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We have no established rule for this kind of verse, in our English compositions, which has been uniformly adhered to. The rule for which, in Greek and Latin verse, as far as I can ascertain, was this :

-luv---a trochee, a moloss, a pyrrhic, a trochee, and spondee; and sometimes, occasionally, á trochee, instead of a spondee, at the end.

But as our language is not so favourable to the use of the spondee and moloss, the moloss is seldom or never used in our English Sapphics; but, instead of which, some other trisyllable foot is used. Also, instead of the spondee, a trochee is commonly used; and sometimes a trochee instead of the pyrrhic, in the third place.

As some prescribed rule, or model for imitation, may be necessary, in this case, I will cite a stanza from one of our best English poets, which may serve for a model.

" When thě | fierce north-wind, 1 with his | áiry | forcés

Rears úp | the Baltic | tỏ 4 | föaming | fury;
Ănd thě | rēd lightning | with ă | storm of háil comes

Rūshủng | ămâin down." - Watts. These lines are good English sapphics, and contain the essential traits of the original as nearly as the two languages, Greek and English, correspond to each other. This stanza, together with the poem, from which this was taken, may stand for a model, in our English compositions.

Remarks. On reviewing this subject, and scanning our English Sapphics, we perceive that no module is followed precisely, and we may venture to say, none can be. But what may be the conclusion? shall we not conclude, from these premises that none, or nothing of the kind, is necessary ? no; without some prescribed rules, or something equivalent thereto, our Sapphic compositions would soon become metamorphosed into something very dissimilar. I have seen some compositions, which have passed for Sapphics, which fall under this description, and which as nearly resemble the Æolian lyre, as that of Sappho.

Some rules are therefore necessary, Let the antient module then stand; if not for a module to be followed precisely, let it stand as a model for imitation, as far as our language will admit; and let our best English Sapphics stand also for models.

It is not to be expected that an English poet can vie with the antient Greeks, in the use of the moloss; but in lieu of the moloss, a bacchy may be substituted; and sometimes an amphibrach, with a full force of accent, or 'full sounding quantity. And sometimes, also, in lieu of the spondee, a trochee may be used very properly; and, occasionally, in case of necessity, a trochee, instead of the pyrrhic, may be admissible. But the hémistic, should consist of a dactyle and spondee, uniformly so, if practicable.

Tře lines above cited are composed on this principle; and although the lines vary in their kind of feet, they correspond very nearly, in measure and movement, in time and quantity.

4.

There is another kind of verse, consisting of four feet; the 1, 2, and 4, iambic, and the 3, anapæstic. A specimen follows.

“I
hear | thee speak | of thě bêt / ter land;
Thou callst | her child | rèn å håp I py band."

Hemans. The above described are the various kinds of verse, which are commonly found in our English compositions, which are composed by a regular order of construction, and are composite. There are others (some of which are not without merit,) which are not com. posed by a regular order of construction. Some specimens of which I will cite.

5. The following, from a poem entitled, “ To the Æolian harp," is of the class last mentioned.

“Hārp of thě zephyr, / whose least breath, o'er
Thỹ tender | string moving, ) is felt | by thee;
Hárp of thě whirlwind, I whose fearful | ěst roar

Căn ărouse | thee tð nought | båt hår | mony." This poem is not intended for an example of regular composition; but written in imitation of the wild and irregular objects of nature, we see corresponding traits of irregularity in the verse.

6. From another poem, entitled, “Nature's music," I will 'quote another stanza, somewhat similar in character, and in the diversification of its numbers, to the former. “There's migh | ty mus | ic in | the rõar

Of the oaks, | on the moun | tăin's side,
When the I whirlwind búrsts | ôn thěir fôre | heads hóar,
Ånd thể light | ning flash | ěs wide.”

Remarks. The foregoing are specimens of some of the kinds of verse, which are called composite. Examples of a few other kinds may be seen among our English compositions. And, by the use and intermixture of the different kinds of feet, there is room for some further im. provement, in this way, if thought necessary:

The two stanzas last cited are seen to be irregular, in their mode of construction, and different from those above described. The difference lies here : in the former, some prescribed rules are adhered to; in the latter, not.

In the two stanzas, last cited, we see an irregularity in the order of each; and on reading the poems, from which they are cited, we may also see, that no two stanzas are precisely alike, in their orders of construction ; as, I will shew by citing another stanza from that from which the latter was taken.

"There's music in the city's hům,

Heard in thě | noontide glāre,
Whěn its thous | ănd mingling | võiсěs come

Ön thě breast 1 of the / súltry air.” There is harmony, and a degree of correspondence in these poems, with irregularities intermixed. None, but a natural poet, can succeed in this kind of composition; as, in these, and similar cases, the bard is indebted to his own genius, and to his archetype, nature, for his model.

This kind of composition is admissible, in cases like those, where the wild scenes of nature are described; where the subject is such as to call for it; and where the genius of the poet is equal to the task; and in no other.

7. I will now close this section, by citing one example of verse, which is very irregular, both in the order of its construction, and also in form.

“The músic | of Cărryl, I wās, like thě | mēmòrý | of joys | thăt ire päst, Tpleasẵnt | End möurnful | tỏ thẻ söul.” Ossian.

This is a species of verse, unlike to all others : it being without form, like other poems, without metre, and without order in the arrangement of its feet, or its numbers; and may, perhaps, not properly be ranked, as one of the orders of English verse. It is in i imitation of something which has come down from antiquity — a

species of poetry the most antient of any, of which we have any knowledge. Similar to this was the poetry of the antient prophets, and many antient writers, sacred and profane. Of this kind, we have some examples in 'modern times, in the poems of Ossian, Gesner, and others.

This is verse, and not prose, or, as some have called it, prose run mad: it is language restrained to numbers. This kind of poetry gives full play to the imagination and fancy; and is well adapted to sublime and awful subjects, and to picturesque descriptions, for which it was primarily intended. But few, however, in modern times, are possessed of genius to excel in this kind of composition.

Questions and Exercises on the foregoing.
What are the component parts of verse? What are orders ?

Are there orders of different kinds ? What are they, and by what names distinguished?

What are simple orders, and how composed ? What are composite orders, and how composed?

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How many are the simple orders ? By what names may they be called?

What is metre? Are there several metres pertaining to verse ? What are they called ?

How many metres pertain to iambic verse ? Cite an example of each.

How many metres pertain to trochaic verse ? Cite an example of each.

Is there another species of trochaic verse ? How is it composed ? In how many metres ? Cite them.

How many metres pertain to anapæstic verse ? Cite examples.

Has anapæstic verse another species? How composed? Cite examples.

How many metres has amphibrachic verse ? Cite examples.
Is dactyle verse used? In how many metres ? Cite examples.

Have we several kinds of verse of the composite order? Of what metres are some of them?

Describe a kind of six feet metre, by its order of construction, and cite an example.

Describe a kind of five feet metre, called English Sapphic, and cite an example.

Describe a kind composed of anapæsts and iambics, and cite an example.

Describe another kind, in which are those two kinds of feet, and cite an example.

Describe a kind of verse which is composite, and also irregular in its order of construction, and cite an example.

Describe another kind which is also irregular, or diversified, in its order, and cite an example.

Cite a short example of the antient kind of verse -- like Ossian's.

CHAPTER IV.

OF FORMS.

Section I. Of Definitions. Form, as it relates to verse, comprises the various forms and formations, and external structure of poems, in their different metres, arrangements, formal divisions, subdivisions, &c., which pertain to poetical compositions, in distinction from prose.

Large poems are formed, or divided into, books: smaller ones into cantos; &c. There are also, smaller

or subdivisions; as of stanzas, strophes, lines, couplets ; &c.

Poems are various in forms: some of the most antient poetry consisted of language restrained to numbers; but was without metre, and without form, like prose. A e specimen of which was cited, in the closing part of the chapter preceding.

There is another kind of verse, called German poetry, which is composed in lines, but of unequal lengths, and in no regular order, in point of metre.

Our modern poetry (except the two kinds above described) is composed in lines of equal lengths, or some determinate lengths; or in some regular order, in point of metre. It also consists of two kinds, blank verse and rhyme.

Rhyme is the correspondence of sound, in the final syllables of lines, when those of two or more lines in succession have sounds of the same species. Verse, composed in this manner, is called rhyme. In the other kind, this correspondence of sound, in the final syllables of lines, is omitted; and verse, composed in this manner, is called blank verse.

The two kinds of verse, above described, may be included in this class, and come under the same denomination - blank verse. And, perhaps, from one of those antient kinds of verse, the name blank terse was originally derived.

Blank verse, was the kind used by the antients, the Greeks and Romans, almost or quite universally; but commonly in lines of determinate lengths. In English compositions, blank verse is commonly used in larger poems; as, the drama, the epopee, &c.

Rhyme is a modern refinement in composition, and calculated to please the ear, by this additional embellishment. It is used in almost all kinds, small poems, more especially

Blank verse is commonly composed, in one kind of verse, which is iambic; and in one metre, which is pen. tameter, the English epic verse. It is composed in lines, of this kind, in succession; and is subject to no other forms, or formations.

Rhyme is composed, in all the various orders and

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