« السابقةمتابعة »
pathetic,, animated, inviting, entreating, commanding, chiding, &c.
These are not accent, emphasis, or cadence; but are variations of these. They are mostly perceptible on syllables which are accented and emphatical; and, as far as they relate to the formation of numbers, may be included in the former.
Remarks. It is here observable that, as accent, emphasis, and tones, have each a distinct office, and mode of operation, it was necessary that each should be distinctly and separately defined. But seeing their offices and operations are similar: emphasis being accent aug. mented, and tones being only a variation of the former, hence, in the formation of numbers, they may come properly under one denomination - accent, and in this, their joint capacity, have but one common cadence.
In the course of this work, I shall have occasion to speak of these in each capacity, both jointly and separately; and when I say, all sounds consist in accents and cadences, their joint capacity is intended. And this is also agreeable to the diction of my predecessors and grammarians generally: accent, in its general and most extensive sense, is understood to include emphasis and tones.
Of Time and Quantity. Pertaining to verse, and also to the sounds of which it is composed, are time and quantity,
Of Time. Time, as it relates to poetical composition, is the space of time occupied in pronouncing a line of poetry, or any of its constituent parts.
We shall here consider it only in relation to syllables.
On inspection, it is plainly seen that our language is composed of syllables, which vary in the length of their sounds: some are long, some short, and some are of intermediate lengths ; as, mat, not, con, &c. are short sounds; mate, note, cone, and grave are long. Some of our diphthongal sounds are longer still; as, voice, noise, sound, bound, &c. · Others are seen to be of intermediate lengths. These varieties are seen to exist in syllables, in their primal state, unaffected by accent and cadence; they are seen to exist also, in due proportion, when under the influence of accent and cadence, in composition.
It is also seen, that, when taken into composition, our syllables are variously affected by accent, emphasis, and cadence, according
to their different degrees of force. By accent and emphasis their sounds are augmented, in time, as also in quantity: that is, their sounds are longer, as well as louder than the sounds of unaccented syllables.
Concerning the relative lengths of syllables, or proportions in point of time, no precise or determinate rules can be given; nor can it be determined what is the difference between long and short syllables, because their lengths are various. Poetic numbers are composed of long and short syllables alternately; and grammarians have laid it down as a general rule, that the proportion between long and short syllables, in poetical composition, is as two to one. This may stand as a general rule, but is not without exceptions; and in all cases the difference is better determined by the ear than by mathematical process.
Of Quantity. Quantity is the quantum of sound attached to each syllable. Quantity differs materially from time: time only determines ihe length of sounds: quantity, the weight, or aggregate quantum of sounds, either longer or shorter.
These technical terms, time and quantity, are derived from the Greeks; and, in Greek prosody, are said to be nearly allied, and that quantity was principally constituted by time, their accents con sisting of long tones; and hence the terms, long and short quantity, were very appropriately used in Greek prosody, and also in the Roman; but which do not so properly apply in ours.
What were the idioms of speech and pronunciation, in those antient languages, is not very well known, nor can be now: since those languages have ceased to be spoken, their idioms are lost, and sunk in oblivion. But that they were different and diverse from ours is apparent, from the best information we can obtain, and from what we can learn of their rules of prosody, their technical terms, &c., which have come down to us; and which, it is presumed, were very appropriate to their languages, but are not so to ours.
In English prosody, time and quantity are two distinct things, as specified above. They have some connection, however, and relation to each other: they commonly go together; they have their seat in syllables, accented or unaccented: they are both affected by accent and cadence; but quantity more than time; and quantity, inore than time also, constitutes numbers. We may observe, however, that numbers are constituted by both of these united.
Verse is composed of great and small sounds, arranged in alternate succession, which are generally called, after the manner of the Greeks, long and short quantity; but with equal propriety, in_English verse, they may be called, great and small quantity. These, when thus arranged, form a contrast to each other; and these are constituted, principally, by accent and cadence; but not altogether
SETT. 5. - Diversifications, &c. in Trochaic Verse...
By Dactyles. .
By Pyrrhics and Spondees SECT. 6. – Anapæstic Verse.
By Amphimacs, Bacchies, and Spondees. Sect. 7.- Amphibrachic Verse.......
By Bacchies and Antibacchies SECT. 8. - Composite Orders ...
Other Composite Orders. .....
Irregular Orders .......
Questions and Exercises.