صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني


As one of Adam's sons doth for his brother plead.
For a few years will come and go ; 41
And I shall go whence I shall not return.

with God;" but the mystery, the strango idea, contained in suffer, and He is the only one who knows how innocent ho the tearful prayer which his extreme and helplesy misery is." Melancholy, indeed, it is to think how blind the otherforces from the soul of Job is cleared up in the New Testa wise acute eye of the Rationalist to the deep spirituality of a ment. UMBREIT also gives this translation, making God the thought so tender, and at the same time so sublime! subject of NDI', but the view he presents of it is certainly 20 Ver. 21. As one, In y21 the 1 is comparative, as is

often the case. characteristic: "Job, in a melancholy, but ingenious way, 1 Ver. 22. Come and go, The Hebrew 77 78 includes says to God, that he must stand by him against God (Gott both directions, like the Greek éprouar. It demands bere muss mir beistehen gegen Gott), for it is He who lets him its fall meaning.


My breath is short ;'
My days are quenched ;'

The graves are waiting for me.
2 Were it not that mockeries beset me round,

On their sharp taunts mine eye would calmlyó rest.
3 Lay down now; be my surety with thyself.

Ah! who is He that gives His hand for mine!
4 (Not they). Their heart from insight Thou hast closed;

Therefore Thou wilt not raise them (over me).
5 “When one for bootyo friends betrays,

His children's eyes shall fail.”
So, as a byword hath He set me forth,
Till I become the vilesto of the vile.

[A pause of silence.]
7 Mine eye is dim from grief;

My moulded" limbs are like a shadow, all.

1 Ver. 1. My breath is short. It seems best here in Hezekiah's supplication, Isaiah xxxviii. 14. Addressed to

God. The same wondrous thought we have xvi. 21. to follow the primary sense of san to bind tight-funem ad

7 Ver. 3. Ah who. The interrogative D, here, does not strinrit, contorsit. It is stricture and shortness in the breathing.

so much express doubt as wonder at the thought of Him, the 9 Ver. 1. Quenehed. 7

7. Their light is gone

marvelous Surety. out. See Prov. xiii. 9.

8 Ver. 4. From insight, that is, from seeing this myss Ver. 2. Were it not. X Ox makes a strong affirm

tery of God pleading with God for man, and becoming surety ing when there is supposed to be a silent apodosis. It is a

with himself. kind of imprecation, as though one should say coarsely, or Ver. 6. For booty, p5014, for a division of the spoil. strongly, “ru be cursed, if it is not so, or so." In this way it comes in Hebrew, and is very frequent in Arabic. There are This verse looks like a proverbial saying which Job quotes two reasong against it here, though adopted by so many com against their faithlessness. In the direct order, as he gives mentators: lst, There is nothing in tbe context that de it, it would be rendered thus: mands anything so strong; 2d, the idea of a silent apodosis

For booty he betrays his friends; is not to be resorted to where there is an open one so clearly

His children's eyes shall fail; expressed. The conjecture may be hazarded that by mocke

the second clause being consequential; as proverbs of this ries, here, D'no (illusiones) Job had in view the mocking kind sometimes stand in Solomon's collection. We are com

pelled to supply a relative, or a particle. Or it may be that he fiende, whom his imagination, or something more real, per

| is repeating, as before said, one of their own taunts or bybapa. had brought out, as in xvi. 9, 10—the "gaping mouths,"

words; and thus suggesting the language of the next verse. the "gnashing teeth," the "glaring eye." They may be supposed to come from the same cause, whether it be his bodily 10 Ver. 6. Vilest of the vile. NOA is literally a spitor mental state, that produced the “scaring visions," vii. 14. It was these mocking illusions that drove him to frenzy.

ting, or something to be spit upon; one on whose face any one Were it not for these, he could more calmly bear the taunts may spit; (onomatopic like Greek TVW). In such a case as of his friends, one of which may have been, perhaps, the very

this, translating literally is translating falsely, if it gives the language which Job repeats from them, ver. 5.

modern reader the idea that the e is meant the very action

lexically expressed. It is not easy to believe that Job's face • Ver. 3. Calmly rest: 1509. Literally, lodges; in was actually spit upon; and therefore it is best to render the

phrase by what it represents, and of which the action itself, Kal., pernoctare, to lodge all night. DELITZSCH, lingers ; CONANT,

as pictured, may be called the language. derells. An affecting picture of helpless suffering-spoken i Ver. 7. My moulded limbs, 7391-from 189 of them, but addressed to God-as appears in next verse.

5 Ver. 3. Lay down now. 10V: lay doron the pledge. to form, fashion. The contrast between his limbs in their 6 Ver. 3. Be my surety. Vy; the same word used l original form and proportion, and their shrunkon state.





The upright, sure, will be amazed at this,
The innocent be roused against the vile ;
But still the righteous man holds on his way;
The clean of hand still goes from strength to strength.
But come now, all of you ; come on I pray ;-
Among you all no wise man can I find.

My days are past,
My plans asunder"rent,
My soul's most cherished thoughts.
For day, they gives me night,
To the face of darkness light is drawingls near.
If I should hope, Lo, Sheol is my home.
Yes, in the darkness have I spread my couch.
To corruption have I said-my father thou ;-
My mother and my sister—to the worm.
And where, then, is my hope ?
My hope, alas !14 who seeth it ?
To the gates of Sheol it is going down,
When once it finds a resting place in 6 dust.






12 Ver. 11. Asander rent, ipad. The figure of the Arabic verbs of nearness are generally followed by you in. weaver's loom; UMBREIT. Compare Isaiah xxxviii. 12. stead of 98., and especially is this the case with this very

13 Ver. 12. They give-light is drawing near. verb 297, where it has the sense of being near (propinquus 120.-They put. But who are they! See Note Job vii. 3.

fuit). Near from, they say, instead of pear to. This seems They may be the invisible enemies whom Job fears to name; |

to be SCHLOTTMANN's rendering, and CONANT's expressive veror if he refers to the friends it may be with a like eversion.

pion is closely allied to it: “light is just before darkness," - just The first is the more probable. The common grammatical

going out. DILLMANN and others take as comparative: explanation: the actire used for the passive, is an evasion. Many

näher als das Angesicht der Finsterniss; but this makes no clear commentatore almost reverse the sense above given, by sup

Bense. posing Job to have represented the sophistical reasoning of

14 Ver. 15. Alas! The interjection is justified by the the friends: They mu (as they suppose) day for night." DE

pathos of the repetition: My hope; yes, my hope, alas; with LITZSCH, "They explain night as day,"-a very forced render

the emphasis on the pronoun. ing. UMBREIT: They would change night into day--that is,

16 Ver. 16. Gates: 3. UMBREIT, ROSENMUELLER, and encourage and flatter Job. They had pever dore this, or, in

others, render it solitidudines (Oeden), deriving the idea from any way, tried to make things look fair to him; since the verses, ch. xi. 16-19, are only conditional predictions. There the supposed primary sense of 7), 170 (725, solus). But

the better view comes in another way-- from the true priseemg, moreover, no good reason why 5 in 15 may pot

mary sense of separation. So most distinctly the Arabic 72. have the sense above given to it as most literally translated:

for day-instead of day. The second clause, too, has been Hence the sense of vecter, bar, that which separates, so often made more difficult than would seem necessary. It is true used in Exodus, etc., in the description of the tabernacle.

Hence it may well be rendered gates, as above, giving an idea that in Hebrew the preposition following up is usually

the same with the nia w gates of death (gates of Sheol) or 7X; but in such a case as this, there is nothing unnatu Job xxxviii. 17; Ps. cvii. 18. It is the idea of returnlessral in regarding it as denoting a short distance from, so as to nessmake the proper preposition-just like the Latin prope

The undiscovered country, from whose bourn, abest. The light is near (that is but a short distance from)

No traveller returns. the face or edge of the darkness (see Job xxvi. 10), like the HOMER uses this same figure of gates or bars. See Iliad xxi. sun in an eclipse just going into the penumbra, or into the 72, aulas Aidao, the gates of Hades. In the Odyss. xi. 571, total shadow. And this agrees admirably with the context. Hades is called evpuitvès ow, “the house of the wide gates to

indicate the vast population it encloses." There is the samo Relationally, nd , though seeming opposites, are so

idea of separation in a strange Arabic word Barzach, meannear akin that they are sometimes united to denote both

ing the interstice, or separating interval, whether of space or from and to the point which may be regarded as either that time, between the present and the coming world. Among of contact, or of separation: As Deut. iv. 32, DI 105,

other places in the Koran, see Surat. xxiii. 102, “Behind

them stands the Barzach, until the day of the Resurrection." 2 Sam. vii. 1; Haggai ii. 18, and other places, for which see NOLDIUS, Concord. Partic., pa. 441. The naturalnegs of this

16 Ver. 16. In dust. Dy by, here, must have tho is more easily acknowledged when it is considered that the same meaning with Dys, vii. 22.


1 Then answered Bildad the Shuhite and said,

[blocks in formation]
[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

Yet true it holds ;? the sinner's light is quenched;
And from his fire no kindling spark shall shine.
The sunshine darkens in his tent;
The lamp above him goeth out;
His steps are straitened,' once so firm ;
And his own counsel headlong casts him down.
By his own feet he's driven to the net;
In his own chosen' way there lies the snare.
The gin shall seize him by the heel;
The noose shall hold him fast.
His cord lies hidden in the earth;
His trap in ambush by the wayside path.
All round about do terrors frighten him ;
[At every step] they start him to his feet.
His woe® is hungering for its prey;
A dire disease stands ready at his side ;-
To eat the very partings of his skin ;
Yea, Death's First Bornø his members shall devour.
Torn from his tent, his strong security,
Thus to the King of Terrors' doth it march him on.



[ocr errors]

1 Ver. 1. of words a prey. D1 837, hunting | EWALD, DILLMANN, MERX, ROSENMUELLER, et al. HIRZEL and

DELITZSCH make it construct of pix, though the rendering or ortchings of words. For this rendering see the conclusive reasons given by EWALD and DELITZSCH. How long of DELITZSCH much obecures the idea. The VULGATE renders will ye: It is addressed to all. Bildad makes the shortest it strength: attennetur fame robur ejus. The Syriac (Peschito) speeches, and he reproves the other two, as well as Job, for the best of the old versions, especially of Job, gives the rettheir prolixity.

dering the translator has adopted, “his sorrow shall be hunVer. 5. Yet true it holds. O , yea, verily, so it is.

gry:" It hungers after him like a ravenous beast ready to CXBREIT, allerdings. It is the view so often presented by

devour." See the figures ver. 13. bim and the others in opposition to an opinion, which they

1 7 Ver. 13. To eat. The fut, form oxy, in its connection suppose Job to hold, that God favors the wicked. This mis

here with the preceding verse, has the force of the infinitive. understanding gives the key to much of their language. See

8 Ver. 13. Death's first-born. It is an awful perIST. THEISM, pa. 33. Bildad means to reaffirm it in spite of sonification. Diseases are Death's song, but the strongest all Job may say.

among them, the mighty first-born, is the terrible elephanti

asis. If Bildad really meant Job's diserga, and Job himself, : Ver. 7. Straitened. Comp. Prov. iv. 12.

as the true subject of such a fearful picture as he has drawn, 4 Ver. 7. Casts him down. Comp. Job v. 13.

then may he indeed be regarded as coarse and cruel. Raschi Ver. 8. His own chosen way. The Hith pahel,

has a strange idea here. The d' , ver. 13, are Job's song 7770', denotes one's way of life whether good or bad.

and daughtery; nu , ver. 14, is his wife. Comp. Gen. ¥. 22; xvii. 1, etc. Ps. xxxix. 7, et al.) There is 9 Ver. 14. King of Terrors. The arcful King; if we also in the Hith pahel more or less of the reflexive sense--the may thus render nin2, taking it, as most commentators way of his choice and that makes a parallelism with the Terve above-"by his oron feet,"

• Ver. 12. His woe. The rendering strength here as strictly king of wastinge, or of emaciations, which would make though it were få, vires, instead of the construct of 11X, ca

it in harmony with the idea of Death in the verse above :

The Father of Diseases is the ninsay, or as Homer Ermity, trouble-makes no satisfactory sense. It is adopted by Coxant from E. V., and maintained by many commentators, I would style him by a similar figure (see Odys. xi. 491):


it would mean ,בלה As coming from .בהלות





Who dwell within his tent are none of his ;
And o'er his pleasanto place is showered" the sulphur-rain.
Beneath,—his roots dried"? up-
Above,-his branch cut off.-
His memory perished from the land,
No name now left in all the plain,-
From light to darkness do they's drive him forth;
And chase" him from the world;
No child, no seed, among his people left-
In all his habitations none escaped ;
Men of the West's stand wondering at his day;
Men of the East with shuddering fear are seized.
Yes, such the dwellings of unrighteous men;
And such the place of him who knows not God.


Baouleùs verveCOi katad MÉVOLOLY-king of the wasted dead, I make it more universal—the feminine in Hebrew thus sup--the imagery being drawn from the last stages of emaciating | plying the place of the lacking neuter. disease in this life. It is the idea in the word 9.7 X Job

10 Ver. 16. His pleasant place, or home, 171). xxvi. 6; xxviii. 22, the Abaddon of Rev. ix. 11, or the one

11 Ver. 15. Is showered: 777r, lit. is scattered; but described, Heb. ii. 14, as TÒY TỎ kpáros éxorta Toù barátov.

here seems to denote a shorer like that which fell on Sodom If not in sound, yet in idea, would it be a more fearful epi.

and Gomorrah. thet than the other, as calling up the pallida Mors of the

12 Ver. 16. His roots dried up his branch cut classic poet, and, above all, that most awful image of wasting,

off, etc. It makes it more vivid to render the verbs in this emaciating disease, the xawpòs i tiros, the "pale horse" of Rev.

verse and the next, as participles with a nominative indevi. 8, with "him who sat thereon, whose name was Death, and

pendent. Hades following hard after him." The thought of terror

13 Ver. 18. Do they drive. For such use of they, ses merely, falls far below the roul-awing, yet still fascinating, power of such a representation.

Noto vii. 3. Comp. Ps. xlix. 15, no Sirus. They put Ver. 14. Doth it march him on, DELITZSCH pays

(or drive) them into Sheol. Comp. also Job xix. 26. that "the 'il' here is a secret power, as elsewhere the femi

14 Ver. 18. And chase. The idea of Ps. xlix. 15 is also nine profix is used to denote the dark power of natural and

in Prov. xiv. 32, though there it is expressed passively, supernatural events, though sometimes the masculine is thus employed.” This would make it a kind of impersonal fate, yon 717' inyn, “the wicked man is driven away in or fatlity, of which, it is true, there are some traces to be

his wickednegg." found in the book (see INT. THEISM, pa, 23). But there is no

16 Ver. 20. Men of the West. For the reasons of this need of finding the subject of the verb 107V in such

rendering, see UMBREIT, DELITZSCA, and others. CONANT, An abstract conception. It may be regarded, in strict gram however, adheres to the old rendering. matical construction, as the hungry woe, or the first-born of 16 Ver. 21. Unrighteous men; 79: Here taken Death, although the gender is changed to the feminine to collectively.


-1 . Then Job answered and said
2 How long grieve ye my soul ?

And crush me with your words.
Ten times it is that ye have stung me tnus;
Devoid of shame, ye act as strangers' to me.

[blocks in formation]

1 Ver. 3. Act as strangers. The translator abideg i generally get its genge from the Arabic , and render it here by E. V. The rendering is obtained by regarding stun, or con found. But that is straining the Arabic word,

2n as the Hiphil of the Hebrew root D) (the cha which means simply to affect with admiration, besides leaving racteristic 7 preserved) with the sense of the piel. SCHUL wholly unexplained the prepositions that follows. This is TEND, according to GESENIUS, thus regards it as for 173779

quite natural to the Hebrew verb, and also to the really corwith which he compares 1277', Jerem. ix. 2. See also

responding Arabic ); as in the V. Conj.

S i n, to be

estranged, to act like a stranger to any one. apat', 1 Sam. xiv. 22; xxxi. 2. The later commentators

°1 : Ver. 4. Lodges.pn-pernoctal-larries all night.

[blocks in formation]





Behold I cry of wrong, but am not heard ;
I cry aloud, but there is no redress.
For He hath fenced my road; I cannot pass ;
And darkness doth He set o'er all my ways.
My glory from me hath He stripped,
And from my head the crown removed.
On all sides doth He crush me; I am gone;'
And like a tree uproots He all my hope.
Against me doth He make His anger hot,
And counts me as His foe.
Together draw His troops ;
At me cast up their way ;
Around my tent they camp.
My brethren far away has He removed,
And mine acquaintance from me are estranged.
My kinsmen all have failed,
And my familiar friends forgotten me.
Domestics,-maidens,—as a stranger hold me now;
I am become an alien in their eyes.
Unto my servant do I call-he answers not;
I have to supplicate him with my mouth.
My temper to my wife is strange,
My yearning for the children that she bare.
Yes—even the very boys despise me now;










Ver. 6. Cast me down. There is no need of going of the proge portion. With this rendering would well agroo beyond, here, to get the sense of injustice, as some do. Un what follows if we keep the common familiar sense of hin, BREIT well renders it, mich beugt, bent down, humbled me, ZÖCKLEB also gives it clearly by gekrummet, crooked, or curred me. whether regarded as an infinitive (like nion, Ezek. xxxvi. There is indeed complaint in the next verse, but it does not amount to a direct charge of injustice. It may be said, too,

3) or as a plural feminine noun--my yearning, or yearnings, that in the language of the 7th verse Job had the friends in

my tender feelings for the dear ones lost, for my desolate view. It was their wrong he cried out against.

houschold (800 xvi. 7 and note). She repels me from her (he

seems to say) even in the manifestation of my deepest grief. 4 Ver. 10. I am gone-7781. Compare a similar pa- The sense of yn is very uniform in thu Hebrew-lender thetic use of oixouae by the Greek Dramatic poets. See I feeling-gracions feeling-a going out of the soul towards Soph. Ajax, 896, oixwr', odwda.

anything. Hence, in Hithpahel, a tender supplication for 6 Ver. 17. My temper-strange. That aversion in grace and mercy, coming like the nouns non and some sepse is intended here cannot be doubted; but in what way is it signified? The translator had much doubt in re

from the frequent Kal imperative J:, have mercy upon me. spect to '), rendered generally breath, but which he has

Prayer is the saying over of this tender formula. The verb, bere ventured to translate temper, as the word is used, Prov.

it is true, has the direct accusative for its object; but in the XXV. 29, where it is indeed translated spirit, but in the sense

infinitive it would require the preposition of direction, and of passion, animus agitatus et commotus. This agrees with the immediate context, as well as with what is said of the wife none more appropriate than or 98. This is the prepoin the Prologue. His spirit was alien to her. She did not sition following it in Arabic; and here it may be remarked understand him, his mind, his feeling, his state of sonl. that there is hardly another case of two words of the same When he said, "the Lord gave, the Lord hath taken, etc.," form, in Hebrew and in Arabis, that so closely agree in all abe regarded it as stoical indifference. She knew nothing their applications and derivatives. He was or became affected of the deep feeling underlying the declaration, his yearning with a yearning, longing, or desire, or an intense emotion of grief for the lost as measuring the depth of his resignation, before or of joy :" Such is the definition that Lane gives from an insufferable bodily agony drove him to the outcry of chap. extended study of the most copious native Arabic Lexicons. Hi. (spe Int. Theism, pa. 28). She said to him, “Curse God This is the very spirit of the Hebrew root. The rendering and die." She was not at all the woman to appreciate Job, and 11) my breath is not inconsistent with it. The breath under a sense of this he might well say, that she had come may be taken for that which is most familiar in the persoto regard him with aversion; and perhaps she bad wholly nality; or if regarded as denoting offensiveness, it may be abandoned him. Certainly the absence of all such allusion said to have caused the unfeeling woman to repel everything to incidents mentioned in the prologue would be more strange in bim, even his yearning for, or any mention of, his logt than their presence. It would furnish an almost unanswer-children. To get this idea of offensiveness, however, we must able argument to those who maintained the later authorship give an unusual sense to 7777 (strange) making it the same

« السابقةمتابعة »