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enough defines his work as “a compendium, copious but concise, , particularising the manufactures and other useful circumstances by which each town is peculiarly distinguished, enumerating all the several remarkables of nature or art, which each place affords.” A judicious description of these “ remarkables” seems indeed to constitute the essence of a gazetteer, to which the addition of historical events and biographical notices must be esteemed as a happy improvement; the one carrying back the imagination to the condition and manners of former ages; the other as the record of departed worth, frequently conferring an interest on the meanest village, and rendering even the dryness of topography itself efficacious as a stimulus to moral example.

The title page of The New Lancashire Gazetteer exhibits so complete an abstract of its contents, that a brief explanation of some points is all that is further requisite. Following the usual example of topographers, the nature and value of each living in the county, as stated in the king's books (1535), have been given though the amount is so extremely remote from its real value, and, the relative proportion in different places so entirely dissimilar, that no scale can be applied to judge from this source of the actual revenue of any benefice. Mr. Bacon, in his edition of the Liber Regis, pub. lished in 1786, partially attempted something of such a nature, but with small success. The anly use, therefore, of this information, except that of gratifying curiosity, by showing the difference in the nominal amount occasioned by the lapse of threc centuries, is in reference to the circumstance, that no holder of a living amounting to £8 in the king's books can accept the incumbency of another benefice, without vacating the former, unless such incumbent be chaplain to the king, or to one of the nobility, or by his obtaining a dispensation from the archbishop of Canterbury. The occasional prefix“ discharged” means that the rectory or vicarage has been exempted by subsequent acts of parliament from the payment of first fruits. In the names of the patrons some errors may possibly be found, as the sale of an advowson may have taken place, which the

parties from prudential motives did not choose to render public. Such errors, however, can be but few, as the presentations in the county of Lancaster are chiefly in the hands of ecclesiastical digni-. taries, or in great families. The chapelries and perpetual curacies, unless a patron is expressly mentioned, must be understood as in the gift of the incumbent of the parish in which such chapelry or curacy is situated.

In the population census, published by order of government, a distinction is made between chapelries and townships which at the present period does not strictly apply, those places only appearing as chapelries which are mentioned as such in the king's books, though several of the townships contain an episcopal chapel of more recent erection, and consequently are equally chapelries with the others. Townships seem to have been originally the same as tythings or vills; which, by the constitution of king Alfred, about the year 890, consisted of ten freemen, or frank pledges, and were subdivisions of the more ancient hundred. After the general institution of parishes, according to the best antiquaries, in the reign of king Edgar, about seventy years later, the tything, which was only a civil division, became merged or identified with the parish, which was an ecclesiastical division, and was considered as the more important. In the southern part of the kingdom a parish seldom contained more than one tything ; but in the thinly peopled districts of the north this particular seems not to have been regarded, as there, indeed, the frank pledges, remote from each other, were scattered over such a wide waste of uncultivated country, that in many parts they could scarcely be said to form a vill or tything at all. At various periods many of these separate and distant dwellings of the freemen became subsequently the nucleus of a village, now forming a modern township, several of which in Lancashire are commonly found in one parish.

The institution of parishes appears to have been a gradual work, and in this, then almost desolate county of Lancaster, their boundaries seem to have been extended according to the

paucity of the inhabitants ; a certain number being necessary to maintain a priest and support a church : but, when population increased, the scattered villages began to have their own place of worship, though subordinate to that of the parish mother church; and hence originated the chapelries. In the 13th Charles II. an act was passed, permitting townships and villages, though not entire parishes, severally and distinctly to maintain their own poor. This act was restricted to the seven northern counties of England, in which the parishes from their great extent were found much too large for the due administration of the poor laws, which must always be founded upon a personal knowledge of the situation and character of every one applying for relief, and consequently the townships of Lancashire, with few exceptions, have become as distinctly limited in practice as if they were separate parishes. In stating the population of a united township, the number of inhabitants must be understood as that of the whole.

The term hamlet, according to Sir Henry Spelman, is a diminutive of the Saxon word ham, originally meaning a home or habitation, though the sense was afterwards extended to a collection of houses ; and hence it is that so many English towns, as Nottingham, Buckingham, and the like, end in this appellation. But, so late as the statute 14 Edward I., an entire ville is described as containing ten freemen, a demi ville as containing five, and a “hamlette” as less than five freemen; and in this sense, as something less than a township, but forming a part of its population, it is used in the present Gazetteer, though no criterion can thus be formed of the size of the place, as it may be merely a manor house with its appurtenances, or it

may, like Lees or Chowbent, contain numerous inhabitants. Such is the nature of the work now offered to the public. In the technical parts of a gazetteer, diligence and exactness are the only merits to which a topographer oan lay claim; but the author hopes that, by the extent of the subject, and the variety of matter which has been introduced, his book will afford useful information and agreeable amusement to every lover of the county of Lancaster.

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This Work, exhibiting English History in a new and attractive form, is particularly adapted to the general Reader, to young Persons of both Sexes, and to the higher Classes in Schools,








ABBEY STEAD. See Wyersdale Over. of Urswick, hundred of Lonsdale, north

ABBOTS, a hamlet in the township and of the sands, 5 miles S. S. W. from parish of Coulton, hundred of Lonsdale, Ulverstone. Inhabitants, in 1811, 12. north of the sands, 7 miles N. N. E, from In the return for 1821 the population is Ulverstone.

included in Urswick. ABOVE Town. See Hawcoat above ADLINGTON, a township in the parish Town.

of Standish, hundred of Leyland, 4 ABRAM, AMBRAM, or ABURGHAM, a miles N. from Wigan. Inhabitants township in the parish of Wigan, hun- 1043. That portion of the cut which dred of West Derby, 4 miles N. N. E. for ten miles may, with equal profrom Newton in Mackerfield. Inhabi. priety, be called the Lancaster or the tants 504.

Leeds and Liverpool Canal, runs through ACCRINGTON, NEW, a township in the this towuship, in which are several coal parish of Whalley, hundred of Black- mines. Adlington Hall, the seat of Sır burn, 5 miles E. from Blackburn. In- Richard Clayton, bart., is a handsome habitants 4109. Accrington House is brick residence, standing in somewhat a the seat of Jonathan Peel, esq.

low situation on the borders of an extenACCRINGTON, OLD, a chapelry in the sive park.

The old mansion was of the parish of Whalley, hundred of Black age of queen Elizabeth, but was rebuilt burn, 54 miles E. from Blackburn. about the year 1780 by the present Inhabitants 1261. Hyndbourn House, in owner, whose ancestors have possessed this township, is the seat of Robert Peel, the estate for about two centuries. The esq. The two townships of Accrington, house contains some good pictures, esunited, form a very populous and thriving pecially one of a dead head of Charles I. village. Here was formerly a grange Ellerbeck Hall, in the township of Adbelonging to the abbey of Kirkstall, of lington, is the seat of John Hodson, esq. which the only memorial is a house bear ADMARSH CHAPEL. See Bleasdale. ing that appellation, and another struc AGECROFT, a hamlet in the township ture, recently rebuilt, called the black of Pendlebury, parish of Eccles, hunabbey. Accrington Chase is sometimes dred of Salford, 4 miles N. W. from considered as a member of Rossendale Manchester. Here is a bridge over the forest, but more anciently as a portion of river Irwell. Agecroft Hall is the seat ef the demesnes of Clitheroe.

the Rev. R. Buck. ADDINGTON, a small hamlet in the AIGBURGH, or AIGBURTH, a ham, township of Nether Kellet, parish of let in the township of Garston, parish Bolton le Sands, hundred of Lonsdale, of Childwall, hundred of West Derby, south of the sands, six miles N. E. from 4 miles S. E. from Liverpool. Aigburg) Lancaster.

Hall is an ancient inansion, formerly of ADGARLEY, a township in the parish some note. It was several times resold

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