away?
I'll show thee now the truth; give heed to me;
[AND THUS THEY SAY.]
(come horror, or mystery). VULGATE: verba prava. Modern 10 Ver. 20. Walt; VP , are hidden, laid up (see xiv. commentators, more correctly, make it from Ox, or AMX, 13), reserved. So EWALD, whom the translator has followed denoting something gentle, whether of sound or motion,- in genge. There is, however, another rendering which has
some claim, and which makes it an independent clause: the onomatopic, at, at, light moving. The preposition added
fewness of his years are hidden-unknown to the bandit. In makes it an adverbial pbrase. See Isaiah viii. 6, “ the waters
the other 720p is the time how long. af Shiloh," Or? D'1777, that flow so gently. In this se
17 Ver. 21. Invader. 7710, literally waster or decond clause Eliphaz may have meant thus to characterize bir own speech, referring probably to the opening words iv. I stroyer, but most commonly used of an inrading host. 2. 3. 4. It is certainly not descriptive of the style they soon 18 Ver. 22. Watches. It is in form strictly the pasadopted,
sive participle P3 for 193, but it makes an intensive exi Ver. 12. Thy heart. The feeling it must mean here, pression in wharever way we take it. “ Watched for the though as more usually denotes mind.
sword "--preserved for it, auf bewahrt, EWALD. DELITZSCH & Ver. 12. Quivering. The word Di, or, as in
and ZÖCKLER, " selected," ausersehen. E. V., “waited for of Arabic and Syriac ip, is generally rendered to wink; but
the sword." CONANT. " destined." The idea among them all here seems to denote that rapid, nervous, moving of the eye
is that he is to die by the sword-kept for that death and no which is the sign of irrepressible agitation. The rendering, Talling the eye, as of anger or defiance, seems too harsh.
other. In this rendering the preposition X makes a diffiVer. 13. Thy rage; 771), see Jud, viii. 3; Isa. xxv. culty, unless it be meant that the sword is watching for hin, 4: XXX, 28; Zech. vi. 8; Prov. xvi. 32; xxix. 11. EWALD,
looking towards him. The same idea, however, inay be ob
tained, and even more vividly, by taking another. view of 19 Ver. 13. HIERONYMUS: hujuscemodi sermones.
the word. The Vulgate renders it circumspectans undique 11 Ver. 14. Of woman born. Eliphaz here, as Job
gladium, as though they had read the active participle 7703. riv, 1 and 4, seems to connect the being born of woman with the generic impurity--the erbsünde, or hereditary depravity. It may, however, be defended, without any textual change. 19 Ver. 16. The abhorred. Exasperated by Job's re
by regarding "193 here as we take 1947', Isaiah liji, 3, in fusal to make the demanded confession, Eliphaz goes much beyond the corresponding language used by him, iv. 19. the phrase 91 997, literally, lenonon of pain; rendered, There is a mingling of commiseration in that passage. Here it is the blackest painting lacking the tenderness or Paul. acquainted with grief, knowing pain-pain knowing him. The
13 Ver. 19. Alien blood, The Arabian claim of wis construction is not exactly the same, but so near that one dom for purity of blood. See this well explained by DELITZSCH. pa sage strongly suggest
pa"sage strongly suggest the other. UMBREIT gives it this Bee remarks on the conjecture of MERX, INT. THEISM, pa. 11.
active rendering: und ängstlich schaut er nach dem Schwerte, 14 Ver. 20. 5 Sinns from 1977, a very strong word—tor.
and compares it with Cant. iij. 8, 2007 710x sa, liter
ally, all held of the sword,—that is, all holding the sword. Roted, 16 Ver. 20. Numbered years. In such a connection
Such a construction of a passive verb or pa ticiple with an NDDO denotes fewness, Numb. ix. 10; Deut. xxiii. 6.
object, direct or indirect, is common in Greek.
24 Anguish and trouble fill him with alarm ;
They overpow'r him like a chieftain'' armed.”
And proudly the Omnipotent defied —
In God's hot anger doth he pass away.
For evil still shall be his recompense ;
His palm no longer green;
Or as the olive casts away its flower.
And fire devours the tents of bribery;
And where the inmost thought deception" frames. 19 Ver. 24. Like a chieftain armed. This rend other sin of so different a character, represented in language
ined in. Whether as a lo.
ering comes easy, if we regard 172, occurring only here, figurative of pride, and insolent outward prosperity. DE.
LITZSCL and others make all of vers, 25, 26, 27, 28, the prodoas simply another orthography for the more frequent 117')
sis, and commence the apodosis, or consequence, with A spear (liquid for ). In this view compare it with Prov. Toy', he shall not be rich, in the 29th : " Because he stretched,
etc., and ran--and corered--and abode in dexolate citiestherevi. 11, 12 U'x, man of shield.
fore, he shall not be rich." The latter part, at least, seems very 20 Ver. 25. The strong. There is not only an em- ancom
unconsequential. The objection to the other view is anowered by the fact that the conjunction may be truly oor tersire, and yet retain the consequential sense which it so
frequently has,-connecting, indeed, but as a logical, instead as used here. The translator has attempted to preserve this of a mere eventual following. Whether this is so, in any in the etymological significance of 58. Defied: mini su
case, is to be determined by the context, which here cer
tainly seems greatly to favor it. As conrersire, it simply perbivit, contumax est. Ver. 26, with stiffened neck. Com.
makes the tense following take the form of the preceding. pare Psalm lxxv. 6.
and such is the nature of conditional clauses in all languages 21 Ver. 27, Muscle thick upon his loin. The
tbat the question of absolute times becomes a matter of indirword muscle as hero used, is an accommodation to the sense.
ference as compared with the fact of the consequential relaSuct or tallow would have been nearer to the Hebrew 129,
tion. They may be in the past, or in the present, or in the
aorist: He made, etc.-therefore he durelt: Or, he corers, and but they would have been unpoetical to an English par, be therefore dicells. The English may be brought very dear sides making something like a tautology. 139 (prima), is this llebrew idiom by using a lighter transition particle than
therefore: He stretches out-he covers-so dirells he, etc. the Greek Tunedý, the covering or enveloping folds of fat ge- 23 Ver. 28. Fast hastening. The word inun nerally, stéap (2777), though sometimes the meanings seem has given commentators unnecessary trouble. DELITZSCI Jeversed. The Greek Mean evidently means the enveloping renders it appointed, CONANT, destined, which is better. The fat, Soph, Antig, 1011. See President Woolsey's clear note primary idea of the word is near futurity, something imupon the passage. Both fignreg here represent a man pros- pending-promptus, paratus (701). The Hithpahel is not pering, proud, and wanton-growing fat and lusty.
passive, but reflex and intransitive. * 22 Yer. 28. So dwells he. The translator has given | 24 Ver. 28. Rubbish heaps, 07. See Lea. Xxxviii. Now" here a consequential sense, though in opposition to .
to 26: D'yi oy, grisa-groun heape. DELITZSCH, DILLMANN, UMBREIT, ZECKLER, and others. DE * Ver. 30. Scorching flame, nanh0, an intensive WETTE agrees with it in substance, in his r-ndering darum bewolinet. It is consistent, too, with EWALD'S rendering of
word; see Cant, viii.,6; Ezek. xxi. 3. 2, ver. 27, as making a protasis (Though he has chuired, or
20 Ver. 32. 131' x 2: Its day not yet; or prematurely. if he has covered (Hab er sein Gesicht mit Fott bedeckt). Ro
27 Ver. 35: Is conceived. The verbs are in the infini. Benmilller, too, makes this inhabiting desolate cities A pun
tive active, to conceire, etc., but they are best rendered pasishment, and, therefore, a consequence. The great difficulty sively. Literally, at the conceiring, etc. Comp. Ps. vii. 15. in the other view is the making this dwelling in ruined
28 Ver. 35. Deception; 122: not self-deceit, as DEcities, fast going to decay, one of the ball man's sins, all tho
T : more out of congruity, too, by coming so directly after that LITZsca and ZÖCKLER tak it. That is too artificial.
1 Then answered Job and said :
Wretched consolers, surely, are ye all.
Or what emboldens' thee to answer still ?
He gnashes at me with his teeth.
It is my enemy;-on me he whets his eye.
I Ver. 3. Emboldens. This sense of 73'92' is deter- | hold, because of its numbers: my domestic congregation.
The sudden change of person increases the pathos. mined by vi. 25, 1 Kings ii. 8 (Niph.), and Mic. ii. 10, with
8 Ver. 8. And shriveled up my skin. E. V. out going to the Arabic.
gives the same idea: “hath filled me with wrinkles." Thig 9 Ver. 4. Array,
n ox. The word on Hiphil meang | rendering of M D agrees with the VULGATE, and DELITZSCH more than simply jrining. It denotes association in bands (fadus junxit), or a concert of speech and action between
returns to it after it had been generally abandoned by the his assailants.
commentators. The word is common in the Syriac, where
this sense of wrinkling is constant. See how it is invariably Ver. 5. Thng with my month. E. V. inserts the
used in the Peschito Version of the Old Testament-Deut. adversative word but, giving a different turn to the sense: 1
xxxiv. 7 (Moses' face was not wrinkled), Ezek. vi. 9; XX. 53. as though he had said: 0, no; instead of, that I would have
9 Ver. 8. A sight to see. Literally it is for a witness or a signstrengthened you. There is, however, nothing that war
ecce signum. The accompanying action would probably be rants it. The style is direct, seemingly ironical, but full of
Job's showing them his emaciated countenance. pathetic reproach. The emphasis of the first clause is on
10 Ver. 9. His anger rends. By most commentators month: with my mouth merely, and not from the heart. The
the language here and in some of the verses below is used in game idea in the second clause in nov 7'). The words in
reference to God. It is, however, not easy to believe that brackets, or something like them, are but the complement
this is wholly so. Rischi says, without any seeming doubt of the idea. Three passages, Prov. xxiv. 11; Ps. lxxviii. 50;
0," The enemy here is Satan;" Job xxxiii, 18, to cite no others, place the meaning of ywny
Mine encyny sharpens his cye at me. Job must have had some bere beyond doubt. In the first it is a holding back from
idea of a great persecutor who was not God, and who is slaughter (rescuing); in the second, from death; and in the spoken of in the Prologue. Or the two ideas may perhaps third, from corruption. The word thus gets, even when be mingled. Beginning to complain of God, as usual, tho standing alone, the general sense of delivering or saring.! mind turns to this other adversary. Or it may be supposed COSANT comes nearest to this by rendering uphold. DE that the imagination, in his half-maddened state (see ReLITZSCH, to soothe (lindern), is without authority.
marks on ix. 35), brings up before him tho appearance of a 4 Ver. 6. What (pain) from me departs ? Lite furious mocking fiend, and then the picture takes the plural rally, tchat gocth from me! but the reference to his unless form. It is a company of fiends: They gape upon me rrith their ened sorrow is evident.
mouths; and that brings out the language of ver. 11 : God 5 Ver. 7. Ah, sarely now. The pathetio participle hath delivered me unto the eril one; he hath cast me off into the
hands of the wicked, or the malignant; the word y being 6 Ver. 7. Made desolate, 'X977 demauds a stronger used very much as the New Testament uses à trovnpós. Some
of this language may have reference to his human accusers, sense here than weary.
such as the second and third clauses of ver. 10; but the 1 Ver. 1. Household. So CONANT and Delitzsch other view is more in accordance with his frenzied state, It may be my clan or tribe, but here it is used of his house. I or all these thoughts may be regarded as mingled together,
א הצר ,on the matter
With scorn they smite me on the cheek ;
I have sewed sackcloth on my skin ;
11 Ver. 10. Fill their ranks. By this rendering the 18 Ver. 19. My witness. This pathetic and solemn
appeal to the Witness in the Heavens furnishes strong evi. nearly related Hebrew and Arabic senses of Xho are com- dence that Job.co
dence that Job could not have had God in view in any of the bined.
harsh language which so marks this chapter. 12 Ver. 11. Malignant. So 'yon may be rendered,
19 Ver. 21. That He himself. There can be no other whatever application is given to it. 13 Ver. 11. Cast me forth; 07, once occurring, but
subject for 11 than God, however strange the aspect it
seems to give the sentence. Such is the view entertained having clearly the sense of the Arabic øn), precipitem dedit. | LXX polye.
by the best commentators, though some of them, like DE14 Ver. 12. Dashed. YOYD, dashed in pieces--a very
LITZSCH, give the verb the sense of deciding (COXANT: do jus
tice to), instead of the truer sense of arguing, pleading for. strong word. The context shows the action intended. The The pure, unmodified idea of the Hiphil is that of ar puing, view we may have of this awful language, as spoken of God reasoning, contending in words; but whether for or against is or Satan, does not affect the correctness of the translation. to be determined by the context and the subject matter. It
15 Ver. 14. Breach on breach. It can hardly be may mean the arguing of a mediator, an arbiter, or an advodoubted that the reference here is to the calamity after cate. The places in Job that are decisive of the meaning calamity that Satan brought upon Job as told in the Pro here are ix. 33: There is no arbiter between us; xiii. 3: where logue. It is certainly uncritical to suppose that Job's great ndin is equivalent to “speaking to, or pleading with the enemy is wholly lost sight of in the subsequent chapters. Nothing, too, could be more undramatic.
Almighty;" xiii. 15: "I will defend my ways ( plead my couse) 16 Ver. 17. For no wrong I had done. Compare
before Him." Again, the preposition Dy in this place modithe precisely similar construction Isai. liii. 9, Donas Sy,
fies it to the same sense as in chap. xxiii. 7. It is true that badly rendered: "because he had done no wrong "-rather: there the form is Niphal 1o y ndi], but that only gives it a for no wrong he had done. 17 Ver. 18. Cover not my blood. There seems cer
middle or deponent bearing, without affecting the general tainly here the idea of the murderer and the pursuing
| idea. It denotes, in the Niphal, muul pleading, reasoning avenger of blood. Can Job mean to speak of God in this
together as in Isaiah i. 18. The present passage, and Job way? or does he not rather intend the Evil One, by whose
xxiii. 7, are the only ones where we find the verb connected idea he seems haunted, whatever might have been the mea
with DV, which seems consistent only with the sense of arBure of his knowledge of such a being. In the Prologne,
guing or pleading for. The idea of arguing against would here Fatan appeary as his murderer-the same who is called
be certainly much out of place. “Deciding for" (DELITZSCH), avpw TÓKTOVos, John viii. 441 homicide from the beginning
or "doing justice to" (CONANT), do not differ much from the idea the old murderer who blew the human race. There seems
of arguing for, but they unnecessarily mar the pathos of the to be something of the same cry against him, xix. 25. It is implied in the words: I know that my Goel (my arenger), my
passage, whilst DELITZSCH's rendering, "against God," instead of uith God (DV), seems entirely
V), seems entirely upwarranted. It may preRedeemer liveth--my nearest of kin. The language immediately Buggests the cry of Abel's blood.
sent a difficulty to the Rationalist, this "pleading of God