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and the French wished to secure a share of its spoils: the possession of Egypt would augment the French power and commerce in the East, and would be a sure step toward the ruin of England. Egypt being the great commercial highway to India, it was conceived that the conquest of this country would inflict an irreparable blow upon the power of Britain.
Duration. Four years, (1798-1801.)
Theatre of war. Egypt and Palestine.
Object of the war. To make Egypt a French province.
Result of the war. The scientific conquest and rediscovery of Egypt.
Parties. The French, against the Mamelukes, Turks, and English.
Commanders. French: Napoleon Bonaparte, Berthier, Klgher, Dessaiz, Mcnou. Allies: Nelson, Sir Sidney Smith, Achmet, Djezzar, Abercrombie.
Campaign. The journey to Egypt: The French fleet, with 40,000 men, leaves Toulon, May 19th, 1798; they seize Malta and disembark at Alexandria, on July 2d. On the first of August, however, the French fleet is utterly destroyed in the bay of Abockib, by the English, under Nelson. This victory gives the English the complete command of the Mediterranean sea. The campaign in Egypt: After many fatigues, the French army reached Cairo, which they occupied after the Battle or The Pyeamids, (July 21st, 1798.) Bonaparte proceeded now to arrange a new government in Egypt, and convert it into a dependency of France, lie did not despair of being able to rouse the Oriental populations in his favor, and to establish a new empire. The Porte having declared war against France in consequence of these proceedings, Bonaparte marched into Syria. His hope was that the Syrians would rally round him, and that thus, with a power increasing as he went, he might reach Constantinople through Asia Minor. He stormed Jaffa, bat was foiled in his attempts on Acre, the key of Syria, (defended by Sir Sidney Smith.) In May, 1799, Bonaparte retreated from Palestine back into Egypt. Having defoated the Turkish army, which had landed at Abookie, Bonaparte quitted Egypt, in August, 1799. He left Kleber in command of the army, who, after gaining the victory of Heliopolis, was assassinated. The French were obliged to evacuate Egypt by the Anglo-Turkish army, in the latter part of 1801.
Peace. The Porte being assured of the evacuation of Egypt by the French, the preliminaries of a peace with France were signed at Paris, October 9th, 1801, but they were not converted into a definitive treaty till after the conclusion of the peace of Amiens. All the Turkish possessions were restored; the French were to enjoy all their former privileges of navigation and commerce, and particularly were to have the right of entering the Black sea.
IV. War of the Second Coalition against France.
Cause. The violent proceedings of the French government, (the Directory.) They had changed by force of arms: I. The Papal States into a Roman republio; and II. The Swiss Confederation into a Swiss republio. The German Empire was deprived of all its possessions on the left bank of the Rhine, and Piedmont was taken from the king of Sardinia.
Duration. Three years, (1799-1802.)
Theatre of war. Italy, Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands.
Object of the war. The restoration of the Bourbons to the French throne.
Result of the war. Napoleon Bonaparte absolute master of France.
Parties. England, Russia, Turkey, Austria, and Naples, against France.
Commanders. French: Napoleon Bonaparte, Moreau, Dessaiz, Berthier, Soult, Massena. Allies: Suwarow, Archduke Charles, Melas.
Campaigns. I. In Italy: The French driven out of Italy by Suwarow, (1799.) In the spring of 1800, Bonaparte's famous campaign of forty days, crowned bj the victory of Marengo, (June 14th, 1800.) II. In Germany and Switzerland: The French driven back by Archduke Charles; but in the fall of 1800, Moreau drove the Austrians back to the Inn, and gained the decisive victory of HonssLinden, (December 3d, 1800.) III. In the Netherlands: An attempt was made to bring back the prince of Orange to Holland, but the incapacity and dilatorine8S of the duke of York occasioned the failure of the whole undertaking.
Peace. At Luneville, (in February, 1801,) between France and Austria. All the territory on the left bank of the Rhine was ceded to France, and the Austrian possessions of Italy were limited as before. The emperor also recognized the four republics (Batavian, Helvetian, Ligurian, and Cisalpine.) as states affiliated to France. The other powers gradually followed the example of Austria, and after considerable negotiation the celebrated Peace of Amiens (see this) was concluded.
V. War of the Third Coalition against France,
Cause. The English government complained of the non-fulfilment of the conditions of the peace of Amiens, and declared war. Duration. Three years, (1803-1805.)
Theatre of war. Southern Germany, northern Italy, the Atlantic.
Object of the war. The overthrow of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Result of the war. Napoleon the undisputed master of Western Europe. The house of Austria completely excluded from Italy.
Parties. England, Russia, and (at a later period) Austria and Sweden, against France. Prussia remains neutral.
Commanders. French: Napoleon, Bernadotte, Murat, Massena, Ney, Davoust, Lannes. Allies: Nelson, Mack, Archduke Charles, Kutusow, Bagration.
Decisive battles. At the battle of Me three emperors, at Austebxitz, (December 2d, 1805,) Napoleon defeated the combined Austrians and Russians in the most signal manner. Before this (October 21st, 1805.) the French fleet had been annihilated off Cape Trafalgar, by the English, under Nelson, (who was shot during the engagement. See Nelson.)
Peace. At Presburg, (December 23d, 1805.) The emperor Francis acknowledged Napoleon's dignities as emperor of the French and king of Italy, and ceded to him, as king of Italy, the Austrian possessions of Venice and Dalmatia. Francis ceded also the Tyrol to Bavaria, and his possessions in Suabia to ihe electors of Bavaria, Wiirtemberg, and Baden, all of whom were declared independent sovereigns, Bavaria and Wurtemberg with the title of king.
b. Consequences of the Battle of Autterlitz and the Peace of Presburg.
Creation of kingdoms and principalities by Napoleon, at the expense, for the most pait, of the Empire, and his federative system of thrones and dignities in support of his own. The crown of Naples was given to his brother Joseph, the Dutch republic was made a kingdom for his brother Louis, (father of Napoleon III.,) and Murat, his brother-in-law, was made grand-duke of Clcves and Berg, (which he exchanged later for ihe crown of Naples.)
On July 12th, 1806, the German Empire was dismembered, sixteen princes in the south and west of Germany separating themselves from the empire, and forming the Rhenish confederacy, of which Napoleon declared himself the protector. This was virtually a dissolution of the German Empire; and feeling it to be so, and at the same time obliged to submit, the emperor Francis, by a deed dated August 6th, 1806, renounced the imperial crown of Germany, and assumed the new title of Francis I., emperor of Austria. Thus, after an existence of nearly a thousand years, ended the empire of the German Caesars.
VI. War of Vie Fourth Coalition against France.
a. The War.
Cause. The insolent and overbearing conduct of France, and the unmeasured contempt shown by her for Prussia, leads Prussia to declare war against Napoleon.
Duration. One year, (1806-1807.)
Theatre of war. Thuringia.
Object of the war. To restore the Prussian monarchy to its former independence.
Result of the war. Prussia is reduced to the rank of a second-rate power.
Parties. Prussia, Russia, Saxony, England, and Sweden, against Napoleon.
Commanders. French: Napoleon, Lanncs, Davoust, Ney, Augereau, Murat, Bernadotte. Allies: the duke of Brunswick, the king of Prussia, Hohenlohe, Bliicher. Tauenxien, Mdllenilorf.
Decisive battles. Two great battles, fought on the same day, (October 14th, 1806,) the one at Jexa, where Napoleon in person defeated Prince Hohenlohe, the other at Aurrstadt, where Davoust defeated the duke of Brunswick, decided the fate of the campaign, and placed Prussia at the mercy of the conqueror. The French entered Berlin, (October 25th.) A Russian army of 90,000 men came to the rescue of the Prussians. On the 14th of June, 1807, Napoleon gained a decisive battle over the combined Russians and Prussians at Friedland, and the French army entered Tilsit on the eastern frontier of Prussia.
Peace. At Tilsit, (July, 1807,) between France and Russia, to which the poor Prussian monarch gave his unwilling assent. Prussia was stripped of nearly one-half of her territories.
b. Prussia after the Peace of Tilsit.
Of the forfeited territories of Prussia, those on the left bank of the Elbe, together with portions of the territories of Brunswick and Hesse-Cassel went to
form the new kingdom of Westphalia, which was bestowed on Napoleon's youngest brother, Jerome Bonnparte. The forfeited territories in the southeast (portions of ancient Poland) were erected into a new state, called "the duchy of Warsaw," the sovereignty of which was conferred on Napoleon's new ally and favorite, the new king of Saxony. The remainder of Prussia was given back to Frederick William, with this important reservation, that the French armies still continued to occupy it till the contributions imposed should be paid.
c. Consequences of the Peace of Tilsit. The Continental System.
All the enemies of Napoleon had been vanquished or gained over; but England, though left alone, continued the struggle. Napoleon resolved to ruin her by destroying her commerce. By a decree issued from Berlin, (November 21st, 1806,) he declared the whole of Great Britain to be in a state of blockade, prohibited all intercourse, ordered the confiscation of all British property, and the arrest of all British subjects within the bounds of the empire, and authoriied the capture of all vessels that had come from a British port.
d. The Enforcement of the Continental System.
Russia and Prussia acceded to the continental system immediately after the peace of Tilsit; Spain and Austria in the beginning of 1808.
Pope Pius VII. refused to give his sanction to a system which he declared to be inconsistent with Christian principles. Hereupon Rome was occupied by French troops, (February, 1808.)
Denmarr was preparing to accede to the continental system and put her fleet at Napoleon's service, when an English expedition appeared before Copenhagen and demanded the surrender of the fleet, as a guarantee of Denmark's neutrality till the conclusion of peace. This having been refused, Copenhagen was bombarded and the Danish fleet enptured, and taken to England. Hereupon Denmark acceded at once to the continental system.
Sweden refused to accede to the continental system. In consequence of this it was invaded by Russia, and Finland was detached from the Swedish crown, (1807.)
Portugal, summoned to join the commercial league against Britain, yielded so far as to close her ports against British ships, but refused to confiscate the property of British residents. To punish the regent of Portugal for this. Marshal Junot, with a French army, invaded Portugal, (October 19th, 1807.) The royal family fled to Brazil. Lisbon was then occupied by the French; and the whole country was treated as a conquered province, and a levy of twenty millions of dollars exacted from it.
VII. The Peninsular War.
Causes. 1. The occupation of Portugal by the French. 2. The entrance of a large army into Spain, under pretext of protecting that country against an English invasion. 3. Family troubles in the royal house, the end of which was that the aged king (Charles IV.) ceded his rights in Spain to Napoleon. (The heir to the throne, Ferdinand, was sent as a prisoner to Valeneoy.) 4. The crown of Spain, under a fixed constitutional charter, was then conferred on Joseph Bonaparte. (Marat was appointed his successor in the kingdom of Naples.)
Duration. Six years, (1808—1813.)
Theatre of war. The whole of the peninsula of the Pyrenees.
Object of the war. To drive the French out of the peninsula of the Pyrenees.
Result of the war. The French driven from the peninsula.
Parties. The Spaniards and Portuguese, assisted by the English, against the French.
Commanders. Anglo-Spanish: WELLINGTON, Dalrymple, Beresford, Baird, Pa La Fox, Castanos. French: Junot, Kellermann, Lefebvre, Soult, Massena, Marmont.
Decisive battles. Anglo-Spanish victoria: Baylen, (1808 ;) Vimeira, (1808;) Talavera, (1810;) Salamanca, (1812;) Vittoria, (1813.) French victoria: Guenes, (1808;) Tudela, (1808;) Somo Sierra, (1808;) Ocano, (1809.)
End of the war. By the act of December, 1818, Ferdinand (eldest son of Charles IV.) was acknowledged by Napoleon as king of Spain and the Indies, and the integrity of Spain was recognized as it existed before the war. At first this was under condition that the English should evacuate the Spanish territory, but soon the Spanish princes were informed that they could return to their country without any conditions whatever.
VIII. The Franco-Austrian War.
Cause. The events in Spain had aroused a spirit of resistance in Austria, and as soon as she had completed her preparations, the Austrian minister delivered to the French government a declaration, in which were enumerated all the insults and injuries Austria had suffered at the hands of France since the peace of Presburg.
Duration. Seven months, (April-October, 1809.)
Theatre of war. Southern Germany.
Object of the war. To drive the French out of Germany.
Result of the war. Napoleon absolute master in Germany. Austria entirely paralyzed.
Parties. Austria, allied with England, against France and the confederacy of the Rhine.
Commanders. Austrian: the archdukes Charles, John, and Louis. French: Napoleon, Eugene Beauharnais, Bessieres, Oudinot, Lannes, Lefebvre.
Decisive battles. Eckmuhl, WAGRAM.
On the 21st and 22d of May, 1809, Napoleon was defeated for the first time near the villages of Aspern and Esling, by the archduke Charles.
Peace. At Schonbrunn, (October, 1809.) Austria was surrounded by powerful states, and all her military efforts were paralyzed. On the south she lost the defiles which communicated with Italy and the Tyrol, and the means of defence offered by a natural frontier. On the west she was deprived of the excellent line of operations formed by the Inn. In addition to a large levy of money, she
parted with a portion of her territories, containing three and a half millions of souls. Some of these districts were given to Bavaria; and Carniola, part of Croatia, and Carinthia, with Trieste for a capital, were ceded to Napoleon himself. They were governed as an independent state, of which Marmont was governor.
Remark I. An interesting episode in this war was THE REVOLT IN THE TYROL. The separation of the Tyrol from Austria and its annexation to Bavaria, (by the peace of Presburg, in 1805,) had roused an intense spirit of patriotism among the mountaineers. Revolting (April, 1809) from Bavaria, and demanding to be reunited to Austria, the peasants, under various popular leaders, (Andrew Hofer and Speckbachcr,) drove the Franco-Bavarian garrisons out of their country. Even after the battle of Wagram had made all resistance hopeless, the Tyrolese peasants continued the war. But French armies were poured into their country, and the patriotic bands were dispersed. Some of the leaders escaped; but Hofer was seized, carried to Mantua, and there shot, January 5th, 1810.)
Remark II. After the peaco of Schonbrunn, which seemed to have consolidated his power, Napoleon resolved to strengthen and to perpetuate his dynasty by a marriage with an Austrian archduchess. His overtures being accepted by the emperor Francis, Napoleon was married to the emperor's daughter, Maria Louisa, (April, 1810.)
IX. The Franco-Russian War.
Cause. The incorporation of the Hanseatic towns (Hamburg, Bremen, and L'ubeck) with France was considered by Czar Alexander as an act prejudicial to the power of Russia,in the Baltic. Alexander retaliated by making some relaxations in favor of British commerce, contrary to the stipulations of the continental system. Russia complained also of the annexation of Galicia to the duchy of Warsaw, and of the continued occupation of Prussia by French troops.
Duration. Hardly six months, (June-December, 1812.)
Theatre of war. Western Russia.
Object of the war. To destroy Russia, and make One Fnivebsat, Bmpire of Europe. Napoleon said: "/ must make one nation out of all the European elates, and Paris must be the capital of the world. There must be all over Europe but one legislative code, one court of appeal, one currency, one standard of weights and measures."
Result of the war. Total destruction of Napoleon's army and influence.
Parties. Western Europe, (excluding Great Britain, Spain, and Sweden,) against Russia.
Strength of both parties. Napoleon's forces amounted to nearly 700,000 men, (among whom were 400,000 Frenchmen,) divided into five distinct armies; the Russian forces to nearly 400,000 men, divided into three distinct armies.
Commanders. French: Napoleon, Davoust, Ney, Oudinot, Murat, Eugene Beauharnais, Junot, St. Cyr, Macdonald. French allies: Poniatowski, (Poles;) Schwartzenberg. (Austrians;) Y'ork, (Prussians); Russian: Wittgenstein, Barclay de Tolly, Bagration, Tormassof, Kutusow.
The march to Moscow. On the 24th of June, 1812, the Niemen was crossed by 400,000 men of the invading army. The Russians slowly retired before them, devastating the country in the route of their march. The results of this were more formidable to Napoleon than he had expected. He found, however, no difficulty in taking possession of Lithuania, the capital of which he entered on the 28th of June Meanwhile the Russians had fallen back to the Dnieper and the Dwtna. Napoleon crossed the Dnieper and arrived at Smolensk on the 16th of August. The Russians bad retreated in good oiMer, leaving little else than the blazing ruins. Napoleon continued the pursuit, and on the 7th of September the two main armies met and engaged in battle at Borodino, on the river Moskwa. The French were victorious, and on the 18th of September entered Moscow. (See Burnino or Moscow, page 106.) On the 19th of October, or five weeks after his first entry into Moscow, he gave the order for retreat.
The retreat from Moscow. Now began one of the most disastrous marches of which there is any record in history. Napoleon's plan was to retreat toward Smolensk, but the main army of the Russians was between him and Smolensk. He was defeated by them at Maro-Jaroalavitz and Wimma. Ney was now placed in command of the rear, with instructions to offer as stubborn a resistance to the Russians as possible, so as to gain time for the advanced portions of the army. On the 6th of November, the Russian winter set in suddenly with more than its usual severity. It was not till the 9th that the wreck of »the army reached Smolensk, when it appeared that not more than 86,000 fighting men remained. Ten days later, (at Orcha,) not more than 12,000 men were fit for duty, who were here joined by a reserve corps of 50,000 men. Napoleon reached the Berezina with about 60,000 men.
In The Passage or The Berezina, (November 26th and 27th,) more than 20.000 men perished. Hardly 40,000 reached Wilna. Not more than 30.000 reached the Niemen, which was crossed December 18th, the remnant of the army of 400,000 men that had crossed the river six months before.
Napoleon had left his army (on the 5th of December, at Smorproni) in a sledge, accompanied only by his secretary, and hastened to Paris by the nearest route, where he arrived on the 18th of December.
Ney, the braveet of the brave, is the hero of the retreat from Moscow.
Consequences. The impression produced on all Europe by the results of the Russian expedition was prodigious. It seemed as if fortune had now decisively turned against Napoleon, and as if the nations had only to exert a little strength to complete his ruin. Prussia was the first to stir.
X. War of tlie Fifth Coalition against France.
a. General Summary.
General cause. The failure of Napoleon's Russian campaign.
Immediate cause. The Prussian general York, instead of obeying Napoleon's order to cover the retreat of the left wing of the French army under Macdonald, concludes a treaty of neutrality with the Russians under General Diebitsch.
Duration. About one year, (March, 1818-April, 1814.)
Theatre of war. Northern Germany. Belgium, Franoe, Spain. Object of the war. The liberation of Europe from the despotism of Napoleon. Result of the war. Destruction of the empire of Napoleon. Parties. Russia, Prussia, England, Sweden, and afterward Austria, against France.
Commanders. French: Napoleon, Net, Eugene Bcauharnais, Maison, Augereau, Soult, Oudinot, Macdonald, Vandamme, Davoust, Alliet: Wittgenstein, Blucher, Scharnhorst, Schwartzenberg, Bernadotte, Wellington, Moreau.
6. Campaign of 1813.
Spring campaign. Battles of Liitzen and Bautzen, gained by Napoleon over the allies under Wittgenstein and Blucber. Napoleon consented to an armistice, (from June 4th until August 10th,) in the hope that Austria would eventually join him against the allies. The armistice having expired, Austria openly joined the allies, and the war was resumed.
Fall campaign. Napoleon had hardly 350,000 men to oppose against not less than 700,000 men of the allies, divided into three grand armies: 1st. The army of Bohemia, under Schwartzenberg, in whose camp were the three allied monarchs of Russia, Prussia, and Austria. 2d. The army of Silesia, under BlUcher. 8d. The army of the north, under Bernadotte.
The army of Bohemia marched upon Dresden, and Napoleon (engaged in driving the army of Silesia beyond the Kalzbach) was compelled to proceed by forced marches to that city. On August 27th, 1813, Napoleon gained his last victory on German ground at Dresden. This battle was one of Napoleon's most splendid successes. So entire was the defeat of the allies that if Napoleon had offered to negotiate, he might have been able to detach Russia or Prussia from the coalition.
Several great victories (Katzbach, Culm, Grossbeeren,T)ennewitz,) gained about the same time by the allies, neutralized the effects of the triumph at Dresden. Retreat of the French, who abandon the line of the Saale and the Elbe, and concentration of their forces at Leipsic in conjunction with the Saxon troops. Great Battle or Leipsic, "the battle of the nation;" Utter Defeat Of Napoleon, (16th, 17th, and 18th of October, 1813.) Napoleon retreats with the remains of his army. Not more than 40,000 are led across the Rhine.
e. Contequencu of the Battle of Leipsic.
1. Dissolution of the confederation of the Rhine, of the kingdom of Westphalia, and the grand-duchies of Frankfort and Berg.
2. The surrender of all the French garrisons in Germany, except Hamburg, (which held out under Davoust, until May 26th, 1814.)
3. The reconquest of Holland by Billow, and proclamation of the prince of Orange as sovereign of the Netherlands.
4. Invasion of Denmark (in alliance with Napoleon) by Bernadotte, and forced surrender by Denmark of Norway to Sweden.
5. Restoration of the Tyrol and lllyria to Austria.
6. Alliance of Murat, king of Naples, with Austria, for the expulsion of the French from Italy.
7. Treaty of neutrality with Napoleon formed by Switzerland, as yet too weak to throw off the French yoke.
Blucher with his army crosses the Rhine at Mannheim. Canb, and Coblentz, (December 81st, 1813.) Declaration previously (December 1st) of the allied sovereigns at Frankfort; peace offered to Napoleon; the boundaries of France to be the Rhine, the Alps, and the Pyrenees; rejected by Napoleon.
d. Campaign of the Allied Armies in France.
Parties. The three great armies, (of Bohemia, Silesia, and the North,) the Austrians in Italy under Bellogarde, the British and Portuguese under Wellington in the south of France, the Anglo-Sicilian and Spanish armies abont Catalonia, amounting to more than one million of men, against Napoleon, who could hardly muster 300,000 men.
Campaign. Along the whole eastern and north-eastern frontier of France was scattered the invading host, slowly moving in distinct bodies inward, till they should be concentrated at Paris. Napoleon set out from Paris on the 23d of January, to assume the command in person. His genius as a general was never more conspicuous than now, and the amount of his success with his small means was prodigious.
Between the 1st and 18th of February he defeated the allies in SEVEN pitched battles, (Champaubert. Montmirail, Chateau-Thierry, Vauchamp, Nanqis, Villeneuve-le-Comte, and Montereau,) and FORCED THEM TO RETREAT.
Result of the February campaign of 1814. Treaty of Chaumont, (March 1st, 1814,) between the four allied powers, (Qreat Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia.) They saw that only a firm agreement among themselves would prevent a peace which would throw away all the fruits of their victory at Leipsic. The allied armies form a junction, and march upon Paris. Battle close to Paris, and storming of the heightt of Monlmartre by the allied armies. The allies enter Paris, March 31st, 1814.
Peace. Treaty of Fontainebleau, (April 11th, 1814,) between the allies and Napoleon, who abdicates and retires to Elba. Peace of Paris, (May 30th,) between the allies and France. France reduced to her boundaries of 1792. Return of the house of Bourbon. —-Louis XVIII, (see Genealogy. VII.,) assumed the throne of his forefathers, not as an absolute monarch ruling solely by hereditary right, but as a constitutional king, bound in the exercise of his power by certain laws and forms.
Remark. This peace lasted only eleven months, (April 11th, 1814-March 1st, 1815.)
XI. Congress of Vienna.
It was agreed to refer the settlement of all those questions, territorial and other, which the fall of Napoleon left pending, to a grand congress of sovereigns and their plenipotentiaries, to be held at Vienna. This Congress was opened on the 25th of September, 1814.
Duration. About eight months, (September 25th, 1814-Junc Oth, 1815.) Principal members. The emperor of Russia, the kings of Prussia, Bavaria,
Wiirtembi'rg, and Denmark, and many of the smaller German princes, and by plenipotentiaries acting for Great Britain, (Lord Castlereagh, and afterward the duke of Wellington;) Austria, (Metternich :) France, (Talleyrand:) Spain, Portugal, and Sweden. Tbe five principal European powers. (Russia, Prussia, Great Britain, Austria, and France,) exercised the greatest weight in the congress.
On the whole, Alexander, emperor of Russia, was the chief man in it, and his will was most potent in influencing the decisions.
Decisions. The chief subjects of debate were: ITALY, THE NETHERLANDS. POLAND, GERMANY, ENGLAND, and SWEDEN.
A. ITALY. Austria recovered Lombardy, and received the Venetian territories, (in exchange for Belgium.) Sardinia, Tuscany, and the Papal States were restored ; and beside the Pope and Tuscany in central Italy, there were, as before, to be some petty sovereignties. Murat was left for the present in possession of Naples, which be was soon to lose by his own act.
B. THE NETHERLANDS Holland and Belginm were erected into the kingdom of the Netherlands, in favor of the prince of Orange, with tbe title of William I.; though warning voices already proclaimed the danger of uniting two countries so different in language, customs, and religion.
C. POLAND. All those portions of Old Poland which Prussia had seized in the three partitions, had been formed by Napoleon (1807) into the duchy of Warsaw. Nearly the whole of this duchy was made into a new European state, called the kingdom of I'oland, to be possessed forever by tbe emperors of Russia, as an appendage of their empire, though politically distinct from it. The extent of this new kingdom was about one-sixth of the territory and population of Poland prior to the three partitions. Cracow was recognized as an independent republic
D. GERMANY. 1. A federative constitution was established for Germany, with a diet to be held at Frankfort-on-the-Main. The kings of Denmark (for Holstein) and the Netherlands (for Luxemburg) were to be members of the confederation. The number of states was limited to thirty-eight, each of which was required to send representatives to the federal diet.
Prussia obtained Posen and Swedish Pomerania, Westphalia, the Rhine provinces, and a part of Saxony.
E. ENGLAND bad Malta, Heligoland, (taken from Denmark.) a portion of the colonies which she bad conquered in the war, Hanover (with the addition of East-Friesland) as a German kingdom, and the protectorate of the republic of the Ionian isles.
F. SWEDEN obtained Norway at the expense of Denmark.
XII. The Hundred Days.
Cause. Many had received the new order of things with distrust, which was continually increased by reactionary decrees. The army, stationed in obscure garrisons, bemoaned its old eagles, which were now replaced by tbe fleurs-de-lis, and wrathfully hid the tricolor under the white cockade. It became the most formidable focus of discontent, and, instead of doing all in its power to attach it to itself, the government was constantly putting measures into execution which could not fail to alienate the soldiers.